Stewart Origins

Stewart Origins

Map of scotland

The Clans of Scotland

 The Stewart Name:

Stewart is a Scottish surname and is used as a masculine given name of pre-7th century Olde English origin, derived from stigeward, the genitive prefix stige meaning “sty”, and the sufffix weard meaning “guardian” or “warden” an alternative spelling is Stuart. The progenitor of the Stewart family was a Breton knight who settled in England after the Norman Conquest. Within a few generations, his descendants, who had by then relocated to Scotland, became the High Stewards of Scotland, hence the origin of the surname.

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French Flag First Generation 1. Alan. Alan was first on record as Cadet of the Counts of Dals and Dinnanin Brittany France. The first recorded ancestor of the Stewarts was nobly born Bretonnamed Alan, who was a “daipifer” or steward to the Count of Dol in the late eleventh century. Alan the “dapifer” had a son named Flaad who sought advancement in Britain, where he had land on the Welsh Marshes in the reign of Henry I.

History Origins of the clan

The Stewart family records its traditional descent from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, who makes an appearance as a character in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Historically, however, the family appears to be descended from an ancient family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany, the earliest recorded being Flaald. They acquired lands in England after the Norman conquest, and moved to Scotland with many other Anglo-Norman families when David I ascended to the throne of Scotland. The family was granted extensive estates in Renfrewshire and in East Lothian and the office of High Steward of Scotland was made hereditary in the family. Walter, the son of Alan or Fitz-alan was the founder of the royal family of Stewarts. He was the first of the family to establish himself in Scotland. Walter’s elder brother called William was the progenitor of the family of Fitzalan who were the Earls of Arundel. Their father who was a Norman married soon after the Norman Conquest. He married the daughter of Warine, sheriff of Shropshire. He acquired the manor of Ostvestrie or Oswestry on the Welsh border. On the death of King Henry I of England in 1135 Walter and William supported the claims of Empress Maud and in doing so raised themselves high  in the favour of her uncle King David I of Scotland. Flaad’s grandson Walter won the favour of David I, who granted him the barony of Renfrew and appointed him High Steward of Scotland. The office became hereditary and hence the Stewart name.

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English Flag Alan crossed to England and was appointed Sheriff of Shropshire by Henry I. He married unknown. Children i Walter Fitz-allen

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Scottish Flag Second Generation 2. Fitzallen, d. 1177, Roxboroughshire Scotland. Walter was the first to hold the office of “Great Steward of Scotland”. In 1135 David I, King of Scots, appointed Walter Fitz Alan first High Steward of the royal household in appreciation for Walter’s loyalty to the Empress Maud (Matilda), niece of the king. With the title, Walter received land in what is now Renfrew, Paisley, Pollok, and Cathcart. King Malcolm IV later confirmed to Walter and his heirs both the hereditary office of Lord High Steward of Scotland and the lands which David I had granted. Walter founded the Abbey of Paisley, in the barony of Renfrew, c.1136, and married Eschina de Londonia, Lady of Moll, in Roxburghshire, by whom he had a son, Alan.  When Walter died in 1177, Alan succeeded his father as second High Steward. He married Eschina de Londonia, Lady of Moll, c. 1136, in Roxboroughxshire. Children i Alan.

Third Generation 3. Alan, d. 1204.

When Alan’s father, Walter, died in 1177, Alan succeeded his father as second High Steward. Alan died in 1204, leaving a son, Walter, who was appointed justiciary of Scotland by Alexander II, in addition to High Steward. Walter died in 1246, leaving four sons and three daughters. Children 1 Walter Stewart. Fourth Generation  4. Walter Stewart, d. 1246. Walter, who was appointed justiciary of Scotland by Alexander II, in addition to High Steward, was the progenitor of the House Stewart and the first to assume the surname of Stewart which was the same as his office, “Steward”. Walter died in 1246, leaving four sons and three daughters. The eldest son, Alexander, married Jean, daughter and heiress of James, Lord of Bute, and, in her right, seized both the Isles of Bute and Arran. Walter, the third son, was Earl of Menteith. He married unknown. Children: 1 Alexander Stewart. 2 Walter Stewart, occupation Earl of Montieth.

Fifth Generation  5. Alexander Stewart, d. 1286.

Alexander defeated the Danes in 1263. Alexander had two sons-James, his successor, and John, known as Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, who died at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. Sir John had seven sons-Sir Alexander, of the Earls of Angus, Sir Alan of Dreghorn, of the Earls and Dukes of Lennox; Sir Walter, of the Earls of Galloway; Sir James, of the Earls of Athole, Buchan, and Traquair, and the Lords of Lorn  and Innermeath; Sir John, killed at Halidonhill in 1333; Sir Hugh, who fought in Ireland under Edward Bruce; and Sir Robert of Daldowie. He married Jean, (daughter of James Lord of Bute). Children 1 James Stewart. 2 John (of Bonkyl) Stewart, d. 1298, Battle of Falkirk. Sixth Generation 6. James Stewart, d. 1309. James succeeded as the fifth High Steward of Scotland in 1283. On the death of Alexander III in 1286, James was one of the six magnates of Scotland chosen to act as regents of the kingdom. Sworn to Edward I of England in the Ragman Roll of 1296, James later supported Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce in their struggle for Scottish independence. He died in 1309. He married unknown.

Robert The Bruce

Robert The Bruce Children 1 Walter Stewart b. 1293. Seventh Generation 7. Walter Stewart, b. 1293, Dundaonald, Kyle, Ayreshire, Scotland. Occupation High Steward of Scotland, d. 9 Apr 1326, Bathgate Castle, West Lothian Scotland. Flaad’s grandson Walter won the favour of David I, who granted him the barony of Renfrew and appointed him High Steward of Scotland. The office became hereditary and hence the Stewart name. Walter was the sixth holder of title. He married Marjory Bruce, 1315, in Scotland, b. C.  1297, Dundonald Kyleayrshire Scotland, (daughter of Robert the Bruce and Isabella of Mar d. 2 Mar 1316, Scotland, buried: 1316, Abbey of Paisley Scotland. Marjory: Marjory was the daughter of Robert I “the Bruce” King of Scotland from his marriage to Isabella of Mar. Margery married Sir Walter Stewart who was a young knight and sixth family holder of the High Steward of Scotland. This marriage produced a son Robert Stewart who was to later become Robert II, King of Scotland (1371-90). Robert’s birth was considered something of a miracle since he was delivered by caesarian section from his mother’s body who died after a fall from her horse. (source: Kings and Queens of Scotland). Children 1 Robert Stewart II b. Mar-1316. Eight Generation  8. Robert Stewart II, b. Mar-1316, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland, Occupation King of Scotland, d. 14 Aug 1390, Castle of Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland, buried: 1390, Scone Abbey, Perthshire, Scotland. When Robert II came to throne, a fourteen years’ truce with England still had twelve years to run, though unofficial warfare on border continued with England. Full scale war broke out in 1385 as a by-product of the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. Scotland became involved through assistance to France. Throughout this period Robert II was ever weak in his control of the state. In 1384 he appointed his heir John, Earl of Carrick, to enforce authority on his behalf. He married (1) Elizabeth Mure, c. 1336, in Scotland, b.1330, Rowallan, Scotland, (daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan and unknown) occupation Queen, d. c. 1355, Scotland. Elizabeth: Elizabeth was Robert II’s first wife, to whom he was related within the “forbidden degrees” of kinship. This required a papal dispensation to have their marriage and heirs recognized by the church and state. Robert II and Elizabeth may not have at first known of this requirement, for it was some years after the birth of their children that they applied for dispensation. This became a growing concern of Robert II’s second family and heirs from his marriage to Euphemia of Ross following Elizabeth death. Children: 1 John Stewart b. 1337. 2 Robert Stewart b. C 1339. 3 Walter Stewart, b. C 1340, Scotland, d. Scotland. 4 Margaret Stewart, b. C 1342,Scotland, d. Circa 1410, Scotland. She married John de Yle, in Scotland, occupation 7th Lord of the Isles. 5 Elizabeth Stewart, b.1343,Scotland, d. c. 1389, Scotland She married Thomas Hay,7 Nov 1376,in Scotland, Occupation Earl of Errol. 6 Marjorie Stewart, b. c. 1344, Scotland, d.13 Oct 1413,Scotland. She married (1) John Dunbar, 11 Jul 1371, in Scotland Occupation 2nd Son of Earl of March. She married (2) Alexander Keith, C 1391-1403, in Scotland. 7 Alexander Stewart b. c 1345. 8 Jane Stewart, b. c, 1350, Scotland, d. 4 Nov 1382, Scotland. She married John Lyon, 1376, in Scotland ix Catherine Stewart, b. c. 1362, Dundonald, Scotland. She married David Lindsey, in Scotland, b. 1359, Glenesk, Scotland, Occupation Lord Crawford. He married (2) Euphemia (of Ross) Leslie, 2 May 1355, in Scotland, b. Scotland, (daughter of Hugh Earl of Ross and unknown) Occupation Queen, d. 1387, Scotland. Euphemia: Robert II married Euphemia following papal dispensation on 2 May 1355. Euphemia was the widow of John Randolph, Earl of Moray. Children x David Stewart b. C 1356. 9 Walter Stewart, b. Scotland, Occupation Earl of Atholl, d.Scotland. Walter was Earl of Caithness, on resignation of his niece Euphemia in 1390 and created Earl of Atholl in 1409. He married Margaret de Barclay, 19 Oct 1378, in Scotland, (daughter of David de Barclay). Margaret: 12 Elizabeth Stewart, b. c. 1362, Scotland. She married David Lindsay, 22 Feb 1374, in Scotland. 13 Edigia Stewart, b. C 1362, Scotland She married William Douglas, 1387, in Scotland. Ninth Generation 9. John Stewart, b. 1337, Scotland, Occupation King of Scotland (1390-1401) d. 4 Apr 1406, Dundonald, Ayrshine, Scotland. John, Earl of Carrick, moved to the throne as Robert III.  Robert III was considered a weak ruler. He delegated much of his authority to his brother, Robert, Earl of Fife (later Duke of Albany and Governor of Scotland).  In 1393 Robert III decided to resume his responsibilities and relieved his brother of authority. In 1399 Robert III delegated his authority to his eldest son David, Duke of Rothesay. In 1401 David, who had proven himself incompetent to govern & refused to resign at his father’s request was arrested and placed in his brother Robert’s custody where he died in 1406. He married Annabella Drummond, c. 1367, in Scotland, (daughter of John (of Stobhall) Drummond and unknown) Occupation Queen, d. 1401, Scotland Children: 1 David Stewart, b. 24 Oct 1378, Scotland, Occupation Duke of Rothsay, d. 26 Mar 1402, Falkland Castle, Scotland. David was Steward of Scotland and Earl of Carrick. He was created Duke of Rothesay on 28 April 1398. 2 Robert Stewart. Robert died a young infant. 3 James Stewart I b. 1395. 4 Margaret Stewart. She married Archibald 4th Earl of Douglas. 5 Mary Stewart, d. 1458, Scotland, buried: 1458, Strathblane Church, Scotland. She married (1) George Douglas, 1397, in Scotland. George: George was Earl of Angus. She married (2) James (of Dunure) Kennedy, 1404, in Scotland. She married (3) William 1st Lord of Graham, 1413, in Scotland. She married (4) William (of Duntreath) Edmonstone, 1425 in Scotland. 6 Egidia Stewart. 7 Elizabeth Stewart. She married James Douglas. James was Lord of Dalkei 10.Robert Stewart, Scotland, b. c. 1339, Occupation Duke of Albany, d. 3 Sep 1420, Sterling Castle, Scotland, buried: 1420, Dunfermlin Abbey Fife, Scotland. Robert, Earl of Fife and later Duke of Albany and Governor of Scotland, was a man of ruthless ambition.  His brother Robert III allowed him authority to run the affairs of state until 1393 when King Robert III reassumed his royal responsibilities for the next six years. Robert III then delegated his authority to his eldest son David. In 1401 David had proven to be so incompetent Robert III had him arrested and placed in custody of his brother Robert where he died. His brother the Duke was suspected to be responsible. He married (1) Margaret Murdock Graham, 9 Sep 1361, in Scotland, b. 1334, Scotland, (daughter of John (of Abercorn) Graham and Mary Countess of Monteith) occupation Countess of Mentieth, d.1380, Scotland. Children i Lady Marjory (Margaret) Stewart b. c. 1360. 2 Murdock Stewart b. c. 1362. 3 Janet Stewart. Janet was betrothed on 20 July 1372 as a child to David, infant son of Sir Bartholomew de Leon and Lady Philippa Moubray, but it is doubtful if the marriage took place. 4 Maria Stewart. She married William (of Saltoun), d.14 Sep 1401, Scotland. 5 Isobel Stewart. She married (1) Alexander Leslie. Alexander: Alexander was Earl of Ross. She married (2) Walter (of Dirleton) Haliburton. He married (2) Muriella Keith, (daughter of William Keith and unknown. Children: 6 John Stewart. 7 Andrew Stewart. 8 Robert Stewart. Robert was Earl of Ross while living. 9 Marjory Stewart. She married Duncan (of Lochaw) Campbell. Duncan: Duncan was First Lord of Campbell. 11. Alexander Stewart, b. c.  1345, Scotland, Occupation Earl of Buchan, d. 1 Aug 1405, Scotland. Alexander was Earl of Buchan. He was also known as “The Wolf.” He married unknown. Children: 1 Margaret Stewart, b. . 1373, Scotland, d. c.  1439, Scotland. She married Robert Sutherland. 12. David Stewart, b. c. 1356, Scotland, Occupation Earl Palatine of Strathearn , d. C 1389. David was Earl Palatine of Strathearn and Earl of Caithness. He married Eupheme Lindsay. Children i Euphemia Stewart.

Tenth Generation

13. James Stewart I, b. 1395, Scotland, Occupation King of Scots (1406-37) d. 20 Feb 1437, Dominican Priory, Perth, Scotland, buried: 1437, Church of Charterhouse of Perth. From the age of eleven to the age of twenty-nine King James I had lived in England, sometimes a prisoner in the Tower and sometimes a participant in the life of the Court. In 1424 he returned to Scotland with his new Queen and set about to restore order and law in his country. Perth became his favourite place of residence. James I fell victim of a conspiracy to put Walter, Earl of Atholl, the younger son of Euphemia of Ross, on the throne. On 20 Feb.1437 conspirators stabbed James to death in his bedchambers. Executions followed. He married Joan Beaufort, 1424, in Southwark Cathedral, b. England Occupation Queen, d. 1445, Scotland, buried: 1445, Church of Charterhouse Perth. Children 1 James Stewart II b. 16–Oct-1430. 2 Alexander Stewart, b. 16 Oct 1430,Scotland. Alexander was Duke of Rothesay and died in infancy. 3 Margaret Stewart. She married Louis (of France) Dauphin, 24 Jun 1436, in Scotland. 14. Lady Marjory (Margaret) Stewart, b. c. 1360, Scotland. She married Duncan Campbell of Lochow, b. Scotland, Occupation Lord of Argyl. Children: 1 Sir Colin (of Glenurquby) Campbell b. c. 1382. 15.Murdock Stewart, b. c. 1362, Scotland, Occupation 2nd Duke of Albany and Earl of Fife and Monteith, d. 25 May 1425, Sterling, Scotland (Beheaded), buried: 1425, Church of the Blackfriars, Sterling. When Robert Stewart Duke of Albany died at the age of about eighty-one, his son Murdock Stewart succeeded him as Governor of Scotland. His attempt at governing foundered after four years of futile misrule. In 1424 King James I, his cousin, returned to Scotland after eighteen years of imprisonment in England. Since James I’s kingship had been at risk while imprisoned in England, he did not intend for it to be threatened upon his return to Scotland. In 1425 he ordered Murdock & his two sons beheaded at Sterling. He married Isabel of Lennox, 17 Feb 1391, in Scotland, b. Scotland, (daughter of Duncan of Lennox and Helen Campbell) Occupation Countess of Lennox, d. c. 1457, buried: c. 1457, Inchmiriah Castle Lock Lomond, Scotland. Children: 1 Robert Stewart, b. Jul 1421, Scotland, occupation Master of Fife. 2 Sir Walter (of Lennox) Stewart. 3 Sir Alexander Stewart, b. Scotland, d. 25th May 1425, Beheaded at Sterling Castle, Scotland. 4 James Mhor (of Albany) Stewart the Gross. 5 Isabella Stewart. 6 Daughter. 16. John Stewart. John was 3rd Earl of Buchan on the resignation of his father on 20 Sept 1406 and Chamberlain of Scotland soon after. He married Elizabeth Douglas, (daughter of Archibald 4th Earl of Douglas and unknown). Children: 1 Margaret Stewart. She married George Seton. George: George was First Lord of Seton. 17. Euphemia Stewart. Euphemia was Countess Palantine of Strathearn and Countess of Caithness, which latter Earldom she resigned to her uncle, Walter Stewart. She married her cousin Patrick Graham of Kilpont. She married Patrick (of Kilpont) Graham, Dec 1406, d. Oct 1415. Children: 1 Malise Graham. He was 3rd Earl of Strathearn and was during his childhood divested of that Earldom on the pretense that it was a male fee and was created on 6 Sept 1427. 2 Euphemia Graham, d. c. 1468-69. She married (1) Archibald 5th Earl of Douglas, 1425, in Scotland, d. 26 Jun 1439, Scotland. She married (2) James 1st Lord of Hamilton. 3 Elizabeth Graham. She married John (of Glamis) Lyon.

Eleventh Generation

18. James Stewart II, b. 16-Oct-1430, Scotland, Occupation King of Scots (1437-60), d. 3 Aug 1460, Roxburgh Castle, Scotland He married Mary Gueldres, 3 Jul 1449, in Scotland, (daughter of Arnold Gueldres and unknown) d. 1 Dec 1463, Edinburgh, Scotland, buried: 1463, Trin. Coll. Church, Edinburgh, Scotland. Children: 1 James Stewart III. James was Duke of Rothesay and succeeded his father to the throne as James Stewart III. 19. Sir Colin (of Glenurquby) Campbell, b. c. 1382, Scotland, Occupation 1st of Glenorchy, d. 1478, Scotland. Sir Colin Campbell was of the Laird of Glenurquby, Argyllshire, predecessor of Earl of Bradalbine. He married Margaret (of Keir) Sterling, b. of Keir, Scotland, (daughter of Luke Sterling of Keir and unknown). Children: 1 Marion (Mariota) Helen Campbell. 20. Sir Walter (of Lennox) Stewart, b. Scotland, d. 24 May 1425, Beheaded at Sterling Castle, Scotland, buried: 1425, Castle of the Black Friars Sterling. He married Campbell, in Scotland, b. Scotland. Children: 1 Mariot Stewart, b. Scotland. 21. James Mhor (of Albany) Stewart the Gross, b. Scotland, Occupation 1st of Baldorran, d. c. 1451, Ireland. James reacted to his father’s execution by leading an attack on Dumbarton, burning it and killing the governor of the castle, John Stewart. He fled to Ireland where he later died. He was ancestor to the Stewarts of Ardvorlich. James and Lady MacDonald were not married. Partner Lady MacDonald, not married, in Scotland. Children: 1 Andrew Stewart, Occupation Lord of Avondale. King James II invited Andrew, the eldest son of James, to return to Scotland and was appointed Lord Avondale in 1459. 2 Murdoch (of Albany) Stewart, b. Scotland. 3 Arthur Stewart, b. Scotland. 4 James (1st of Baldorran) Stewart the Beag. 5 Robert Stewart, b. Scotland. 6 Matilda Stewart, b. Scotland. 7 Alexander Stewart, b. Scotland. 8 Walter (of Morphie) Stewart b. 1440. 22. Isabella Stewart. She married Sir Walter Buchanan, in Scotland. Children: 1 Thomas Buchanan, b. Scotland.

Twelfth Generation

23. Marion (Mariota) Helen Campbell, b. Scotland. She married William (2nd of Baldorran) Stewart, b. Scotland, (son of James (1st of Baldorran) Stewart the Beag and Aannabel Buchanan) occupation 2nd of Baldorran. William: His full name was William of Baldorran, Balquhidder, Perthshire. William received the office of hereditary Royal Baillie of Balquhidder. It was this William and his son Walter, who held the townships listed in the Exchequer Rolls of 1488. In the portioning of Balquhidder which took place during the sixteenth century, the descendants of Sir William Stewart of Baldorran gained hereditary tacks of land. Children: 1 Walter (4th of Baldorran) Stewart. 2 John (1st of Glenbuckie) Stewart b. C 1503. 3 Andrew (of Gartnafueraran) Stewart, b. Scotland. 24. James (1st of Baldorran) Stewart the Beag, b. Ireland, Occupation 2nd of Baldorran. James returned to Scotland and was accepted and granted the lands of Baldorran. He married Annabel Buchanan, (daughter of Sir Patrick Buchanan and unknown). Children i William (2nd of Baldorran) Stewart. 25. Walter (of Morphie) Stewart, b. 1440, Scotland, Occupation Knight of Morphy, d. 1513, Scotland. Walter was the grandfather of a later, Andrew Stewart, Second Lord Avondale in 1501. From this Andrew came three sons, Andrew Stewart, Third Lord of Avondale, later Lord Ochiltree; Henry Stewart created Lord Methven in 1528; and James Stewart of Beith, father of James, Lord Doune He married Elizabeth Arnot, b. Scotland. Children: 1 Alexander Stuart. 2 John Stewart, b. Scotland. 3 George (of Johnston) Stewart, b. Scotland. 4 Margaret Stewart, b. Scotland.

Thirteenth Generation

26. Walter (4th of Baldorran) Stewart, b. Scotland, Occupation 4th of Baldorran. Walter succeeded his father as Royal Baillie.  Walter’s sword of that office hangs in the House of Ardvorlich. His brother, John Stewart founded the family of Stewarts of Glenbuckie in Balquhidder, who held that estate for almost three century. He married Euphemia Reddoch, in Scotland, b. Scotland, (daughter of James (of Cultobraggan) Reddoch and unknown) Children: 1 James (5th of Baldorran) Stewart. 2 Alexander Stewart, b. 1560, Scotland. He married Margaret Drummond of Drummond of Erinoch. 27. John (1st of Glenbuckie) Stewart, b. C 1503, Scotland, Occupation 1st of Glenbuckie. John Stewart founded the family of Stewarts of Glenbuckie in Balquhidder.  His family held that estate for almost three centuries. He married Buchanan, (daughter of Patrick (of MacCarthe) Buchanan and unknown. Bunchanan: She was the daughter of Patrick Buchanan of MacCarthe,ancestor of the Laird of Arnprior, Ochlesy, MacCarthe,  and Desclelles. Children: 1 Patrick Stewart ii Duncan (2nd of Glenbuckie) Stewart. 3 Robert Stewart. William (2nd of Baldorran) Stewart, b. Scotland, Occupation 2nd of Baldorran. His full name was William of Baldorran, Balquhidder, Perthshire. William received the office of hereditary Royal Baillie of Balquhidder.  It was this William and his son Walter, who held the townships listed in the Exchequer Rolls of 1488. In the portioning of Balquhidder which took place during the sixteenth century, the descendants of Sir William Stewart of Baldorran gained hereditary tacks of land. He married Marion (Mariota) Helen Campbell, He married unknown. Children: 4 James (of Balquhidder) Stewart. 29. Alexander Stuart, b. Scotland, Occupation Lord of Avondale, d. Scotland. He married Margaret Kennedy of Blairquhan, in Scotland. Children: 1 Andrew (2nd Lord of Avondale) Stuart. Fourteenth Generation 30. James (5th of Baldorran) Stewart, b. Scotland. James sold Baldorran to the Glorat family. Some researchers have suspected, without firm proof, that the son, Patrick, born of James (5th of Baldorran) Stewart and the MacLaren daughter of Patrick MacLaren of Balquhidder, was a “handfast marriage.” This was a Celtic custom where a couple could unite for a year on a trial contract and any children being born from this contract were the responsibility of the father. He married (1) MacLaren, (daughter of Patrick (of Balquidder) MacLaren). Children: 1 Patrick Stewart. Patrick was given the hereditary tack of Lednascriden in the Barony of Balquhidder c 1533 and was considered to be the founder of the Stewarts of Lednascriden. He married (2) Stewart, in Scotland, (daughter of Patrick Stewart and Daughter to Lecky (of that Ilk). Stewart: She was the daughter of Patrick Stewart of Glenbuckie, Perthshire. Children: 2 Alexander (1st of Ardvorlich) (Alister) Stewart, b. c. 1560, Scotland. Alexander acquired Ardvorlich, Perthshire, Scotland around 1580. This was an estate adjoining the eastern boundary of Balquhidder. The Stewarts of Ardvorlich still reside on the original estate. Alexander Stewart acquired Advorlich as a freeholder of the Crown. He became leader of a clan which, according to Duncan Stewart in his “History of the Stewarts”, numbered about three hundred people. Alexander and his descendants were known by the Gaelic patronymic Mac-Mhic-Bhaltair, “sons of the son of Walter”. Alexander Stewart acquired Advorlich in 1580 as a freeholder of the Crown. He became leader of a clan which, according to Duncan Stewart in his “History of the Stewarts”, numbered about three hundred people. Alexander and his descendants were known by the Gaelic patronymic Mac-Mhic-Bhaltair, “sons of the son of Walter”. This is the family that was allegedly responsible for the outlawing of the Clan MacGregor, though MacGregors today dispute the common historical record. The story goes like this: Alexander’s brother-in-law, John Drummond, who was keeper of the Royal Forest, found a group of MacGregors poaching in the forest. As punishment he cut off their ears and sent them home humiliated. The MacGregor clan rose in defence, killing Drummond and delivering his head to the dinner table of the Ardvorlich Stewarts while Alexander was away.  At the sight of her brother’s severed head on her dinner table, Margaret allegedly went nuts and ran off into the woods not to be found for days. Further legend has it that she was pregnant at the time and the shock sent her into labour and she delivered James Baeg in the forest. In 1592 Alister Stewart of Ardvorlich led a cattle raid in Lennox with two bagpipes leading the way. Whether or not Alister is the same this Alexander (Alister is Gaelic for Alexander) is not clear. Thus it’s possible that there are two successive Alexander Stewarts of Ardvorlich (father and son) and that this person is a confusion of the two. He married Margaret Drummond-Ernoch, (daughter of John Drummond Margaret: She was the daughter of the Drummond keeper of the Royal Forest of Glenartney. Margaret was also the sister of Drummond-Enoch who was shocked by the severed head of her brother delivered to her door by the MacGregors. Children: 3 John Stewart, b. Scotland. John was the ancestor of the Stewarts of Annat, Ballachallan, and Craigtoun, Perthshire, Scotland. He was the progenitor of the Stewarts of Annat 31. Patrick Stewart. Patrick had twelve sons who came to maturity but died before his own death. He married (1) Daughter to Lecky (of that Ilk), in Scotland. Children: 1 Stewart, He married (2) Daughter to Edmonston (of Broich), in Scotland. 32. Duncan (2nd of Glenbuckie) Stewart, b. Scotland, Occupation 2nd of Glenbuckie. This marriage forged a link with the old ruling house. The new marriage alliance established itself in several holdings in the district. In Robert the First Duke of Albany, later Robert II of Scotland, they shared a common ancestor with the king. He married MacLaren (of Auchleskin), (daughter of MacLaren Chief of Clan Labhran and unknown) Children: 1 Alexander (3rd of Glenbucky) Stewart, b. c. 1553, Scotland. Alexander married his second cousin. He sold his right and title of Glenbucky to his next older brother, Duncan Stewart. He married Stewart. 33. Andrew (2nd Lord of Avondale) Stuart, Occupation Groom of the Stole, d. 1548, Scotland. Andrew served as the Groom of the Stole to King James IV (1488-1513) of Scotland. Andrew exchanged the Lordship of Evandale-Annandale for the Barony of Ochiltree and became the ancestor of the Lords of Ochiltree. By his marriage to Margaret, he created the Earl of Arran on August 10, 1503. He married (1) Beatrix Drummond, in Scotland, b. Scotland, (daughter of Lord John Drummond and unknown). Children: 1 Andrew (3rd Lord of Avondale) Stuart, b. c. 1500, Scotland. Andrew inherited the title of Avondale and was also created as Lord Ochiltree. 2 Henry (Lord of Methven) Stuart, b. c. 1504, Scotland. Henry was created Lord of Methven in 1528. 3 James (of Beith) Stuart, b. c. 1506, Scotland. 4 Christian Stuart, b. c. 1508, Scotland. She married John Bosswell of Auchinleck, in Scotland. 5 Marjory Stuart, b. c. 1514, Scotland. She married John Knox, c. 1563, in Scotland, b. c. 1514, Gifford, East Lothian, Scotland The Royal Stewarts Gaelic Name Stillbhard, Stuibard  English Name Stewart, Steuart, Stuart Origins of the name From the High Steward of Scotland Crest Bardge A pelican argent winged or feeding its young, proper Plant Badges Oak or thistle Mottos “Virescit vulnere virtus” “Courage grows strong at a wound” Chielfs and Chieftains Clan Stewart Pipe music Bratach Bhan nan Stuibhartach. The White banner of the Stewarts Clan Stewart of Appin Gaelic Name Mac-Ianin Stiuibhairt na h-Apunn English Names Stewart, Lands Appin in the West Highlands Crest Badge A unicorn’s head, crined and armed Plant Badges Oak or Thistle Mottos Quiddeer we’ll zje” “Whither will ye” Clan Stuart of Bute The beautiful Isle of Bute formed part of the domain of Walter, the first High Steward, and remained a Stewart possession except for a brief Norse occupation. But only after 1385 did a family branch become established there, when Sir John Stewart a son of King Robert II was appointed a hereditary Sheriff of Bute and Arran, and his decendants still hold the marguisate of Bute. OTHER BRANCHES: Many noble families are descended from the Royal line. Stewarts have held or hold the Dukedoms of Albany, Rothsay and Lennox, the Marquessate of Bute, and the Earldom of Menteith, Angus, Athoo, Strathearn, Carrick, Buchan and  Galloway, Other families were those of Achnacone, Ardsheal, Ardvorlich,(Mac-ic-Bhaltair), Balquidder, Blackhall, Bonkil,  Castlemilk, Dalguise, Fasnacloich, Grandtully, Greenock, Invernahyle and Skye.

The Appin Stewarts

Clan Chief: Andrew Francis Stewart of Lorn, Appin and Ardsheal, 17th of Appin & 12th of Ardsheal Main Branches: Ardsheal,  Achnacone, Fasnacloich, Invernahyle Clan Badge: A unicorn’s head, crined and armed. Plant Badge: Darag (Oak) Motto:  Quhidder Well Zie (Whiter will ye) War Cry: Creag an Sgairbh (“The Cormant’s Rock”) Designation of the Chief: MacIain  Stiubhairt na h-Appunn Tartans:

Stewart Tartan  Red

Stewart of Appin Red, Stewart of Appin Dress, Stewart of Appin Hunting, Stewart of Ardsheal, Stewart of Achnacone, Stewart Old (although not of Appin it is worn by the Chief) Primary Adherents: MacColl, MacLeay, MacClay, Livingstone,  MacGillemichael, McIlmichael, Carmichael, MacCombich, Combich, MacInnes, MacRobb, MacMichael The Appin Stewarts also known as “The Loyal Clan”, is the West Highland branch of the royal surname Stewart, descend from Sir James Stewart  of Perston, 4th son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, the 4th High Steward of Scotland. Sir James was the grandfather of John Stewart of Innermeath, who, through marriage to Isabell NicDougall (MacDougall) of Lorn,  became the first Stewart Lord of Lorn. The Lordship of Lorn passed down for 2 more generations to Sir John Stewart, the third Stewart Lord of Lorn. Tradition tell us that in 1445, while returning to his seat at Dunstaffnage castle from the great cattle tryst at Crieff,  Sir John met and fell in love with the daughter of MacLaren of Ardvech. Although married, he began an affair with his new love which one year later produced a son. He was christened Dugald and was to be the first Chief of the Stewarts of Appin. After the death of his first wife, Sir John waited, for reasons we are unaware of today, for 5 years until setting up the marriage between himself and Dugald’s mother, but it may have had something to do with the politics of the day. In 1463, Sir John set a wedding date and sent for Dugald and his mother to come to Dunstaffnage. Unknown to Sir John, there was a plot to kill the Lord of Lorn. It is not fully known, but it is thought to have been set up by the Lord of the Isles who was in a power struggle with the King of Scots, and who saw it as being in his best interest to neutralize this powerful and loyal representative of the King in the west highlands. The other plotters, which some feel included Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll, Sir John’s son-in-law, were primarily represented by Alan MacCoul, the illegitimate grandson of an earlier MacDougall Chief. As the lightly armed wedding party made its way from Dunstaffnage to the small chapel located approximately 180 yards from the castle walls, they were attacked by a superior force lead by Alan MacCoul. Although better armed, MacCoul’s force was defeated, but not before mortally wounding Lord of Lorn. Sir John was rushed into the chapel and MacCoul and his henchmen ran into and occupied the deserted Dunstaffnage. With his last breath Sir John married Dugald’s mother, legitimizing him and making him the de jure Lord of Lorn. After receiving the last rites, Sir John expired and a new chapter in west highland history was opened. Dugald gathered all the adherents of the Lord of Lorn and with the assistance of the MacLarens laid siege to Dunstaffnage, but to no avail. Unbeknownst to Dugald, Colin Campbell, Lord Argyll who seemed to have been involved in the plot, raised a group of MacFarlanes to aid MacCoul in his struggle against the de jure Lord of Lorn. MacCoul’s men with the MacFarlanes met the men of Lorn and MacLaren in what was to be known as the battle of Leac a dotha. It was a fierce battle with both sides leaving the field with very heavy losses. For the next few years Dugald, who had lost the tile of Lord of Lorn through the treachery of his uncle Walter Stewart and Lord Argyll, but had retained Appin and Lismore, consolidated his power and fortified the hunting lodge of castle Stalker on the Cormant’s Rock in Loch Laich. He also ensured that the Campbells were in no doubt about his displeasure over the loss of the Lordship of Lorn by having the Campbell territory surrounding Appin regularly raided by our clan. Finally in 1468 in a bid to finally destroy the power of Appin, Colin Campbell and Walter Stewart, now recognized as the Lord of Lorn (but with no authority in Lorn) organized a massive raid against Dugald and our clan. Alan MacCoul was again involved and they met at what was to be known as the battle of Stalc. Though loosing many men, Dugald virtually destroyed the military strength of the MacFarlands (a destruction they were never to recover from) and personally killed Alan MacCoul,  his father’s murderer. The battle solidified Dugald’s claim to Appin and the surrounding area which was formally granted to him by King James III on the 14th of April 1470. Our clan was born. The major branches or “tacks”, as they were known in the late 17th and into the 18th Century, of Appin stem from the sons of Alan Stewart, 3rd of Appin. Originally they comprised John, 1st of Strathgarry, Dugald, 1st of Achnacone, James, 1st of Fasnacloich and Alexander, 1st of Invernahyle. Ardshiel, the branch our Chief hails from, was given to John, 1st of Ardshiel by his father, John Stewart, 5th of Appin. The Adherents or “septs” (a modern term) of Appin stem from families that lived in Lorn prior to the Stewarts gaining the Lordship and the clan coalescing. These were/are the MacColls, who descended from Black Solomon, son of Coll, son of the Lord of the Isles, The MacLeays or Livingstones (anglicized from MacLeay), who were reported to be on Lismore in 1130, but who’s heritage is so old that no one really knows their beginnings, The MacGillemichaels, or their anglicized form “Carmichael”, are also so old that we can only guess. It is know that they were present in Appin prior to the 13th century.  The Combichs descended from a family nickname from north Appin and the MacRobbs were/are actually Stewarts, descending from Robert, son of Dugald, 1st of Appin. The MacInnes, originally from the area of Morvern, settled in the area in the early 15th century. The clan fought in many major engagements including the Civil Wars of the 17th century and all the Jacobite Risings, ending with the battle of Culloden, where 92 of our clan were killed and 65 wounded out of a fighting force of approximately 300. Today we are dispersed all around the globe, but the clan is supported by a number of organizations, including The Appin Stewarts, The Stewart Society, The Friends of Appin (Australia) and, in part, the Appin Historical Society. Our clan and Chief’s family experienced a grave loss with the passing of Lady Sibyl Anne Stewart, M.B.E. in 2007.  Lady Stewart, or “Chibi”, as she was known to those close to her, was the wife of our former Chief and the mother of our current. Lady Stewart became the clan’s guiding light and although not born into the clan, worked diligently with many organizations and persons on behalf of us all and our collective history and future. She is and will continue to be missed beyond words. For further information regarding our clan and other Stewarts please refer to: The Stewart Society http://www.Stewartsociety.org/ History of the Origins of the clan The Stewart family records its traditional descent from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, who makes an appearance as a character in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Historically, however, the family appears to be descended from an ancient family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany, the earliest recorded being Flaald. They acquired lands in England after the Norman Conquest and moved to Scotland with many other Anglo-Norman families when David I ascended to the throne of Scotland. The family was granted extensive estates in Renfrewshire and in East Lothian and the office of High Steward of Scotland was made hereditary in the family. Walter, the son of Alan or Fitz-alan was the founder of the royal family of Stewarts. He was the first of the family to establish himself in Scotland. Walter’s elder brother called William was the progenitor of the family of Fitzalan who were the Earls of Arundel. Their father who was a Norman married soon after the Norman Conquest. He married the daughter of Warine, sheriff of Shropshire. He acquired the manor of Ostvestrie or Oswestry on the Welsh border. On the death of King Henry I of England in 1135 Walter and William supported the claims of Empress Maud and in doing so raised themselves high in the favour of her uncle King David I of Scotland. Clan Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. In 1141 Walter accompanied King David I to retire in Scotland on promises made to him by the Scottish monarch which were faithfully fulfilled. His brother William however remained in England and was rewarded by Empress Maud’s son, King Henry II of England. In Scotland Walter obtained from King David I of Scotland large grants of land and property in Renfrewshire as well as in many other places, together with the hereditary office of Senescallus Scotiae, Lord High Steward of Scotland. From this title Walter’s grandson, also called Walter, took the name Stewart, which was forever afterwards retained by the family. This Walter was also rewarded lands by King Malcolm IV of Scotland. Walter is celebrated as the founder of Paisley Monastery in 1163 in the barony of Renfrew. Walter married Eschina de Londonia, Lady of Moll, in Roxburghshire. Walter died in 1177, he was succeeded by his son Alan Stewart. Alan died in 1204 leaving a son called Walter who was appointed by King Alexander II of Scotland as justiciary of Scotland in addition to the hereditary office of high steward. This Walter died in 1246 leaving four sons and three daughters. The third son called Walter was Earl of Menteith. The eldest son, called Alexander married Jean, the daughter and heiress of James Lord of Bute. In her right their son James Stewart seized both the Isle of Bute and Isle of Arran. Wars of Scottish Independence Alexander Stewart had two sons, James and John. The elder, James would succeed Alexander as chief of the clan. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Stewart gave much support to King Robert the Bruce. Alexander’s second son, known as Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, was killed at the Battle of Falkirk (1298), fighting in support of William Wallace. ye principal clovris of ye clanne Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. Alexander’s second son, John, who was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 had seven sons. The eldest was Sir Alexander who was the ancestor to the Stewarts who were Earls of Angus. The second son was Sir Alan of Dreghorn whose family became the Earls and Dukes of Lennox. The third son was Walter whose family were the Earls of Galloway. The fourth son was Sir James whose family were the Earls of Atholl, Earl of Buchan and Earl of Traquair. The fifth son Sir John Stewart was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. The sixth son Sir Hugh Stewart fought in Ireland under Edward Bruce, the younger brother of King Robert the Bruce. The seventh son was Sir Robert Stewart of Daldowie (not the Lanarkshire Daldowie). James Stewart, the eldest son of Alexander Stewart, succeeded as the fifth high steward in 1283. On the death of King Alexander III of Scotland in 1286, James Stewart was one of six magnates of Scotland chosen to act as regents of the kingdom. James died in the service of Robert the Bruce in 1309. James’s son Walter became the sixth high steward. This Walter Stewart at the age of just twenty-one years commanded the left wing of the Scottish army, along with Sir James Douglas at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Robert the Bruce and his wife Isabella’s only child, Marjorie Bruce, married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (1293–1326), and from him the Royal House of Stewart are descended.

Royal House

A chief of the Clan Stewart Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland married Marjorie Bruce daughter of King Robert the Bruce, this began the Royal House of Stewart. Walter Stewart’s son called Robert the seventh lord-high steward had been declared heir to the throne of Scotland in 1318. However the birth of a son to Robert the Bruce in 1326 interrupted Robert Stewart’s prospects for a time. Robert Stewart received from his grandfather large amounts of land in Kintyre. During the long and disastrous reign of King David II of Scotland, Robert Stewart acted a patriotic part in the defense of the kingdom. On the death of King David II without issue on 22 February 1371 Robert Stewart, at the age of fifty five, succeeded to the crown of Scotland as King Robert II of Scotland. He was the first of the Stewart family to ascend to the throne of Scotland. Mary, Queen of Scots, with her only adult son, James VI The royal line of male Stewarts continued uninterrupted until the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary’s son James VI and descendants, monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1603 to 1714, continued to use the surname Stuart as they were descended from Mary’s second husband, Henry Stewart a member of the clan Stewart of Darnley. It was around this time that the second and interchangeable spelling of the name Stuart became common allegedly through the French influence of Mary’s upbringing. The Stuarts held the throne of Scotland and after the Union of the Crowns in 1603 they held the throne of England too. This was held until the death of Queen Anne of Great Britain in 1714, the last monarch from the House of Stuart. Anne was succeeded by her cousin, King George I of England and Elector of Hanover of the House of Hanover. The present Royal Family still has Stuart blood links. Sauchieburn and Prince James Stewart The Battle of Sauchieburn was fought on June 11, 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland. The battle was fought between as many as 30,000 troops of King James III Stewart and some 18,000 troops raised by Scottish nobles who favoured the King’s then-15-year-old son, Prince James. Prince James ascended to the throne, and reigned as James IV for twenty-five years. In 1489 John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox rebelled against King James IV of Scotland. James responded by bringing the cannon Mons Meg from Edinburgh, and bombarding Crookston Castle seat of the Earl of Lennox, virtually destroying its western end, and ensuring a quick surrender. In 1497 some of the Clan MacLaren stole cattle from the Braes of Lochaber from the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds followed them and overtook them at a place called Glenurchy where a battle took place. The MacDonalds won and recovered their cattle. However the MacLarens then looked for assistance from Dugel Stuart of Appin. Another battle then took place where the MacLarens were now joined by the Stuarts against the MacDonalds. During the battle Dugel, the chief of the Clan Stewart of Appin and the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch chief were both killed. [edit] 16th century, Anglo-Scottish Wars During the 16th century the Anglo-Scottish Wars took place under the reign of the Stewarts. England and Scotland had fought during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries including the Wars of Scottish Independence at the beginning of the 14th century. In most cases, one country had attempted to take advantage of weakness or instability in the other. For example, King James II of Scotland had attempted to regain Berwick during the Wars of the Roses in England. Battles with England from this time included: the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542, the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1545 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. 16th century, Scottish Civil Wars Patrick Rattray, chief of Clan Rattray was intimidated into giving up the Barony by John Stewart, who was then the Earl of Atholl. Through the marriage of Patrick’s niece into the family, the Earl took control of the Barony of Rattray and also took control of her sister. Thus Patrick was driven from his estate in 1516. He began the construction of Craighall a grand building perched on a 200 feet rock above the River Ericht. The stronghold of Craighall could not protect him from John Stewart the Earl of Atholl though and he was murdered in 1533. Sir John’s son Patrick defended Castle Rattray against the Stewarts of Atholl but was forced to burn the Castle and escape in the confusion. The Rattrays then withdrew to Kynballoch, where Patrick was later murdered by the 3rd Earl of Atholl’s men whilst claiming sanctuary in his own Chapel. Also in the 16th century an internal Scottish Civil War took place between the Royal House of Stuarts and Mary, Queen of Scots. The Battle of Langside, fought on May 13 1568, was one of the more unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a mother fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son. In 1567 Mary Queen of Scots’ short period of personal rule ended in recrimination, intrigue and disaster when she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. Mary was sent into captivity in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant half-brother, James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Regent on behalf of his nephew. In early May 1568 Mary escaped, heading west to the country of the Clan Hamilton, high among her remaining supporters, with the determination to restore her rights as queen. Sir John Rattray’s third son Silvester succeeded his murdered brother, Stewart of Atholl continued to intimidate the family however and Silvester petitioned the king for legal recognition as heir. He was succeeded by his son, David Rattray of Craighall. George The laird’s eldest son was also murdered in 1592. In 1600 Archibald MacAlister, chief of Clan MacAlister along with Angus Og MacDonald, a MacDonald chief carried out an attack on the inhabitants of the Isle of Bute against the Clan Stuart. A year later and Archibald MacAlister and Angus Og MacDonald were accused of being rebels, charged with treason against the royal house and hanged in Edinburgh Tollbooth. Clan Stewart was bitter enemies with the infamous Red Douglas, of Clan Douglas. 17th century and the Civil War The Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644–50 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. The war was fought between Scottish Royalists — supporters of Charles Stuart I, under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and the Covenanters, who had controlled Scotland since 1639 and allied themselves with the English Parliament. The Scottish Royalists, aided by Irish troops, had a rapid series of victories in 1644–45, but were eventually defeated by the Covenanters. However, the Scottish Covenanters themselves then found themselves at odds with the English Parliament and backed the claims of Charles Stuart II to the thrones of England and Scotland. This led to the Third English Civil War, when Scotland was invaded and occupied by the Parliamentarian New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell was later defeated in Scotland. Sir James Stuart of Bute was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I in 1627. Early in the civil war, he garrisoned the Castle of Rothesay, and at his own expense raised soldiers for the king. He was appointed royal lieutenant for the west of Scotland, and directed to take possession of Dumbarton Castle. Two frigates sent to assist him fell foul of stormy weather, and one was completely wrecked. Ultimately, Sir James was forced to flee to Ireland when the forces of Cromwell were victorious. His estates were sequestrated, and he was forced to pay a substantial fine to redeem them. His grandson, Sir James Stuart of Bute, was appointed to manage the estates and to be colonel of the local militia on the forfeiture of the Earl of Argyll in 1681. Restoration of the Stewart Monarchy After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, the factions and divisions which had struggled for supremacy during the early years of the interregnum re-emerged. Monck, who had served Cromwell and the English Parliament throughout the civil wars, judged that his best interests and those of his country lay in the Restoration of Charles II. In 1660, he marched his troops south from Scotland to ensure the monarchy’s reinstatement. Scotland’s Parliament and legislative autonomy were restored under the Restoration, though many issues that had led to the wars; religion, Scotland’s form of government and the status of the Highlands, remained unresolved. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, many more Scots would die on both sides, over the same disputes in Jacobite rebellions. 18th century and Jacobite risings In 1703 Sir James Stewart of Bute was created Earl of Bute, Viscount Kingarth and Lord Mount Stuart, Cumra and Inchmarnock. But by 1706, the earl was convinced a union with England would be a disaster for his country, and he opposed it vehemently. When he realised that Parliament would vote in favour of the alliance, he withdrew from politics entirely. He married the eldest daughter of Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, the celebrated Lord Advocate and heraldic writer. After the succession of George I, the Earl of Bute was appointed Commissioner for Trade and Police in Scotland, Lord Lieutenant of Bute and a lord of the bedchamber. Queen Anne of Great Britain died in 1714, the last monarch from the House of Stuart. Anne was succeeded by her own cousin King George I of Great Britain of the House of Hanover. Coat of arms of The Earl of Galloway,[2] considered to be the principal branch of Clan Stewart.[3] Stewart of Stewart

Stewart Coat of Arms  Barclye EcosseStewart Coat of Arms  Garliesancien EcosseStewart Coat of Arms  Minto EcosseStewart Coat of Arms  Physgill EcosseStewart Coat of Arms 1aStewart Coat of Arms Atholl EcosseStewart Coat of Arms John Esq reissueStewart Coat of Arms of England1603-1649Stewart Coat of Arms Stewart ButeStewart Coat of Arms Stewart de RothesayStewart Coat of armsStewart Coat of Arms Stewart John of Athenree 2aStewart Lords & Ladies John Stuart (2 ecomtede Buchan)Stewart Lords & Ladies John Stuart de Bute 1713–1792)Stewart Lords & Ladies Robert Stuart d'Albany

Stuart of Albany Stuart of Buchan Stewart of Barclye Stewart of Garlies Stewart of Minto Stewart of Atholl Stewart of Bute Stuart of Bute Stewart of Ardvorlich Stewart of Physgill     Stewart of Rothesay [citation needed] The Jacobite Uprisings: of the 18th century were led by Charles Edward Stuart who was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, commonly known as “Bonnie Prince Charlie”. Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart also known as the Old Pretender. James Francis Edward Stuart was in turn the son of King James II of England and Ireland, who had been deposed in 1688. After his father’s death Charles was recognised as “King Charles III” by his supporters but his opponents referred to him as “The Young Pretender”. This resulted in the Jacobite Risings which first began in the late 17th century but did not gain momentum until the 18th century. The Clan Stewart fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. Their prowess in battle is celebrated by the fact that the present Duke of Atholl maintains the Atholl Highlanders as the only private army in the United Kingdom. Although many Stewarts and Stuarts fought for the Jacobites, many also remained peaceful.

The ‘Fifteen’

During the rising of 1715 Sir James Stuart of Bute commanded the Bute and Argyll militia at Inveraray, and through his vigilance kept that part of the country peaceful. His second son, having inherited his mother’s estates of Rosehaugh, took the surname Mackenzie. He became a Member of Parliament and later envoy to Sardinia, Keeper of the Privy Seal and Privy Councillor. The first major Jacobite Uprising became known as ‘The Fifteen’. See main article: The ‘Fifteen. This resulted in the Battle of Preston (1715), the Battle of Sheriffmuir and the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719.

The ‘Forty-Five’

The next major Jacobite uprising during the 18th century was known as the ‘Forty Five’. See Main article: The ‘Forty-Five. During this rising the Jacobites led by the Stuarts gained much success and support, winning many victories including the Battle of Prestonpans and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). However their success ended at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the last major battle on mainland Britain, where the Jacobites were defeated and the British government remained with the House of Hanover. Charles Stewart of Ardsheal led the men of Clan Stewart of Appin during the rising of 1745, and many fell at the grim field of Culloden, having first gained glory by breaking the Redcoat ranks. Colin Campbell of Glenure, ‘the Red Fox’, was placed as government factor on the forfeited Stewart estates. His murder in 1752 has been immortalised by Stevenson in the novel, Kidnapped. After the chief suspect, Alan Breck Stewart, made his escape, James Stewart, the half-brother of the chief, was tried by a jury composed entirely of Campbells at Inverary presided over by Argyll himself, and, perhaps not surprisingly, was convicted and hanged. Kings & Queens of Scotland

Robert II of ScotlandRobert III King of Scotland 2

Robert II of Scotland        Robert III of Scotland

King James I of ScotlandKing James 1st & VI Scotland

King James 1st

James VI of ScotsJames V of Scotland2James IV of ScotlandJames II King of Scotland

James VI         James V         James VI      James II

Queen Mary

Queen Mary

Queen Mary II

Queen Mary II

Queen Elizabeth 1st

Queen Elizabeth 1st

      Mary Stuart JamesMary I Queen of Scots

        Mary Stuart    Mary Queen of Scots

Stewart Clans & Emblems

The Royal Stewarts

Gaelic Name.  Stillbhard, Stuibhard English Names.          Stewart, Steuart, Stuart Origin of Name.         From the High Steward of Scotland Lands. Renfrewshire, Teviotdale and Lauderdale Crest Badge.   A pelican argent winged or feeding its young, proper. Plant Badges.  Oak or Thistle Mottos.           “Virescit vulnere virtus””Courage grows strong at a wound” Chiefs and Chieftains Clan Stewart. Pipe Music.     Bratach Bhan nan Stuibhartach. The White Banner of the Stewarts Clan History.  We have collected the long history of the Royal Stewarts separately. Clan Stewart of Appin Gaelic Name.  Mac-Iain Stiuibhairt na h-Apunn English Names.          Stewart Lands. Appin, in the west Highlands. Crest Badge.   A unicorn’s head, crined and armed, Plant Badges.  Oak or Thistle Mottos.           “Quidder we’ll zje””Whither will ye.” War Cry.         “Creag ab Sgairibh””The cormorant’s rock” Stewart Crests & Emblems

Crest 01Crest 52Crest 53Crest 58Crest 61Crest 62Crest 66Stewart Tartan 51Stewart Tartan 50

Clan History. Being one of the western Highland branches of Clan Stewart, this Clan was on terms of friendship with Clan MacLaren; they supported each other in several battles. The banner of the Stewarts of Appin Regiment was one of the few saved from destruction after the Battle of Culloden. Clan Stuart of Bute. The beautiful Isle of Bute formed part of the domain of Walter, the first High Steward, and remained a Stewart possession except for a brief Norse occupation. But only after 1385 did a family branch become established there, when Sir John Stewart a son of King Robert II was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Bute and Arran; and his descendants still hold the marquisate of Bute. Other Branches Many noble families are descended from the Royal line. Stewarts have held or hold the Dukedoms of Albany, Rothesay and Lennox, the Marquessate of Bute, and the Earldoms of Menteith, Angus, Atholl, Strathearn, Carrick, Buchan and Galloway. Among other Stewart families were those of Achnacone, Ardsheal, Ardvorlich (Mac-’ic-Bhaltair), Balquidder, Blackhall, Bonkil, Castlemilk, Dalguise, Fasnacloich, Grandtully, Greenock, Invernahyle and Skye. Stewarts of Scotland Stewart of Fasnacloich FitzRoy of Cleveland & Southampton Steuart (or Stewart) of Tanachie, Allanbank, Ballechin, Allanton (Allantoun), Steuart of Auchlunkart, Coltness, Culdares, Goodtrees, Kirkfield, Mitcham, Steuart of Steuart Hall, Westshield, Steuart-Barclay of Collairnie (Collairney) Steward of Barton Mills, Ely, Gesthwait, Lakenheath, Norwich, Stantney Steward of Swardeston, Well Stewards of Scotland, Cardney, Lennox, Stewart Kings of Scotland Stewart of Achnacone, Albany, Ambrismore, Angus, Appin, Ardgowan, Ardinho, Stewart of Ardmaleish, Ards, Ardsheal Ardvorlich, Arntullie, Atholl, Auchingoun, Stewart of Avandale (Avondale), Baldorran (Balderan), Ballylawn, Balmenoch Stewart of Blackhall, Blairhall, Blantyre, Bonkyl, Bonskeid, Buchan, Burray, Bute, Stewart of Cardonald,Cassilton,Castle Stewart,Castle Stuart (Stewart), Stewart of Castlemilk, Cluny, Corrigan, Crookston, Culgruff, Stewart of Daldowie, Dalswinton, Darnley (Derneley), Derculich, Doune, Dunearn, Stewart of Eday, Fife, Fintalloch, Fort Stewart, Forthergill (Fothergill), Fynart, Stewart of Galloway, Galston, Garlies, Garth, Grandtully (Grantully), Stewart of Innerhadden, Innermeath, Innernytie, Invernahyle, Irry, Stewart of Kilcattan, Kildavan, Londonderry, Lorn Stewart of Menteith, Methven, Minto, Moray, Ochiltree, Orkney, Stewart of Pearston, Physgill, Ralston, Ramelton (Ramalton or Rathmelton), Stewart of Rosyth, Shambellie, St. Colme, Sticks, Strathaven, Strathearn, Strathgarry Stewart of Tillicoultry, Traquhair, Wester Cluny (Clunie) Stewart Viscounts Mountjoy Stuart Kings of Scotland & England & Ireland, Stuart of Aubigny, Bute, Hartley Mauduit, Lennox, Richmond, Torrance Descendants of Arnoul de Heristal, (St. Arnoul) Bishop of Metz Generation No. 34 34 Sir William Stewart 41 Baron (Archibald Stewart of 40 Lord John Stewart of Barclyee 39 Sir Walter Steward of 38 Sir William Stewart of Tondragee, 37 Sir Walter Stewart of Barclyee 36 Sir William Stewart of Dalswinton & Garlies 35 Sir John Stewart of 34 Sir William Stewart of Jedworth 33 John Stewart of Jedworth and Da Foresta 32 Sir John Stewart of Daldar, 3I Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl 30 Alexander Stewart 29 Beatrix Stewart, De Angus 28 Princess of Scotland Marjorie 27 Prince of Scotland Henry 26 David I (The Saint) King of Scotland 25 Margaret “ATHELING” Brunswick, 24 Queen of Scotland, Agatha Von Brunswick 23 Liudolf Count of Hungary 21 Princes of Burgundy Gisele 20 Princess of France Gerberge 19 Mathilde, Louis IV, “TRANSMARIUS” 18 King of France, Charles III 17 “The Simple” King of France Louis II 16 King of France, Charles Stammerer 15 II EMP. of The Holy Roman Emperor, Louis 14 I Emprorer, Holy Roman Emperor, 13 Charlemagne, Holy Roman Empire, Pepin (Paepin) 12 Kings of th Francs, Charles Short” 11 Mayor of the Palace, Austrasia, Martel 10 Mayor of the Palace, Austrasia, Paepin 9 Austrasia Arnoul Ansigsen 8 Bishop of Metz, (St. Arnoul) De Heristal Arnoldus 7 Ausbert of Saxony 6 “The Senator”, Duke of Moselle 5 Bishop of Auvergne Ferreolus 4 King of France Sigimaerus 3 King of France Clodion 2 Duke of the East Francs Pharamond 1 Marcomir was born Abt. 1582 in Wigtownshire, Scotland, and died 1646 in Probably in Newtown-Stewart, County Tyrone, Ireland. He married Francis Newcomen Abt. 1610 in Ireland, daughter of Sir Newcomen and Catherine Molyneux. She was born Abt. 1590 in Ireland, and died in Ireland. Notes on Sir William Stewart Baron: It is stated by Douglas of Glenbervied in his “Historical and Genealogical Tree of the Royal Family of Scotland and name of Stewart”, 1750, that William ‘was the son of Archibald Stewart, 3rd laird of Fintallocka, who died around 1506 and whose family descended from Sir William Stewart, 2nd of Galries, Early of Galloway.” (Source, Burkes Peerage and Baronetage) (NOTE: The date 1506 is incorrect either by transcription typo or an error by Burke.) Sir William Stewart and his brother Robert had served many years in foreign wars under Count Mansfield and the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, and had risen to commands of regiments. (Source, Stewart Clan Magazine.) The Ulster Plantation, name given to the plantation of English and Scottish settlers in the northern Irish province of Ulster, begun in 1607 during the reign of James I. The opportunity to do this occurred when the Irish Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, heads of the two great tribes of Ulster, fled the country. The British government then confiscated their lands. Over a half a million acres were given to English and Scottish settlers. The consequences of the Ulster plantation can hardly be exaggerated since they have been the direct cause of nearly four hundred years of often bloody Irish/Anglo-Irish feuding which continues today. (Source, Encarta Encyclopedia.)

Stewart Origins in Ulster Early Plantation c 1620

Andrew Stewart Lord Ochiltree of Ayreshire was one of the nine Scottish chief undertakers of the Plantation and was granted lands at Mountjoy in Tyrone.His grandson Sir William Stewart was created Lord Mountjoy in 1682.Stewartstown is named after him. In 1600, Ulster was synonymous with wilderness and untamed Gaelicsim; separated by nature and geography, least inhabited, least developed economically, least urbanized. Less than two percent of the population of Ireland was of Scots or English descent; but by early 1700s the proportion had soared to 27%. (Source – Modern Ireland 1600-1700, by R. f. Foster) “William Stewart came to the Laggan in County Donegal, Ireland about 1608 as Captain of a Scottish regiment that was sent to protect the English and Scottish settlers who came there at the time of the Plantation.” (Source, Heber Rankin) “The Right Honorable Sir William Stewart, 1st Baronet of Newtownstewart, County Tyron and Ramelton, County of Donegal, went over to Ireland in 1608 as Captain commanding a company of Scottish troops sent to serve in that County.” (Source, Register of the Privy council of Scotland, June 21, 1608, Burkes Peerage and Baronetage; Irish Times, November, 1940) “William Stewart, 1st Baronet of Ramelton, started out as Captain William Stewart of Whithorn. He was granted lands under the Plantation scheme as a ‘Servitor’ (i.e. persons in the Government service) rather than an ‘Undertaker’ (who had to be residents by Sept. 1610 and to have fulfilled their conditions of settlement by Easter, 1613.) in reward for his military service in Ireland under King James I of England. He was granted ‘Gortavagie’ by James and also received ‘Ramelton’ which had originally been granted to Sir Richard Hansard. Shortly thereafter he also took over the lands in County Tyrone of James Haig, which eventually became known as ‘Newtownstewart’, and later still land in Clogher Barony; also in County Tyrone, which he renamed Mount Stewart and which is now known as Fivemiletown. He married Frances Newcomen and was knighted in 1613. He was made a Baronet of Ramelton in May 2, 1623 and died in 1646.” (Source, Mary Stewart Kyritsis) (NOTE: Whithorn is located on Wigtown Bay and south of Wigtown and Newton-Stewart in Wigtownshire, west Scotland.) He was vested by Letters Patent with a proportion of 1000 acres along the western shore of the upper part of Lough Swilly, Co., Donegal. On it Stewart constructed a fortified dwelling known as “Fort Stewart” which became the residence of his youngest son, Thomas Stewart, and the later descendants ’till the year 1780 when Sir Annelsey Stewart, 6th Baronet, who became head of the family in 1769, acquired a more commodious and modern type of residence know as “Brookehill” within a mile or two of the old fortified house. It has since been renamed “Fort Stewart” (Source, Sir H.J.U. Stewart, present and 11th Baronet.) ” He (William Stewart) served in the Irish Parliament for County Donegal in 1613-1615. He served with distinction against the Irish rebels in 1641 and 1642.” (Source, Mary Hazeltine Cole) Captain Stewart was knighted in Royston in 1613 and was created a Baronet of Ireland in 1623. He played a large part in civil and military affairs in Ireland ’til his death late in 1646. He was a member of the Privy Council and a General in the army. He was succeeded as the 2nd Baronet by his oldest son, Alexander. (Source, “The Stewarts”, vol. VI and “The Stewarts in Ireland”, by Walter A. Stewart.) of the Irish Rebellion , 1641, “After the first shock of the rebellion and the initial frantic defence measures, the Protestants began to hit back. For example, volunteers from the Laggan district, County Donegal, near Londonderry, launched a counter attack in early summer 1642 organized by two brothers and professional soldiers, Sir William and Sir Robert Stewart. The Laggan men swiftly recaptured Strabane, relieved Lemavady and destroyed rebel bands in the Magillian Peninsula, swept through Roe Valley and at the Gelvin Burn near Dungiven finally relieving Colerain 2.” (Source, “Ulster’s Defence Tradition” by Robert K. Campbell) Confusing the issue of the correct discordancy chart of Sir William above, in 1608 a William Stewart, Lord of Dunduff, Ayrshire, Scotland was granted land in the barony of Raphoe, County of Donegal as an “Undertaker.” While of the same Stewart line, these two Williams are not directly related. More about Sir William Stewart Baron Souce: Cheryl Levine, cdlevine@aol.com Children of Sir Baron and Frances Newcomen are: 35. i. Sir Alexander Stewart 42 Baron, b. Bef. 1630; d. September 03, 1650, At the Battle of Dunbor, Scotland. 36. ii. Thomas Stewart, b. Abt. 1630, Fort Stewart, Donegal Co., Ireland. iii.William Stewart. iv. Robert Stewart. v. Catherine Stewart, m. Sir James Montgomery of Rosemont, 1631. vi. John Stewart. The Royal Lineage of Our Noble and Gentle Families: Geoiiee, 1st Marquis of=Henrietta, dan. of Esm^ HunUy, d. 13 June, 1636. | Stewart, Duke of Lennox, she d. 2 Sept. 1642. James I. of Scotland,^ Joane, sSir James Stewart, the d. 21 Feb. 1438. I Queen I blaoL knight of Lorn. of Scots Alexander, 3rd Earl Huntly,=Janet Stewart, contract, 14 d. at Perth, 16 Jan. 1523-4. [ Oct 1474. Margaret Stewart (3rd wife)=:A]exander Sutherland, of ‘ Dnfius, cr. Lord Dnftis, 8 Dec. 165a Alexander, 3rd earl, who m. his cousin (of the half blood) Janet, dau. of Sir John Stewart, Earl of Athole, of whom presently. The Dowagke-Quekn of Scots m. 1439, to Sir James Stewart, the black knight of Lorn (3rd son of Sir John Stewart, of Lorn and Innermeath), and had, with other issue, a son. (S) Sir John Stewart, of Balveny, cr. Earl of Athole 14s 7> re-invested with the earldom of Athole 18 March, X4S0-1, ambassador to Ei^land 1463, etc, had a principal command in the army oQames IIL 1488, d. 19 Sept., U2, bd. in Dunkeld cathedral ; m. ist Margaret, Dowajzer of William, 8th Earl of Douglas, only dau. of Archibald, 5th Earl of Douelas, Duke of Touraine ; he m. 2ndly, Eleanoia, dau. of William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, and had issue. By his ist wife he had a daus., of whom the elder, Janet Stewart, m. as ist wife (contract 14 Oct., 1474) to Alexander, 3rd Earl of Huntly, named above, one of the guarantees of a treaty of peace with the English 1509, P.C. to James IV., commanded the left wing of the Scottish army with Lord Home at the battle of Flodden, 9 Sept., 1513; d. at Perth 16 J^., 1523-4, bd. in the convent of the Dominican friars there, having had, with other issue, a son, Charlbs Stewart, ted viscount,* M.P. Down- (8) Hon. Arthur Stewart, lieut aist Scots fusilien, b. 8 May, 1859. Joane, =T=Sir James Stewart, the Queen Black Knight of Lorn. of Scots. Elizabeth Stewart ^pColui Mackenzie, of Kin< I tail, d. 6 June, 1568. Hilda Stewart, bom 31 Jan., 1872. JOANE, Queen of Scots, died at Dunbar, 1445, m. ist in the Priory of. St. Mary Overy, Southwark, Feb. 1423-4, to James Stuart I. of Scotland, who was murdered by the faction of Walter, Earl of Athole, his uncle, 21 Feb., 1437-8, and had, with other issue, a son and dau. HARDINGE, SIR EDMUND STRACEY, 4th Bart, (founders’ kin), J.P., D.L., Kent ; i6th in descent from Edward III. ; b. 2′j March, 1833 ; m. 7 Feb., 1877, Evelyn Stuart, 2nd dau. of Major-Gen. Maberley, C.B., of Avonmouth, Hants (B. Carrington), and has a son and 2 daus. Wm. Henry, M.P., E. Wore., m. 1875, Hon. Gertrude Stuart, dau. ofCbas., lath Ld.Blantyre.=T= Edgar (Rev.), bom 30 Sept, 18 15; married, 3 Sept, 1861, Lavinia Louisa Stuart, s.p. Augustus Stuart, bom 17 Aug., 1869.

Using Coats of Arms – A Brief History of Heraldry

Heraldry has been defined as the art of blazoning, assigning, and marshalling a coat of arms. Its origins are uncertain, but Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, has drawn his own conclusion: “The registry of its birth may be found among the archives of the Holy Wars, …its cradle was rocked by the soldiers of the Cross, and… its maturity was attained in the chivalrous age of Feudalism.” Between 1135 and 1155 A.D., seals show the general adoption of heraldic devices in Europe. Historians once theorized that a coat of arms enabled a knight to be recognized by his followers during battle. The coat of arms became hereditary just as a knight inherited the right to lead or the duty to follow another leader in battle. Later historians dispute this theory based on the small numbers of knights who had any followers. “The service due from a military tenant in the feudal system was well-defined. He held his land by service of two knights, one knight, or half a knight,…. A single knight, let alone a fraction of a knight, had no band of followers, so he had no need to identify himself to them.” [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson (Oxford University Press, 1988)] Woodcock and Robinson suggest that it was much more likely that the depiction of arms on a shield was a form of “individual vanity” rather than a practical military device. One historian (Beryl Platts, author of Origins of Heraldry) notes that “family identification” was practiced in northern Europe even before the Norman Conquest, and she believes that all heraldry in England is the derivation of the heraldic devices brought by the families who accompanied William the Conqueror. The oldest documented example of a coat of arms borne on a shield is where King Henry I of England is said to have bestowed on his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in 1127 A.D.: the azure shield bore four gold lions rampant. [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson.] Regardless of their origins, coats of arms became military status symbols, and their popularity increased along with the popularity of the tournament, which was developed in the mid-eleventh century in France (reportedly by Godfrey de Preuilly). The tournament became a training ground for knights, and its pageantry became more elaborate as time passed. Some knights made their living (and their reputations) roaming from tournament to tournament. William the Marshal and Roger de Gaugi were two such enterprising men, not only excelling at tournaments but extorting ransoms from the families of knights they captured. By 1400 A.D., bearing a coat of arms had become a prerequisite to participation in a tournament, and due to the importance of social standing in such pageants, a coat of arms also became a mark of noble status. In the early days, most coats of arms were assumed by the bearers and not “granted” by any authority. King Richard I changed his coat of arms from two lions combatant (or a lion rampant) to three gold leopards (or lions passant guardant). The earliest coats of arms were fairly simple — bars or wavy lines, a lion rampant or an eagle displayed, or an arrangement of fleurs-de-lis. The designs became more complex as the years passed, and the practice of quartering (incorporating the arms of other families acquired through marriages) developed. The word “Heraldry” is derived from the German “heer” — a host, an army — and “held” — a champion. The term “blason,” by which the science of heraldry is denoted in French, English, Italian, and German, is probably derived from the German word “blazen” — to blow the horn. Whenever a new Knight appeared at a Tournament, the herald sounded the trumpet, and as the competitors attended with closed visors, it was his duty to explain the bearing of the shield or coat-armour belonging to each. This knowledge of the various devices and symbols was called Heraldry, and as the announcement was accompanied with the sound of a trumpet, it was termed “blazoning the arms.” Source: Burke, Bernard, The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (Heritage Books, Inc., 1996).

Using Coats of Arms – A Brief History of Heraldry

Heraldry has been defined as the art of blazoning, assigning, and marshalling a coat of arms. Its origins are uncertain, but Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, has drawn his own conclusion: “The registry of its birth may be found among the archives of the Holy Wars, its cradle was rocked by the soldiers of the Cross, and… its maturity was attained in the chivalrous age of Feudalism.” Between 1135 and 1155 A.D., seals show the general adoption of heraldic devices in Europe. Historians once theorized that a coat of arms enabled a knight to be recognized by his followers during battle. The coat of arms became hereditary just as a knight inherited the right to lead or the duty to follow another leader in battle. Later historians dispute this theory based on the small numbers of knights who had any followers. “The service due from a military tenant in the feudal system was well-defined. He held his land by service of two knights, one knight, or half a knight,…. A single knight, let alone a fraction of a knight, had no band of followers, so he had no need to identify himself to them.” [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson (Oxford University Press, 1988)] Woodcock and Robinson suggest that it was much more likely that the depiction of arms on a shield was a form of “individual vanity” rather than a practical military device. One historian (Beryl Platts, author of Origins of Heraldry) notes that “family identification” was practiced in northern Europe even before the Norman Conquest, and she believes that all heraldry in England is the derivation of the heraldic devices brought by the families who accompanied William the Conqueror. The oldest documented example of a coat of arms borne on a shield is where King Henry I of England is said to have bestowed on his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in 1127 A.D.: the azure shield bore four gold lions rampant. [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson.] Regardless of their origins, coats of arms became military status symbols, and their popularity increased along with the popularity of the tournament, which was developed in the mid-eleventh century in France (reportedly by Godfrey de Preuilly). The tournament became a training ground for knights, and its pageantry became more elaborate as time passed. Some knights made their living (and their reputations) roaming from tournament to tournament. William the Marshal and Roger de Gaugi were two such enterprising men, not only excelling at tournaments but extorting ransoms from the families of knights they captured. By 1400 A.D., bearing a coat of arms had become a prerequisite to participation in a tournament, and due to the importance of social standing in such pageants, a coat of arms also became a mark of noble status. In the early days, most coats of arms were assumed by the bearers and not “granted” by any authority. King Richard I changed his coat of arms from two lions combatant (or a lion rampant) to three gold leopards (or lions passant guardant). The earliest coats of arms were fairly simple — bars or wavy lines, a lion rampant or an eagle displayed, or an arrangement of fleurs-de-lis. The designs became more complex as the years passed, and the practice of quartering (incorporating the arms of other families acquired through marriages) developed. The word “Heraldry” is derived from the German “heer” — a host, an army — and “held” — a champion. The term “blason,” by which the science of heraldry is denoted in French, English, Italian, and German, is probably derived from the German word “blazen” — to blow the horn. Whenever a new Knight appeared at a Tournament, the herald sounded the trumpet, and as the competitors attended with closed visors, it was his duty to explain the bearing of the shield or coat-armour belonging to each. This knowledge of the various devices and symbols was called Heraldry, and as the announcement was accompanied with the sound of a trumpet, it was termed “blazoning the arms.” Source: Burke, Bernard, The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (Heritage Books, Inc., 1996). Please note that the use of the Coat of Arms on the top of each page is one of a number of Coats of Arms that were granted to various Stewart families by the Crown of England. The only families of today who are entitled to use such Coats of Arms must be a direct descendant of the original family to which the Coat of Arms was granted to. The editors family cannot or do not claim any such Coats of Arms, as so far no proof of this can be found.

Stewart Tartans

Stewart Tartan  RedStewart Tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum)Stewart Tartan 2Stewart Tartan Black 1Stewart Tartan Blue 1Stewart Tartan Button  Royal  3Stewart Tartan Button Appin 1Stewart Tartan Button ButeStewart Tartan Button DressStewart Tartan Button Hunting 1Stewart Tartan Button Hunting 2Stewart Tartan Button Old 1Stewart Tartan Button Prince CharlesStewart Tartan Button Royal 1Stewart Tartan Button VictoriaStewart Tartan Dress 1Stewart Tartan Dress Blue MutedStewart Tartan GrayStewart Tartan Navy 1Stewart Tartan Red TartanStewart Tartan Hunting1Stewart Tartan Royal 1aa (2)Stewart Tartan Stuart Prince Charles Edward 1 (2)Stewart TartanStuart Tartan of AppinStuart Tartan Stuart Prince Charles Edward 1Stewart Tartan Stuart of Appin1

Button Appin Button Atholl  Button Bute  Button Dress  Button Galloway Button Hunting  Button Old  Button Prince Charles Button Royal  Button Traditional  Button Victoria  Stewart Blue Stewart Dress  Stewart Black Stewart Grey  Stewart Hunting Stewart Navy Stewart Dress Blue  Stewart Royal  Stewart Tartan  Stewart tartan (Vestiarium) Stuart of Appin   Stuart Prince Charles Edward  Tartan Red The following sketchs of Stewart Coats of Arms, Funeral Records, Land Purchases Lists and Coats of Arms were copied from the records in the Manuscript Section of the National Library of Ireland in Dublin, by kind permission. The Coats of Arms were taken from Ulster Records.   Stewart James Kilmoon Arms sketch   Stewart James Kilmoon Mar 1783 Sketch   Stewart Jane Katheryne of Mount Steward   Stewart John Athenree issued 1803   Stewart John Ballinaboy   Stewart John Esq reissue   Stewart John of Athanree   Stewart John of Athanree   Stewart John of Athenree Arms   Stewart John of Athenree Arms   Stewart John of Athenree Grant & Ratified   Stewart John of Athenree   Stewart Ninian Ballintoy 1632  Stewart of Antrim Sketch   Stewart of Ballymorrin Arms   Stewart on Sketch List   Stewart John proper arms & bearings   Stewart William Tyramaney 1615

Stewart Tyrone Coat of Arms James Sketch o 1783Stewart Tyrone James of Kilmoon Mar 1783 SketchStewart Coat of Arms John Athenree issued 1803Stewart Coat of Arms John of Athanree 3Stewart Coat of Arms John of Athenree Grant & RatifyStewart Coat of Arms JohnStewart Coat of Arms Stewart John 1aStewart Down Jane Katheryne  of Mount StewardStewart Kildare 1621Stewart Kildare Capt Robert CastlerudderyStewart Kildare Dublin Arthur Vic Mountjoy of SmithfieldStewart Tyrone James of Kilmoon Mar 1783 SketchStewarts Tyrone of Kilmoon 1a Sketch

THE ROYAL STEWARTS Gaelic Name Stillbhard, Stuibard English

Name Stewart, Steuart, Stuart. Origins of the name from the High Steward of Scotland. Crest Bardge A pelican argent winged or feeding its young. Plant Badges Oak or thistle Mottos “Virescit vulnere virtus” “Courage grows strong at a wound” Chief and Chieftains Clan Stewart. Pipe music Bratach Bhan nan Stuibhartach. The White banner of the Stewarts

CLAN STEWART OF APPIN

Gaelic Name Mac-Ianin Stiuibhairt na h-Apunn English Names Stewart, Lands- Appin in the West Highlands Crest Badge A unicorn’s head, crined and armed Plant Badges Oak or Thistle Mottos- Quiddeer we’ll zje” “Whither will ye”

CLAN STUART OF BUTE. The beautiful Isle of Bute formed part of the domain of Walter, the first High Steward, and remained a Stewart possession except for a brieg Norse occupation. But only after 1385 did a family branch become established there; when Sir John Stewart a son of King Robert II was appointed a hereditary Sheriff of Bute and Arran, and his descendants still hold the marquisate of Bute.

OTHER BRANCHES. Many noble families are descended from the Royal line. Stewarts have held or hold the Dukedoms of Albany, Rothsay and Lennox, the Marquessate of Bute, and the Earldom of Menteith, Angus, Athoo, Strathearn, Carrick, Buchan and Galloway, Other families were those of Achnacone, Ardsheal, Ardvorlich,(Mac-@ic-Bhaltair), Balquidder, Blackhall, Bonkil, Castlemilk, Dalguise, Fasnacloich, Grandtully, Greenock, Invernahyle and Skye. (For further details see www.Wikipedia Clan Stewarts, History Valuations, Census Details, Other Details Hortland Contact Us, The Stewarts of Mount Stewart From Macgregor outlaws to eminent Ulster gentry.

1. Background in Scotland. The name “Stewart” in Scotland has a special pedigree, regularly associated with Royalty and the elite of Scottish society – from politicians and lords to military heroes. Until now, the assumption has been that the Stewarts of Mount Stewart were descended from Scottish ancestors the Stewarts of Minto and the Earls of Galloway. However, recent research has shown this to be untrue. Before coming to Ulster, the family had actually been called MacGregor, but the name was outlawed so they changed it to Stewart!

2. Life in Ulster The Ulster link begins in Donegal, where in 1610 an Alexander McAula from Dumbartonshire (near Helensburgh, Firth of Clyde) was granted 1000 acres near Moville on the Inishowen Peninsula. However, the Plantation Commission reported the following year that “Alexander McAula of Durlinge; 1000 acres; appeared not, nothing done”. So an Alexander Stewart bought the patent for 1000 acres from McAula. Alexander’s son John Stewart obtained grant of “Stewart’s Court” from King Charles I in 1629, and of land at Ballyveagh. John built Ballylawn Castle (between Manorcunningham and NewtownCunningham), and his wife is believed to have been Barbara Stewart. Her father was another Scot, Sir William Stewart, who had built Ramelton in Donegal and Newtownstewart in Co Tyrone. John Stewart’s son William Stewart was born 1667 and became a Lieutenant-Colonel in Mountjoy’s dragoons. He had 3 children: Thomas, Martha and Alexander. 3. Alexander Stewart (1699 – 1781) Alexander Stewart was born at Ballylawn. He became MP for Londonderry and married his cousin Mary Cowan in 1737. They moved to the Ards and, using some of his wife’s family fortune (inherited from her brother who had been Governor of Bombay) they bought the estate of Mount Pleasant on the Ards Peninsula from the Colville family for £42,000 in 1744. They changed the name of the estate to Mount Stewart. Their eldest son, Robert Stewart, became an MP in 1769 and a Peer in 1783. He acquired a series of titles throughout his life – Baron Londonderry (1789), Viscount Castlereagh (1795), Earl of Londonderry (1796) and Marquis of Londonderry (1816). He died on 8 April 1821 and was buried at Newtownards Priory in the family tomb. Pethrick McCurdy married Margaret Stewart, a descendant of King Robert II of Scotland, also from Somerled mentioned in this history. Her father, Charles Stewart of Ballintoy, Ireland was the son of Ninian Stewart of Kilchattan and his wife Grizel; he was the son of Sir James Stewart, whose father was Sir Ninian of Nether Kilmory in 1532; his father was Sir Ninian who was born in 1469 and succeeded his father as Sheriff of Bute; he was made Castellan of Rothsay by James IV. Sir James was the son of Sir John Stewart who was born in 1360 and died in 1449; he was Sheriff of Bute; he married Janet Semple of Eliotstown. Sir John was the son of King Robert II.

HISTORY OF THE STEWARTS FROM 1371 AND OTHER IMPORTAND DATES AND EVENTS

1371-1603 Stuarts ruled Scotland 1537 Henry VIII was declared by Act of Parliament head of the Established Church in Ireland 1539 Suppression of Catholic Schools & Monasteries began 1572 24th August a massacre took place in France where Charles XI and his mother tried to exterminate the Huegenots. La Tranche escaped to England In 1576 the Trenches arrived in Northumberland. (See Cooke Trenche of Millicent Co Kildare) Stewart Origins in Ulster Early Plantation c 1620 Andrew Stewart Lord Ochiltree of Ayreshire was one of the nine Scottish chief undertakers of the Plantation and was granted lands at Mountjoy in Tyrone. His grandson Sir William Stewart was created Lord Mountjoy in 1682. Stewartstown is named after him. 1641 The Bardic schools closed and beginning of the period known as the Troubles began. 1603-1688 Stuarts ruled Scotland and England. Walter Stewart married Marjorie Bruce, daughter of King Robert 1st and founded the royal House of Stuart (French Spelling), beginning with their son King Robert II.  In 1603 the Stuart King James VI became King James I of England & Wales by succession to Queen Elizabeth I. The Stuart dynasty ruled Scotland, England & Wales (with the interruption during Cromwell’s Commonwealth & Civil War) until 1714, when Queen Anne died and the British Crown passed to the German Electors of Hanover. 1649-1653 The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland 1649-1782 The period of the Penal Laws. 1727 Thomas Griffith born. Married Elizabeth Griffith in 1751 lived in Millicent House Co Kildare 1751 Richard Griffith born son of Thomas & Elizabeth Griffith. Richard worked for the East India Co, and returned to live in Millicent in 1786 He died in 1793. 1784-1878 Richard Griffith born son of Richard & Charity Griffith. Richard worked as a civil engineer and geologist, and set out the Griffiths Valuations. 1745-1746 The grandson of James II, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, led the last attempt to restore the Stuart dynasty to the British Crown in 1745-6 and became known to history as “Bonnie Prince Charlie”. This attempted coup d’etat ended in the slaughter of Charle’s army at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 17th Centuary Many Stewarts emigrated from Scotland to Ulster 1778 Penal Laws abolished 1778-1854 Charles William Vane, 3rd Marquis of Londonderry KG, GCB, GCH, PC known as Sir Charles Stewart from 1813-1814 Known as The Lord Stewart from 1814-1822. He was the only son of Robert Stewart 1st Marquis of Londonderry by his second wife Lady Francis daughter of Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlerea was his half-brother Charles Stewart was educated at Eton, at aged 16 he was commissioned into the British Army as a Lieutenant. He saw service in Flanders in 1794, and was Lieutenant Colonel of the 5th Royal Irish Dragoons by the time he helped put down the Irish Rebellion of 1798. He was elected to the Irish House of Commons as Tory representative for Thomastown Co Kilkenny, and two months later he exchanged his seat for that of Londonderry County until the Act of Union in 1801 He then represented Londonderry County in the British House of Commons until 1814. He was ennobled as Baron Stewart of Stewart’s Court and Ballylawn in County Donegal in 1814 In 1822 Charles succeeded his half-brother as 3rd Marques of Londonderry. His main country seat in Ireland was Mount Stewart on the Ards peninsula Northern Ireland and Holdness House in London. Through marriage he acquired Seaham Hall Estate in County Durham in England. He was Governor of Londonderry from 1823 until his death in 1854, Scrabo Tower in Newtownards was built in his memory. 1791 United Irishmen founded in Belfast. 1795 The Orange Order founded in Armagh. 1796 The Yeomanry founded as a local defence force mainly under the control of the landed gentry 1797 Henry Hutchenson Stewart born son of Rev H Stewart of the Glebe House Leixlip. 24th May 1798 the 1798 Rebellion started in Prosperous Co. Kildare 1798 Lt Colonel Charles Stewart brother of Lord Castlereagh based in Rathangan Co. Kildare arrived in Prosperous and proceeded to flatten the village 1824-1860 Griffiths Valuation listed Stewart persons as either tenants or lessor also show Stewarts in Hortland 1800′s Stewart & Kincaid. Irelands largest land agency. 1825 Rev H Stewart listed as Vicar of St Marys Church Leixlip. 1825 Letter naming John Stewart 2 Dominick St Dublin as a Cominforcer. Leixlip area. 1845 Rev H Stewart on committee to reduce size of hill for turnpike road in Leixlip. 1829 Sgt James Stewart Master of the Mace & Billet Master for Naas Corporation 1833 Tithe Applotment Books recorded tithes to be paid on all crop production to the Established Church in Ireland by each household.. 1833 A Richard Stewart is listed but no address is given (Tithe Applotment Books). 1837 Samuel Lewis’s Topography lists Rev H Stewart as being in receipt of a copy along with 137 others. 1838 Rev H Stewart on voters list at the Glebe House Leixlip. 1845-1849 The Great Potato Famine 1846-1906 The Land League (Michael Davitt) anti-landlord movement 1850 John Stewart Hortland listed as tenant of 2 parcels of land from Sir William Hort. in Hortland. Born 1800 no location listed. Died 1880 1851-1928 George Francis Stewart PC was an Irish Land agent and public servant. Born in Gortleitragh Monkstown Co Dublin. Educated Marlborough College & Trinity College Dublin. Graduated in 1872. Became a land agent in Co Leitrim and Kildare (Sherlocks Estate and many more), and acquired extensive interests. 1870-1965 Land Act set up 1881 The Land Commission set up 1891 a Mrs Stewart is listed as living in the Bridge House Leixlip, no family connections stated. 1908 Richard John Stewart born 1883 from Hortland Co. Kildare arrived in Canada. His brother William arrived a couple of years later. 1882-1915 William Stewart emigrated to Canada and then went on to Australia. In Feb 1915, he was conscripted to the Australian Army, saw service in Egypt died of injuries at sea on route to Gallipoli Turkey Sept 19th after troop ship was torpedoed. 1923 The Land Commission became a purchaser of land.

THE PLANTATION OF ULSTER THE ULSTER PLANTATION

The majority of Scots who migrated to Northern Ireland came as part of this organized settlement scheme of 1605-1697. Plantation settlements were confined to the Province of Old Ulster, in the Counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Londonderry. As many as 200,000 Scots crossed the North Channel to settle in Ulster in this approximately 90 year period. County Monaghan, although part of Old Ulster was not a Plantation county but it did receive Scots settlers in the 17th century as witness the First Monaghan Presbyterian Church in Monaghan Town which celebrated its Tercentenary in 1997. The Plantation of Ulster took place in two stages. The first stage was confined to the two eastern counties of Antrim and Down. The initiative was taken by Scottish fortune seekers. Although the British Crown encouraged and co-operated with those responsible, it was fully a private venture. The second stage of settlement was far broader in scope, including six counties in Ulster. It was a project of the state, conceived, planned, and closely supervised by the British governments of England and Ireland. The plantations included settlers from England and Scotland, although Scots outnumbered those from England by a ratio of 20 to 1. The primary purpose of the plantation scheme was to populate the northern counties of Ireland with loyal British Protestant subjects, to counterbalance and dominate the Irish Roman Catholics. Scotland was only too willing to participate. It was seen as a way to eradicate Scotland of the hordes of lowland Scots who in poverty had turned to a life of marauding and horse thievery, which had become an occupation in itself in the Scottish countryside. Hence in the early years of the Plantation, the majority of the settlers were mainly Lowlanders. Indeed, receiving landlords in Ireland encouraged the arriving Scots to bring as many horses and cattle as possible to the new colony, obtained by whatever means. Scotland found this a small price to pay to eliminate the larger problem.

DENIZATION

Prior to 1707, Scotland was a distinct Kingdom from England, governed by its own laws, with its own manners and customs. To ensure that the arriving Scots could be kept under control from rising up in Ireland in support of their brothers in Scotland, they were required to take an oath of loyalty to the British Crown, as ‘denizens’ in Ireland. For Scots to become English subjects in Ireland, it was necessary to obtain letters patent of Denization, pay a fine and take the Oath of allegiance. As a denizen, the planter occupied an intermediate position between an alien and a native born subject. He had the privilege of purchasing land, but heirs born before the date of denization could not inherit the land on the denizen’s death. A denizen could use the law courts, but was not qualified to hold any office of trust, civil or military. ‘Naturalization’ was a second step in the process, which could only be applied for after seven years of denization. It placed the alien in the same position as if he had been born a British subject. All the obligations and rights of citizenship applied. Those who refused denization were essentially without rights to property or law.

SCOTTISH SETTLEMENT OF COUNTIES ANTRIM & DOWN

The MacDonald clan from Scotland, who in addition to being mercenary soldiers in Ireland, settled much of County Antrim in the 1400s and gradually increased their holdings by strong-arm tactics. King James VI of Scotland had cultivated the Antrim MacDonald Chief, Sir Randal MacDonald, in order to deprive the rebellious MacDonalds of the Scottish Highlands of an obvious source of support, and to keep Irish power in the north of Ireland as weak as possible. On becoming King of England in 1603, James gave the MacDonalds patent to their land in Antrim. MacDonald, although a Roman Catholic, immediately began settling his lands with Lowlanders from Scotland, the first arriving in 1607. By 1630 there were 800 Scottish males living on the MacDonald estates in Antrim. This would have meant a total Scottish population of about 3,000. In County Down, the two leaders of the Scottish settlement were Hugh Montgomery, a Scottish laird from Braidstone in Ayreshire, and James Hamilton, who had begun his career in Ireland as a school teacher in Dublin in 1587. The terms of the crown’s grant to these two Scots were specified in 1605, and included an obligation to inhabit the lands with Scots and Englishmen. The planning and settlement was left entirely in the hands of Montgomery and Hamilton. The first Scottish settlers arrived in 1605-1606. Their first task was to build cottages and booths out of sods and saplings, then the soil was tilled. By 1630, there were about 2,700 Scottish males on these two estates in County Down, of which about 80% were names commonly found in the south-western counties of Scotland. When females and children are added to the total, there would have been about 5,000 Scots settled in Down in 1630.

THE OTHER SIX PLANTER COUNTIES

In 1610, the Crown developed an elaborate, detailed and rigidly controlled scheme for the settlement of Counties Armagh, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Londonderry. Nine extensive areas in these six counties were assigned to Scots for plantation. These baronies or precincts were then divided into lots of 1000, 1500, and 2000 acres, not including bogs and mountains. Those who received these lots were termed ‘undertakers’. Over each barony was placed a Chief Undertaker, who was allowed to receive up to 3000 acres. Chief Undertakers were chosen by the King and included one Duke, one Earl, three Barons and four Knights. Fifty ordinary Undertakers were then chosen by the Chiefs. All Undertakers were expected to be on their land by September 30, 1610. On every 1000 acres received, there had to be 24 able bodied Scots or Englishment over families (to minimize old clan allegiances). Two of the families were to be freeholders; three were to be leaseholders, and the remainder could be cottagers. Undertakers had to be prepared to muster their tenants twice a year and to provide them with weapons. They were to be called on to fight any insurrections of the Irish. Undertakers were given three and one half years to erect fortifications, the type determined by the size of the lot granted. Men of 2000 acres, for example, were required to build a small castle of stone or brick, with a stone wall surrounding it. All Undertakers had to post bonds, as a guarantee that they would comply with the conditions. Failure to comply resulted in forfeiture of the land. Reporting requirements resulted in the production of countless muster rolls and maps, some of which have survived. Because of surviving muster rolls and maps, the names of most of the original planters can be determined. By 1622, there were between 3000 and 4000 Scottish adults on the land in these six counties.

THE THIRD WAVE

After 1630, Scottish migration to Ireland waned for a decade. Indeed, in the 1630s, many Scots went home after King Charles forced the Prayer Book of the Church of England on the Church of Ireland, thus denying the Scots their form of worship. In 1638, an oath was imposed on the Scots in Ulster, ‘The Black Oath’, binding them on no account to take up arms against the King. Insulted twice, many returned to Scotland. Even worse, in October 1641, the native Irish broke out in armed rebellion, slaughtering defenceless men, women and children. The survivors rushed to the seaports and many went back to Scotland. In the summer of 1642, Ten thousand Scottish soldiers, many Highlanders, arrived to quell the Irish rebellion. Thousands stayed on in Ireland, replacing those who had departed thus expanding the Ulster gene pool to encompass families from all over Scotland.

NAMES OF SETTLERS/PLANTERS

The following is a list of Scottish surnames, contained on Muster Rolls and Estate Maps of the eight Plantation Counties of Ulster for the period 1607 – 1633, which was the initial phase of the plantation scheme. Surnames which occurred more than once in a County are indicated as x2, x3, x4, etc.

COUNTY ANTRIM Adair, Agnew, Barr, Black, Blair x2, Boyd x4, Bozwell x2, Brown, Brisbane, Burns, Buthill, Colville, Cunningham, Dewar, Dickie, Dobbin, Dunbar, Dunlop x4, Edmonston x2, Ellis x2, Fenton, Fullerton, Futhie, Haldane, Hamill x2, Hamilton, Hutchins, Johnston, Kennedy x2, Kinnear, Kirkpatrick, Kyd, Laderdeill, Logan, Luke, Lutfoot, Maxwell, Melvin, Millar, Montgomery, Moneypenny, Moore, Macauley, Macawley, Mcgoogan, Mackay, McNaughton, McNeill, McPherdirish, McRobert, Niven, O’Greeve, Ritchie, Ross, Shaw x4, Stewart x13, Thompson, Todd, Trane, Tullis, Wallace

COUNTY ARMAGH Acheson x2, Allen x2, Archeson, Arkles, Bell x2, Brown, Calte, Carcott, Carothers, Cunningham, Davidson, Deans, Douglas, Dowling, Elliot, Ferguson x2, Flack, Gamble x2, Gilmore, Granton, Greer, Grier x2, Grindall x2, Hall, Hamilton x5, Hope, Johnston, Kirk, Leitch, Maxwell, x2, Moffatt, McKernan, Parker, Pringle, Rae, Richardson, Ritchie, Shirloe, Sturgeon x2, Syne, Trimble, Watson, Walshe, Walker, Wilkie, Wilson

COUNTY CAVAN Anderson, Aughmooty x2, Bailie x5, Barber, Barbour, Coch, Creighton, Cutherbertson, Cavyson, Deans, Finlay x2, Hamilton x3, Kennedy, Lother x2, Miller, Musgrave, McCullagh, Price, Rae, Steele, Stevenson, Taylor, Tate, Udney, Wylie

COUNTY DONEGAL Adair, Alexander, Allen x2, Arnett x2, Barkley, Barry, Bauld, Black, Blair, Boyd, Boyle x2, Brisbane, Brown, Bruce, Bryce, Buchanan, Burne, Calwell x2, Campbell x2, Carr x3, Cloggie, Colguhoun x2, Coohoone x2, Crawford, Cunningham x15, Dick, Donnell, Dougal, Dunne x3, Dunsayer, Ekyn, Ewart, Flemming, Forecheade, Fullerton, Fulton, Fyieff, Galt, Flabreth, Filmour, Glass, Glen, Gordon, Grynney, Hall, Hamilton x11, Harper, Henrison, Henry, Homes, Hood, Huggins, Hunter, Hutchins, Johnston, Julius, Kennedy, Kernes, Kilpatrick x2, Knox, Laycock, Leckie, Leitch, Leslie, Lindsay, Lockhard, Lodge, Machell, Machen, Martin, Maxwell, Montgomery, Moore, Moorhead, Murray, McAlison, McAuld, McCamuel, McClairne, McCullough, McErdy, McIlcheny, McIntyre, McKay, McKinney, McKym, McLintagh, McLoran, McMath, Nelson, Nesbitt, Orr, Patterson, Patoun, Patton, Peere (Perry), Pont, Purveyance, Rankin, Ritchie, Robin, Robson, Roger, Sawyer, Scott, Sempell, Semple x4, Simpson, Smelley, Smith x3, Smythe x2, Spence, Stephenson, Stevenson, Stevin, Stewart x4, Sutherland, Teyse (Tees), Thompson, Thomson, Valantyne, Vance, Watson, Wilson, Witherspoon, Wood x2, Young

COUNTY DOWN Abercrombie, Adair x3, Adams, Agnew x2, Aicken, Allen, Anderson x2, Andrews, Bailie x2, Barkley, Barkie x3, Bayly, Beatty, Blackwood, Blair x5, Boyd x3, Brackley, Brown, Carlile, Carmichael, Carr, Carson, Cathcart x2, Catherwood, Chambers, Chermsides, Cooper, Cowper, Craig, Crawford x3, Crear, Cummings, Cunningham x13, Danielston, Davidson, Dick, Dickson, Dodds, Douglas, Drennan, Drummond, Dufferin, Dunbar, Dunleath, Dunlop x3, Echlin x4, Edmonston, Forsith, Frazer, Galloway, Galt, Galway, Gelston, Gemmil, Glen, Greenshields, Hamilton x14, Hare, Haper x2, Harvey x2, Hilton, Hogg, Howie, Howson, Hunter, Innes, Julius, Keevet, Kelly, Kelson, Kennedy x7, Kerr, Kilpatrick, Kirkpatrick, Kyle, Kylr, Leckey, Leslie, Lindsay, Lloyd, Logan x2, Magee, Martin, Mathyson, Maxwell x5, Millar, Monett, Moneypenny x3, Montgomery x18, Moon, Moore x7, Mowlane, Murray x2, McBurney, McBride, McCappin, McCartney, McCashin x2, McClelland, McCleery, McComb, McCrae, McCreedy, McCullen, McCurry, McDonnell, McDougall x3, McDowell x2, McEwen, McGarry, McGee, McGifford, McIllevrath, McIlveyne, McKay, McKee, McLarnan, McLellan x4, McLean, McMakene, McMaster, McMillan, McMullen, McNabb, Nesbitt, Nevin, Nugent, Orr, Patrick, Patterson, Peacock, Peebles, Pollock x2, Read, Reid x2, Reynolds, Robb, Ross x5, Rudd x2, Rutherford, Scott, Semple, Seton, Shaw x3, Spier, Stanehouse, Stanhouse, Stevenson, Stewart x2, Tate, Thomson x2, Trail, Waddell, Walker, Wallace, Wanchop, Wardlaw, Watson, Welsh, Williamson, Wilson x4, Wylie, Wyms, Young

COUNTY FERMANAGH Crawford, Cathcart, Creighton x3, Cunningham x5, Chambers, Cranston, Dunbar x4, Deinbone, Erving, Elliot, Gibb, Gibson, Greer, Hall x3, Hamilton x5, Heigate, Irwin, Johnson, Lainge, Lindsay, Mitchell, Montgomery, Patterson, Smellham, Somervell, Stewart, Watson, Weir

COUNTY LONDONDERRY Anderson, Andrews, Bridger, Buchanan, Cahoon x2, Cawder, Colter, Coulter, Crawford, Crockett, Cunningham x2, Dyke, Edward, English, Forester, Fullerton, Grant, Handcock, Johnston, Keeland, Kennedy, Kyle, Lindsay, Logy, Lynne, Lyon x2, Magghee, Maxwell x2, Midell, Moncreig, Moore, Morton, Mure, McAlexander, McLelland, Mackclellane, Mackleland x3, McLornan, McNeile, Palmer, Patterson, Polk, Power, Redgate, Russell, Sempell, Thomas, Thompson, Thomson, Young

COUNTY TYRONE Abercorn, Acheson, Anderson, Andrews, Arnett x2, Barkley, Bean, Boyle, Burns, Carmichael, Carslow, Cathcart, Colville, Cooper, Craig, Creire (Greer), Crosby x2, Demstar, Donings, Crum, Drummond, Elpinstone, Ferry, Fingleton, Gamble, Gibbe Gibson, Granger, Grime, Gryme, Hamilton x15, Hatrick, Henderson x2, Hendrie, Hexburn, Highgate x2, Holmes, Karns, Kennedy x2, Kyle, Lawson, Lindsay x3, Love, Lynn x2, Mackerson, Maxwell x2, Means x2, Meens, Millar, Montgomery x8, Morne, Morrison, Morrow, Muntreeth, Murdogh, Murdruff, McAulay, McCreaghan x2, McCrery, McCullough, McGee, McGowan, McGraghan, McGunshenour, McIlmurry, McIntrye, McKaundy, McKean, McKittrick, Newburgh, Parke, Patterson, Pooke, Pringle, Reade, Richardson, Robinson, Saunderson, Sharpe, Simpson, Smythe, Spottiswood x4, Stephenson x5, Steward x3, Stewart x7, Symington, Wallace, Wilie, Wilson, Wood, Wooley, Wright, Young

Stories of Stewart

Ireland Under the Stuarts

King James I of Scotland

James 1st James I (1603-25) was the first of the Stuart line and from the son of Mary Stuart the Irish Catholics expected much. They were doomed however to an early disappointment. The cities which rejoiced that “Jezabel was dead” and that now they could practise their religion openly were warned by Mountjoy that James was a good Protestant and as such would have no toleration of popery. Salisbury who had poisoned the mind of the queen against the Catholics was equally successful with her successor with the result that persecution continued. Proclamations were issued ordering the clergy to quit the kingdom; those who remained were hunted down; O’Devany Bishop of Down and others were done to death. The Acts of Supremacy and uniformity were rigorously enforced. The Act of Oblivion under which participants in the late rebellion were pardoned was often forgotten or ignored. English law which for the first time was extended to all Ireland was used by corrupt officials to oppress rather than to protect the people. The Earl of Tyrone and the Early of Tyroconnell (Rory O’Donnell) was so spied upon and worried by false charges of disloyalty that they fled the country believing that their lives were in danger; and to all their pleas for justice the king’s response was to slander their characters and confiscate their lands. It is indeed true that Irish juries found the earls guilty of high treason and an Irish Parliament representing all Ireland attained them. But these results were obtained by carefully packing the juries and by the creation of small boroughs which sent creatures of the king to represent them in Parliament. And the Catholic members acquiesced under threat of having enacted a fresh batch of penal laws. Thus aided by corrupt juries and a complaisant Parliament James I was enabled to plant the confiscated lands of Ulster with English Protestants and Scotch Presbyterians. Other plantations had fared badly. That of King’s and Queen’s County in Mary’s reign had decayed; and the plantation of Munster after the Desmond war had been swept away in the tide of O’Neill’s victories. The plantation of Ulster was more thorough and effective than either of these. Whole districts were given to the settlers and these supported by a Protestant Government soon grew into a powerful and prosperous colony while the despoiled Catholics driven from the richer to the poorer lands looked helplessly on hating those colonists for whose sake they had been despoiled.

Charles 1st

Charles I (1625-49) Under the new king Charles I (1625-49) the policy of persecution and plantation was continued. Under pretense of advancing the public interest and increasing the king’s revenue a crowd of hungry adventurers spread themselves over the land inquiring into the title by which lands were held. With venal judges venal juries and sympathetic officials to aid them good titles were declared bad and lands seized and the adventurers were made sharers in the spoil. The O’Byrnes were thus deprived of their lands in Wicklow and similar confiscations and plantations took place in Wexford King’s County Leitrim Westmeath and Longford. Hoping to protect themselves against such robbery the Catholics offered the king a subsidy of £120000 in exchange for certain privileges called “graces” which among other things would give them indefeasible titles to their estates. These “graces” granted by the king were to have the sanction of Parliament to make them good. The money was paid but the “graces” were withheld and the viceroy Strafford proceeded to Connaught to confiscate and plant the whole province. The projected plantation was ultimately abandoned; but the sense of injustice remained. All over the country were insecurity anxiety unrest and disaffection; Irish and Anglo-Irish were equally menaced. Seeing the futility of appealing to a helpless Parliament a despotic viceroy or a perfidious king the nation took up arms. To describe the rebellion as the “massacre of 1641″ is unjust. The details of cruel murders committed and horrible tortures inflicted by the rebels are mischievously untrue. On the other hand it is true that the Protestants suffered grievous wrong and that many of them lost their lives exclusive of those who fell in war. The Catholics wanted the planters’ lands; when driven away in wintry weather without money or food or sufficient clothes many planters perished of hunger and cold. Others fell by the avenging hand of some infuriated Catholic whom they might have wronged in the days of their power. Many fell defending their property or the property and lives of their friends. The plan of the rebel leaders of whom Roger Moore was chief was to capture the garrison towns by a simultaneous attack. But they failed to capture Dublin Castle containing large stores of arms owing to the imprudence of Colonel MacMahon. He imparted the secret to a disreputable Irishman named O’Connolly who at once informed the Castle authorities with the result that the Castle defences were strengthened and MacMahon and others arrested and subsequently executed. In Ulster however the whole open country and many towns fell into the rebels’ hands and Munster and Connaught soon joined the rebellion as did the Catholics of the Pale unable to obtain any toleration of their religion or security of their property or even of their lives. Before the new year was far advanced the Catholic Bishops declared the rebellion just and the Catholics formed a confederation which from its meeting place was called the “Confederation of Kilkenny”. Composed of clergy and laity its members swore to be loyal to the king to strive for the free exercise of their religion and to defend the lives liberties and possessions of all who took the Confederate oath. Supreme executive authority was vested in a supreme council; there were provincial councils also all these bodies deriving their powers from an elective body called the “General Assembly”. The Supreme Council exercised all the powers of government administered justice raised taxes formed armies appointed generals. One of the best-known of these officers was General Preston who commanded in Leinster having come from abroad with a good supply of arms and ammunition and with 500 trained officers. A more remarkable man still was General Owen Roe O’Neill nephew of the great Earl of Tyrone who took command in Ulster and whose defence of Arras against the French caused him to be recognized as one of the first soldiers in Europe. He also like Preston brought officers arms and ammunition to Ireland. At a later state came Rinuccini the pope’s nuncio bringing with him a supply of money. Meanwhile civil war raged in England between king and Parliament; the Government at Dublin ill supplied from across the Channel was ill fitted to crush a powerful rebellion and in 1646 O’Neill won the great victory of Benburb. But the strength of which this victory was the outcome was counterbalanced by elements of weakness. The Catholics of Ulster and those of the Pale did not agree; neither did Generals O’Neill and Preston. The Supreme Council with a feeble old man Lord Mountgarret at its head and four provincial generals instead of a commander-in-chief was ill-suited for the vigorous prosecution of a war. Moreover the influence of the Marquis of Ormond was a fatal cause of discord. A personal friend of the king and charged by him with the command of his army and with the conduct of negotiations a Protestant with Catholic friends on the Supreme Council his desire ought to have been to bring Catholic and Royalist together. But his hatred of the Catholics was such that he would grant them no terms even when ordered to do so by His Majesty. The Catholics’ professions of loyalty he despised and his great diplomatic abilities were used to sow dissensions in their councils and to thwart their plans. Yet the Supreme Council dominated by an Ormondist faction continued fruitless negotiations with him agreed to a cessation when they themselves were strong and their opponents weak and agreed to a peace with him in spite of the victory of Benburb and in spite of the remonstrances of the nuncio and of General O’Neill. Nor did they cease these relations with him even after he had treacherously surrendered Dublin to the Parliament (1647) and left the country. On the contrary they still put faith in him entered into a fresh peace with him in 1648 and when he returned to Ireland as the Royalist viceroy they received him in state at Kilkenny. In disgust General O’Neill came to a temporary agreement with the Parliamentary general and Rinuccini despairing of Ireland returned to Rome.

Oliver

Oliver Cromwell The Civil War in England was then over. The Royalists had been vanquished the king executed the monarchy replaced by a commonwealth; and in August 1649 Oliver Cromwell came to Ireland with 10000 men. Ormond meanwhile had rallied his supporters and with the greater part of the Catholics of Leinster Munster and Connaught the Protestants of the Pale and of Munster and great part of the Ulster Presbyterians his strength was considerable. His obstinate bigotry would not allow him to make terms with the Ulster army and he thus lost the support of General O’Neill at a critical time. Early in August he had been disastrously beaten by the Puritan general Jones at Rathmines; in consequence he offered no opposition to Cromwell’s landing and made no attempt to relieve Drogheda. It was soon captured by Cromwell and its garrison put to the sword. A month later the same fate befell Wexford. Waterford repelled Cromwell’s attack and Clonmel and Kilkenny offered him a stout resistance; but other towns were easily captured or voluntarily surrendered; and when he left Ireland in May 1650 Munster and Leinster were in his hands. His successors Ireton and Ludlow within two years reduced the remaining provinces. Meanwhile Owen Roe O’Neill had died after making terms with Ormond but before meeting with Cromwell. The Catholic Bishops however repudiated Ormond who then left Ireland. Some negotiations subsequently between Lord Clanricarde and the Duke of Lorraine came to nothing and the long war was ended in which more than half the inhabitants of the country had lost their lives. In the beginning of the rebellion many Englishmen subscribed money to put it down stipulating in return for a share of the lands to be forfeited and thus hatred of the Catholics was mingled with hope of gain. The English Parliament accepted the money on the terms proposed and the subscribers became known as “adventurers” because they adventured their money on Irish land. When the rebellion was over the problem was to provide the lands promised and also to provide lands for the soldiers who were in arrears of pay. It was a difficult problem. There was an Act for Settling Ireland and Act for the Satisfaction of Adventurers in Lands and Arrears due to the soldiers and other public Debts; there was a High Court of Justice to determine who were guilty of rebellion; there were soldiers who had got special terms when laying down their arms; and there were those who had never had a share in the rebellion but had merely lived in the rebel quarters during the war. The best of the lands east of the Shannon were for the adventurers and soldiers the dispossessed being driven to Connaught. To determine where the planters were to be settled and where the transplanted and what amount they were to get there were commissions and committees and surveys and court of claims. Nor was it till 1658 that the Cromwellian Settlement was complete and even then many of the transplanted protested their innocence of any share in the rebellion and many of the adventurers and soldiers complained that they had been defrauded of their due. In the amount of suffering it entailed and wrong inflicted the whole scheme far exceeded the plantation of Ulster. But it failed to make Ireland either English or Protestant and in setting up a system of alien landlords and native tenants it proved the curse of Ireland and the fruitful parent of many ills. To the Irish Cromwell’s death in 1658 was welcome news all the more so because Charles II (1660-85) was restored. For their attachment to the cause of the latter they had suffered much; and now the Catholic landlord in his Connaught cabin and the Irish soldier abroad felt equally assured that the recovery of their lands and homes was at hand. They soon learned that Stuart gratitude meant little and that Stuart promises were written on sand. Had Charles been free to act the Cromwellian Settlement would not have endured; for he loved the Catholics much more than he loved the Puritans. But the planters were a dangerous body to provoke sustained as they were by the English Parliament and by the king’s chief adviser Ormond who indeed hated the Cromwellians but hated the Catholics much more. Some attempt however was made to right the wrong that had been done and by the Act of Settlement six hundred innocent Catholics were restored to their lands. Many more would have been restored had the court of claims been allowed to continue its sittings. The irate planters wanted to know what was to become of them if the despoiled papist thus back their lands; utterings threats and even breaking out into rebellion they alarmed the king. Under Ormond’s advice the Act of Explanation was then passed (1665) and the court of claims set up by the Act of Settlement closed its doors though three thousand cases remained untried. Thus the Cromwellians who had murdered the king’s father were with few exceptions left unmolested while the Catholics were abandoned to their fate. Before the rebellion two-thirds of the lands of the country were in the hands of the latter; after the Act of Explanation scarcely one-third was left them a sweeping confiscation especially in the case of men who were denied even the justice of a trial. After this the toleration of the Catholics was but a small concession. Not however during the whole of Charles’s reign; for Ormond now a duke filled the office of viceroy for many years; he at least would maintain Protestant ascendancy and exclude the Catholics from the bench and the corporations. In the English Council and in Parliament he bitterly attacked and defeated the proposed revision of the Act of Settlement. He does not appear to have had any sympathy with the lying tales of Oates and Bedloe or with the storm of persecution which followed and he disapproved of the judicial murder of Oliver Plunket. But his aversion from the Catholics continued and was in no way chilled by advancing age. One of the last acts of Charles was to dismiss him from office as an enemy to toleration. The king himself soon after died in the Catholic Faith and James II an avowed Catholic succeeded the first Catholic sovereign since the death of Mary Tudor.

The Scots Irish Lines and the Plantation of Ulster

Our Stewart line of Ireland holds but brief relevance to that Isle. It is limited to two generations being subjugated via marriage to the McCurdy line of Ireland.  Margaret Stewart married her McCurdy groom in 1667 and lived with her Scot born and Ireland immigrated McCurdy husband at the Cairn Ballintoy Antrim Ireland. Like the McCurdys Margaret Stewart’s pedigree involves ancient residence on the Isle of Bute Scotland. Eight generations above Margaret Stewart who immigrated to Ireland with her father is the first of several Stewart Sheriffs of Bute. That first Stewart Sheriff of the Isle of Bute was the illegitimate son of Robert II Stewart first of the Stewart kings through which Our Ancient Irish are gained. See Scotland and our Scots and Our Peers and Royal pages.

Charles 6th Marques of Drogheda

Charles the sixth Earl of Drogheda first Marquis of Drogheda and first Lord Moore of England who was born 20th June 1/30 and is Colonel of the eighteenth regiment of light dragoons which he raised; and a General in the army October 25th 1/93. He is also Governor of Meath and of King’s and Queen’s Counties and Constable of Maryburgh castle. He took his seat in parliament ] October 1759 x 12th Jan. same year was appointed Governor of the county of Meath and in December 17O9 Governor and Custos-Rotulorum of the Queen’s County; his Lordship is a member of his Majesty’s Privy-council in Ireland; and on the institution of the most illustrious order of St. Patrick had the honour of being nominated by the Sovereign to be one of the original knights companions of that order and with the other knights was installed in St. Patrick’s cathedral 17th March 1783. February 15th 1/00 he married Lady Anne Conway eldest daughter of Francis Earl of Hertford then L. L. of Ireland; she was born 1st August 1744 and died 4th November 1784. On June 27th 1701 his Lordship was raised to a Marquisate by the title of Marquis of Drogheda. His Lordship had issue by the above Lady Anne his wife His Lordship had issue by the above Lady Anne his wife First Charles Lord Moore born 23d August 1770. Second Lord Henry Captain in the Warwickshire militia. Third Lady Isabella born 22d November 1700 d.eased in June 1787. Fourth Lady Elizabeth-Emily born March 14th 1771 married February 2d 1797 George Frederick Earl of Westmeath. Fifth Lady Mary born August 17th 1772 married October 2d 1791 Alexander Stewart Esq. only brother of Robert Earl of Londonderry. From County Carlow

John Steuart of Carlow

John Steuart Captain of County Carlow The first member of this family who settled in the county was styled we understand the Honourable Colonel John Steuart.  The title of Honourable was then applied to all persons of civil or military rank.  He purchased land at Leighlin-bridge.  His son was William who married — — daughter of Sir Richard Butler Bart. by whom be had issue John died 1819 who married — — daughter of John Whelan Esq.  Issue 1 William Richard married — — daughter of — — Duckett Esq. 2 a daughter married Rev. William Hickey of Wexford. John Ryan’s “History and Antiquities of the County of Carlow” – page 375. Stewart John Stewart Esq. died October the 23rd 1819 aged 63 years.  Although the tie between them is in this life broken his widow sorrows not as one without hope trusting that their happy reunion will take place in blessed immortality this the Lord Jesus Christ.  Not to record his well-known worth but to gratify their own feelings this monument is erected to the memory of the d.eased by his attached widow and his affectionate son. John Ryan’s ”History & Antiquities of the County of Carlow” - Page 327/8. Viscount Frankfort Sir Charles Burton Co Carlow in the 1840’s by Desmond Norton Department of Economics University College Belfield Dublin 4 University College Belfield Dublin The author is Senior Lecturer in Economics at UCD. He thanks the Business Research Programme Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business UCD for financial assistance and John Lennon of Dublin for allowing him to photocopy and cite some Stewart and Kincaid correspondence in his possession. In the late 1980s and early 1990s the author acquired about 30000 letters pertaining to estates in various parts of Ireland managed in the 1840s by Messrs Stewart and Kincaid denoted SK in what follows a firm of land agents in Dublin. These have not been read since the 1840s. Addressed mainly to SK they were written by landlords tenants clergymen civil servants financiers shipping agents SK’s local agents etc. The author has been researching them in preparation of a study entitled Landlords Tenants Famine: Letters of an Irish Land Agent in the 1840s. William Steuart General William Steuart 1643 – 4 June 1726 was a Scottish soldier and Commander-in-Chief of Queen Anne’s Forces in Ireland. He was a benefactor of Hanover Square London donating the land and laying the first stone of St George’s Hanover Square. Steuart donated the land on which St George’s Hanover Square was built and laid the first stone in 1721. William Steuart also sometimes spelt Stewart was the second son of Colonel William Stewart d.1691 adjutant to the Marquess of Montrose at the Battle of Philiphaugh by his wife Barbara the granddaughter of Captain James Stewart Earl of Arran and Chancellor of Scotland. His paternal grandfather William Stewart of Burray Orkney and Mains Wigtownshire was the elder brother of the 1st Earl of Galloway. Steuart was a nephew of Lt.-Col. Sir Archibald Stewart d.1689 the first Baronet of Burray and his father’s sister Jean married Sir James Sinclair of Murchil making Steuart a first cousin of John Sinclair d.1705 8th Earl of Caithness. His father had been granted lands in Ireland by Charles II of England in lieu of arrears of pay due to him as a Cavalier officer during the English Civil War and it was there that William Steuart grew up. He joined the army and became a Captain with the 1st Foot Guards before his promotion by William III of Orange to Lieutenant-Colonel of the 16th Foot. He was subsequently promoted to Colonel of the 9th Regiment. Before 1681 he was promoted to Brigadier-General and served with distinction during the Irish Campaign 1689-1691. At the first Siege of Limerick 1690 he was badly wounded in the right hand permanently disabling him but he went on to assist in the relief of Derry and was wounded again at Limerick and Athlone. He was promoted to Major-General in 1696. On Christmas Eve 1700 he fought a duel with Colonel Bellew. Within two yards of his opponent Steuart with his left hand shot Bellew through the hat. In return Bellew threw away his pistol saying that he did not desire to kill Steuart. By 1703 he was promoted to Lieutenant-General. In 1711 in the absence of the Duke of Ormonde Queen Anne appointed him Commander-in-Chief of her forces in Ireland. The same year he was made a full General and Privy Councillor. George I later removed him from his colonelcy of the 9th Foot suspecting him of ‘favouring the Chevalier’. He lived at Hanover Square London and was a Member of Parliament for Waterford. He owned considerable amounts of land in Ireland. General Steuart died 4 June 1726 and is buried with his first wife in the vault of the Duke of Buckingham at Westminster Abbey. In his will he left £5000 to endow a school for the poor boys of his parish St. George’s in London. He also donated the land on which St George’s; Hanover Square was built laying the first stone in 1721. Family He was married twice. His first wife The Rt. Hon. and Lady Katherine FitzGerald Viscounts Grandison was the widow of Brigadier-General Hon. Edward Villiers d.1693 the eldest son of George Villiers 4th Viscount Grandison. She was the daughter and heiress of Sir John Fitzgerald of Dromana House Villierstown Co. Waterford by his wife Katherine second daughter of John Power 1599–1661 5th Baron La Poer and her guardians included Charles II of England. She died in December 1725. One month later Steuart married Eliza daughter of Sir Rowland Alston 1654–1697 2nd Bart. of Odell Castle Bedfordshire by his wife Temperance daughter and heiress of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew. Neither wife bore him children. After various charitable donations the bulk of the remainder of his will was divided between his brother and sister and the children of his elder brother Captain James Steuart d.1689 to whom he had acted as guardian. His nephews were: Colonel John Steuart d.1762 of Dublin who inherited the General’s land at Leighlinbridge Co. Carlow where his son William built Steuart/Stewart’s Lodge in 1752; Major Charles Stewart who had a ‘very considerable fortune of his own’ bought Bailieborough Castle in 1724; and James Steuart Admiral of the Fleet who was the executor of the General’s will. Their fourth and eldest brother Brigadier-General the Hon. William Steuart d.1736 of Ballylane Co. Waterford whose monument stands in Bath Abbey was cut off with only a shilling. This was most likely due to his marrying the General’s stepdaughter Hon. Mary FitzGerald-Villiers compromising some of the General’s properties. [Citation needed]

Co Donegal

Stories about Famous Stewarts from Donegal

Stewart Family Appendix by Wendy Reid The Hamilton descent is from the 1st Duke of Hamilton.

1899-19745

John Hamilton The Hamilton seat of Brownhall in Co. Donegal was founded by John Hamilton a grandson of the 1st Duke. He came from the Scottish family whose seat at the time was Broomhill Lanarkshire. Land in north western Ireland was granted to him and he took possession of lands at Murvagh – just out of Donegal town and near to the coast. This Hamilton family married with several Stewart families namely the Killymoon Stewarts. Isabella Stewart daughter of Col. William Stewart b.1710 of Killymoon married John Hamilton and their eldest son James married Helen Pakenham. The John Hamilton of the book is the eldest child of the Hamilton/Pakenham marriage. I had a look at the line of Eleanor King – wife of William Stewart – of Rockingham. Her father Sir Henry King was one of those not very well liked by the Irish. They lived in the town of Boyle Roscommon and last year I paid a visit to the house still there. It was destroyed by fire some time ago but has been completely restored and is now a museum to the history of the family and the Earls of Kingston. I would like to get back there again and tour the place properly as back then I was 8 months and 2 weeks pregnant and found the two hour tour quite a haul !. Very informative though – I just remember constantly looking for somewhere to sit down :. At the moment one of my missions is to trace back further on the line of the Killymoon Stewarts one thing I know is that they are connected to the Athenree Stewarts. In 1999 there was an exhibition at the Ulster Museum featuring William Stewart’s son James and his “Grand Tour” of Europe.

Alexander Stewart of Ards 1746 – 1791 Stewart of Ards Ena Dingwall Tasca Lady Stewart Bam. of Ards Co. Donegal eldest daughter of the late Alexander George John Stewart and his wife Julia Blanche daughter of Charles Dingwall; s. her grandfather 1904; m. 26 July 1910 Sir Pieter Canzius van Blommestein Stewart- Bam of Sea Point Cape Town Capt. ret. Cape Garrison Art. J.P. son of the late Johannes Andrew Bam who assumed with his wife by Royal Licence the prefix surname and the additional arms of Stewart on his marriage. Lineage. Stewart 6. 26 March 1746 2nd son of Alexander Stewart of Mount Stewart Co. Down M.P. and younger brother of Robert 1set Marquess of Londonderry

The Landed Gentry. Purchased the estate of Ards from the Wray family and settled there 1782 High Sheriff 1791. He married. 2 Oct. 1791 Lady Mary Moore 2nd daughter of Charles 1st Marquess of Drogheda by Lady Anne Seymour his wife daughter of Francis 1st Marquess of Hertford and By her who d. 22 Feb. 1842 had with other children who d. young 1. Alexander Robert his heir. 2. Charles Moore Rev. b. 5 March 1799! m – 1830 Alice and daughter of the Right Hon. John Ormsby Vandeleur of Kilrush House Co. Clare and d.s.p. Feb. 1831. His widow m. 2ndly Col. John Vandeleur loth Hussars. 3. John Vandeleur of Rock Hill Co. Donegal J.P. and D.L. High Sheriff 1838 b. 4 Oct. 1802 ; nt. 18 Dec. 1837 Lady Helen Graham-Toler 3rd daughter of Hector John 2nd Earl of Norbury and d. 24 June 1872 having by her who d. 22 April 1883 had issue i. Alexander Charles Hector of Rock Hill Letterkenny Co. Donegal and 23 Lennox Gardens S.W. J.P. and D.L. Co. Donegal High Sheriff 1881 Major Gen. retired late Col. commanding 2nd Life Guards b. 15 Nov. 1838 ; m. 25 April 1872 Gertrude Mary eldest daughter of Eric Carrington Smith of Ashfold Sussex and has issue a daughter. Kathleen ft. 8 Jan. 1875; m. 8 June 1904 Philip Arthur Macgregor D.S.O. Capt. Coldstream Guards. 2. Hector Brabazon Rear-Admiral retired R.N. 13 Warwick Square S.W. b. 13 Dec. 1841. 3. Robert Seymour b. 28 May 1846 Major retired Donegal Militia Artillery m. 27 Jan. 1885 Frances Lucia only daughter Of CoI. O’Hanlon. 4. Charles John Barrister-at-Law Public Trustee 32 Eccleston Square S.W. ft. 1851; m. n Oct. 1884 Lady Mary Catherine Eldest daughter of Hector John 3rd. Earl of Norbury and has issue 1 Gerald Charles Royal Hussars b. 29 March 1888. 2 John Maurice  6. 27 April 1895. 1 Helen Margaret  6. 4 April 1886. 2 Eirene Mary ft. 29 Sept. 1890. 3 Marjorie Alice ft. 6 Aug. 1893. I. Elizabeth Georgiana. 1. Maria Frances m. 10 June 1811 Robert Montgomery of Convoy House who d. 1846; she died. 1857. 2. Gertrude Elizabeth Dec. Mr. Stewart d. Aug. 1831 and was s. by his eldest son Alexander Robert Stewart of Ards and Laurencetown House J.P. and D.L. High Sheriff Co. Donegal 1830 ft. 12 Feb. 1795 J m. 28 July 1825 Lady Caroline Anne Pratt 3rd daughter of John Jeffries 1st Marquess Camden and by her who d. 7 Oct. 1827 left at his d.ease 25 March 1850 one son Alexander John Robert Stewart of Ards. Co. Donegal and Laurencetown House Co. Down J.P. for Conties Donegal Down and Middlesex and D.L. for Donegal and Down High Sheriff Co. Donegal 1853 and Co. Down 1861 6. 5 July 1827; m. 17 May 1851 Lady Isabella Rebecca Graham-Toler 22 St. Aubyn’s Hove Sussex 7th Hector John 2nd Earl of Norbury and d. 30 July 1904 leaving issue 1. Alexander George John Barrister-at-Law 6. 13 Feb. 1852; mt 10 April 1883 Julia Blanche daughter of Charles Dingwall of Knollys Croft Co. Surrey and d. 5 Dec. 1897 leaving issue two daughters. 1. Ena Dingwall Tasce now of Ards. 2. Muriel Neara. 2. Charles Hector b. 23 May 18*3; m. 21 Oct. 1910 Minnie daughter of William Barwell. 3. George Lawrence ft. 6 Sept. 186; m. 2 May 1911 Emma May daughter of Bradford Hardinge H.M. Bengal C.S. see Burke’s Peerage Hardinge Bart.. 4. Henry Moore ft. 29 March 1863. 5. Cecil George Graham 6. 14 June 1868. 1. Caroline Helen Mary m. 5 July 1883 Capt. Frederick Thomas Penton late 4th Dragoon Guards formerly M.P. for Central Finsbury 1886-91 and has issue 1. Henry Alexander. 2. Cyril Frederick m. 20 July 1909 Gladys Lane 4 thh daughter.of the Rev. Canon Thynne and has issue John ft. 25 April 1910. 1. Kathleen Winifred. 2. Dorothy Grace. 2. Beatrice Charlotte Elizabeth. 3. Ida Augusta Isabella. Arms Quarterly: 1st and 4th per pale sa and or barry of four counter changed on a chief erm. a thistle slipped and leaved between two dice ppr. BAM; 2nd and 3rd or a bend counter- compony arg. and az. between two lions rampant gu a crescent for difference Stewart of Ards; confirmed to the descendants of the late Alexander John Robert Stewart and for distinction a canton of the fourth. Crests 1 A thistle leaved and slipped ppr between two ostrich feathers or BAM. 2. A dragon statant or charged with a crescent for difference and for distinction charged on the wing with a cross-crosslet gu Motto Metuenda corolla draconis. Seats: Ards, Letterkenny Co. Donegal, Laurencetown House Gilford Co. Down. Residence 5 Old Court Mansions Kensington W

. Stewart of Horn Head Charles Frederick Stewart of Horn Head Co. Donegal B.A. J.P. High Sheriff 1871 b. 10 March 1845 5. his father 1868 ; m ist 12 Aug. 1869 Elizabeth Frances 2nd Daughter. of Rev. Thomas Lindesay.Rector of Upper Cumber co Derry and by her who d. 4 March1881 has had issue Aug. 1869 Elizabeth Frances 2nd daughter of Rev. Thomas Lindesay Rector of Upper Cumber Co Derry and by her who d. 4 March1881 has had issue 1. Charles Frederick Runcleven Dunfanaghy late Capt. 1st Batt. Royal Enniskilling Fus 6. 12 July 1870; m. 1st 20 Sept. 1899 Alice Mary Lydia daughter of the late Capt. John Keys Humfrey of Cavan. She died 3 Jan. 1907 leaving issue i. Elizabeth Frances. 2. Alice Humfrey. He m. 2ndly 5 Oct. 1910 Hildegarde Ellen Elizabeth daughter of Frederick Lindesay of Waverley Road Liverpool and has further issue 1. Charles Frederick ft. 6 Aug. 1911. 2. William ft. 2 Aug. 1871; d. 22 Jan. 1895. 3. Thomas Francis Rev. Vicar of St. Paul’s Worcester 6. 9 Oct. 1872. 4. Walter Edward 6. 14 June 1876; d. i Oct. 1883. 1. Ann Elizabeth Frances m. 21 June 1900 Henry Eliot Howard and has issue see Howard of Stone. 2. Nicola Mary d. April 1891. 3. Eleanor Louisa. 4. Elizabeth Frances d. April 1891. He m. 2ndly 6 May 1884 Georgina Sophia youngest daughter of Blackwood Hamilton v of Highnam Bray by whom he has issue B. Bertram Robert 6. 14 Jan. 1886. 6. Richard Arthur ft. 17 Sept. 1888. 5. Georgina Sophia. Lineage. Capt.. Charles Stewart an Officer in the Army of King William III. and one of those who fought at the battle of the Boyne had a lease of Doone in King’s Co. but migrating north- ward in 1700 he purchased from Capt. John Forward and Capt. William Sampson the Donegal estates of Horn Head &c. and was High Sheriff 1707. He left issue 1. Frederick of whom presently. 2. Charles. 3. Gustavus of Ray Co. Donegal High Sheriff 1750. 1. Eleanor m. Benson of Lumsford. The eldest son Frederick Stewart of Horn Head High Sheriff 1742 m. 1730 Mary eldest daughter of George Knox of Prehen Co. Derry and had issue. Mr. Stewart made his will 17 April 1768 which was proved 14 May 1770. His eldest son Charles Stewart of Horn Head Capt. of Dragoons High Sheriff 1768 m. 1st 1762 Elizabeth daughter of his uncle Gustavus Stewart but by her had no issue. He m. 2ndly 10 Oct. 1772 Nichola Anne daughter of Charlton and by her had issue. Mr. Stewart m. thirdly Elizabeth Knox; he made his will 4 Oct. 1799 and it was proved 12 Jan. 1809. His eldest son William Stewart of Horn Head Capt. Donegal Militia High Sheriff 1805 m. 1799 Elizabeth daughter of Richard Maxwell of Birdstown and by her who d. 13 July 1860 had issue 1. Charles Frederick his heir. 2. Richard Capt. H.E.I.C.S. Dec. 3. William M.D. of Killendarragh Lifford Co. Donegal 6. 180; m. 1833 Angel Isabella daughter of Sir James Galbraith Bart. Jan. 1851 leaving issue 1. William Richard ft. 23 June 1834; d. Dec. 1857. 2. James Frederick 6. 3 Aug. 1839; d. Dec. 1882. 3. Alexander Montgomery of Killendarragh Lifford and Drumbeg Inver Co. Donegal ft. 23 April 1842 ; d. 2 Dec. 1909 ; m. 10 Feb. 1897 Jemima Sarah daughter of William Sinclair of Holy Hill Co. Tyrone. 1. Dorothea. Elizabeth m. 1863 James Hamilton of Brown Hall Co. Donegal and has issue see that family. 2. Angel Isabella. 4. Peter Benson Comm. R.N. m. Augusta daughter of Capt. Foote R.N. d 5. Alexander d. Rector of Tullaghyhobigly m. Sarah daughter of Rev. Thomas Gibbings and had issue. 1. Anne a. unm. 2. Nichola Anne Mary d. unm. 3. Elizabeth d. m. Leonard Cornwall who is d.. 4. Emily d. 5. Frances d. 6. Charlotte Augusta d. unm. 1. Georgina d. Capt Stewart d. 9 March 1840 and was s. by his eldest son Rev.. Charles Frederick Stewart of Horn Head J.P. m. 9 March 1831 Anne only daughter of Col. Robert Stirling H.E.I.C.S. by his wife the daughter of Sir William Toone K.C.B. H.E.I.C.S. and had 1. William Capt. 3rd Buffs d. Sept. 1864. 2. Robert d. under age. 3. Charles Frederick now of Horn Head. 1. Elizabeth Mary d. 1906. 2. Mary d. m. Michael Becher of Corriganear Co. Cork. 3. Emily Anne m. Rev. J. Brodie M.A. 4. Charlotte d. 4 June 1905. 5. Ann Louisa d. 1900. Rev. Mr. Stewart d. Oct. 1868. Arms Quarterly: ist and 4th az. three fleurs-de-lys within a. bordure engrailed or; and and 3rd or a fesse chequy az. and arg. within a bordure gu. charged with eight buckles of the first over all in the chief centre point a mullet counterchanged. Crest Out of a ducal coroaet or a bull’s head sa. vomiting flames ppr. and charged with a mullet or. Motto Avant Darnly.

Seat Horn Head Dunfanaghy Co. Donegal. Arms Quarterly : ist and 4th az. three fleurs-de-lys within a. bordure engrailed or ; and and 3rd or a fesse chequy az. and arg. within a bordure gu. charged with eight buckles of the first over all in the chief centre point a mullet counterchanged. Crest Out of a ducal coroaet or a bull’s head sa. vomiting flames ppr.. and charged with a mullet or. Motto Avant Darnly. Seat Horn Head Dunfanaghy Co. Donegal. Stewart of St. Helen’s James Augustus Stewart of Belle Vue Buncrana Co. Donegal J.P. &. 7 March 1835; m. 12 June 1884 Ann Wilhelmina Jean daughter of William Wray of Oak Park Co. Donegal and has issue 1. James Augustas b. 17 Aug. 1894. 1. Wilhelmina Augusta. 2. Mary Adeline Cecil. 3. Edith Frances. 4. Augusta Anna Blanche. 5. Hester Leonora Sophia. 6. Flora Euphemia. Mr. Stewart is younger brother of Sir Augustus Abraham James Stewart 9th bart. who d. unm 4 26 Aug.: 1889 and 3rd son of Capt William Augustus Stewart 58th Regt. who d 23 Aug. 1876 and Anna his wife who d. 6 June 1864 daughter of William Molloy of Blackfort Co. Tipperary and grandson of Rev. Abraham Augustus Stewart D.D. Rector of Dunabate and Chaplain to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lineage Arms & c. See Burke’s Peerage Stewart Bart. Club Sackville Street Dublin. Stewart. See Burke’s Londonderry M. Stewart. See Burke’s Perrage Stewart Bart. To view a history of Stuart c 300 Stewart c 1200 Germany c300 Scotland c1200 Ireland c1550 in Donegal go to  http://www.knoxthedonegalroutes.net/The%20Stuart%20HYPERLINK “http://www.knoxthedonegalroutes.net/The%20Stuart%20%26%20Stewart%20Record%20Est.1600.pdf”&HYPERLINK “http://www.knoxthedonegalroutes.net/The%20Stuart%20%26%20Stewart%20Record%20Est.1600.pdf”%20Stewart%20Record%20Est.1600.pdf

Lord Castlereagh

Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh History Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh and 2nd Marquis of Londonderry politician was buried in the centre of the north transept of Westminster Abbey to the south of the grave of William Pitt and his son. “Robert Marquis of Londonderry. Viscount Castlereagh born 18th June 1769. Died 12 August 1822″ History will record the success and splendour of his public career during a period of unexampled difficulty in the annals of Europe in which he successfully filled the highest offices under the Crown and Ireland will never forget the statesman of the legislative union. This tribute to the best of brothers and friends is placed in Westminster Abbey by Charles William Vane Third Marquis of Londonderry”.

Life and career

He was born in Dublin on 18 June 1769 the only surviving son of Robert Stewart of Mount Stewart in Co.Down and his first wife Lady Sarah Seymour Conway. He followed his father into politics. On 9 June 1794 he married Lady Amelia Hobart but they had no children. His debut in the Westminster Parliament was in 1795. When his father was created Earl of Londonderry in 1796 Robert had the courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh. His father was later created Marquis of Londonderry. He became a lord of the Irish Treasury and privy counsellor and retained his county seat in Dublin. He was secretary for War 1807-9 Foreign Secretary 1812-22 and he concluded the first Peace of Paris in 1814. At the First Congress of Vienna he was Senior British Plenipotentiary and concluded the triple peace alliance with France and Austria in 1815. In 1821 he succeeded as 2nd Marquis of Londonderry. The strain of office caused him to take his own life by cutting his throat with a penknife at his country residence at North Cray in Kent. His Mount Stewart estate was left to his half-brother Sir Charles who succeeded to his title. Lady Amelia was buried at the north east angle of the cloisters of the Abbey on 20 February 1829 but her grave is not marked.

Stewart of Summerhill Dublin George Francis Stewart of Summerhill Co. Dublin J.P and D.I. Co. Leitrim High Sheriff 1892 b. i Nov. 1851: m. 28 June 1 88 1 Georgiana Lavinia daughter of Rear- Admiral Richard Robert Quin son of Lord George Quin see Burke’s  Peerage Headford M. and has issue Clements George late and Lieut. Royal Inniskilling Fus. b. 9 Aug. 1882 ; m. 4 Jan. 1912 Ellen daughter of late Thomas Eades Walker M.P. of Lynden House Lynden Gardens London. Robert Henry Rynn educated at Wellington Coll. and Magdalen Coll. Oxford b. 18 Sept. 1883. Mary Selina b. 22 March 1887; d. July 1908. Ethel Georgiana b. 10 Sept. 1890. Lineage. James Robert Stewart of Gortleitragh Co. Dublin and Mount Blakeney Co. Limerick J.P. and D.L. Co. Dublin M.A. son of Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen Co. Donegal see Stewart of Ballymenagh b. 1805; m. 27 Oct. 1835 Martha Eleanor daughter of Richard Benson Warren Sergeant-at-Law see Burke’s  Peerage Warren Bart.. She d. 5 May 1865. He d. 10 Dec. 1889 having had issue Henry Rev. D.D. of Mount Blakeney Co. Limerick Rector of Banbridge Co. Down b. 1836; m. 1861 Martha Angelina only daughter of Rev. Edward Michael Hamilton see Hamilton of Brown Hall and niece of Baron Clermont and Baron Carlingford. He d. 1896 having had issue Edward Hamilton Rev. M.A. of Dromisken Co. Louth Trin. Coll. Camb. Vicar of Kemsing Kent b. 13 June 1862; m. 9 Jan. 1896 Constance eldest daughter of the late John Henry Gilchrist-Clark of Speddoch Dumfriesshire see that family and has issue i Henry Robert b. Oct. 1903. 1 Emily Hilda b. Oct. 1897. 2 Margaret Louisa b. Feb. 1899; d. March 1906. 3 Eileen Constance b. April 1900. Martha Louisa. 2. Emily Gertrude. Richard Warren Col. late R.E. b. 6 Nov. 1837; d. 12 Sept. 1910. His wife Mary d. 12 March 1904.

The Landed Gentry 8. James Robert d. 1891. 4. Edward Pakenham late Capt. 78th Regt. 5. Augustus Philip d. 1864. 6. William Thomas. 7. Robert Warren Rev. m. Louisa daughter of Dr. Josiah Smyly of Dublin see SMYLY of Camus. Both were massacred in China 1895. 8. George Francis of Summerhill. 9. Arthur Blakeney Fitzgerald d. 1879. 1. Elizabeth Martha d. unm. 2. Emily Lucy. 8. Mary Florence m. 27 April 1889 Robert William Norman see NORMAN of Glengollen. Arms or a fesse chequy arg. and az. between three lions rampant gu. Crest A griffin’s head couped ppr. Motto Forward. Seat Summerhill Killiney Co. Dublin.

Co Cavan

Election troubles Co. Cavan was representative of the smaller counties that had a few major interests; in 1785 these were considered to be Lord Farnham

Major Farnham

Lord Bellomont the Bishop of Kilmore Mr Stewart and Mr Montgomery son-in-law to the late Nathaniel Clements 0414; there were a number of minor interests who if they joined together could upset the plans of the major interests particularly if these were in conflict with each other. Early in the century the Butlers Lords Newtown-Butler and Earls of Lanesborough had a considerable influence but as early as 30 September 1727 Lord Newtown-Butler 1728 Viscount Lanesborough wrote to Charles Delafaye 0611 Secretary to the Lord Justices that his interest had lately been violently opposed in Co. Cavan. Although he managed to get his son returned he was now faced with considerable opposition from the Cootes and the Maxwells particularly the latter who appear to have been determined with mixed success to dominate the county. In 1727 Charles Coote and John Maxwell were returned. Lord Lanesborough died on 6 March 1735/6 and his son was created Earl of Lanesborough in 1756. Charles Coote died on 19 October 1750 and Lord Lanesborough’s son and heir Brinsley Butler was returned. John Maxwell was elevated to the peerage as Lord Farnham in 1756. At the ensuing by-election his son Barry Maxwell 1372 later 1st Earl of Farnham was returned. This election was disputed by William Stewart and the poll lasted over a fortnight before on 19 June 1756 John Ponsonby could write to his brother-in-law the Duke of Devonshire that ‘Maxwell has won by twenty-one apparently unquestionable votes but on 1 July Ponsonby revised the figure to five!’ Coote succeeded as 5th Baron Coloony in 1766 and 18 months later Earl of Bellomont. He was a difficult and often disagreeable man while ‘In this county the pride of the Maxwells the quality by which that family is most distinguished has often been laid low from the time Lord Bellomont then Mr Coote defeated the hopes of the present Earl of Farnham.’ This election obviously rankled for many years if not for the lifetime of the participants and it allowed various other interests in particular Montgomery Stewart and Saunderson to succeed at subsequent elections. Stewart was returned on the elevation of Coote to the peerage and took his seat in April 1766.84 Another unsettling factors was that Lord Bellomont’s legitimate heir did not live to maturity. At the 1768 election Barry Maxwell and George Montgomery were returned. The votes were: Hon. Barry Maxwell 926 George Montgomery 739 Mervyn The 1776 general election was quiet but in 1779 Barry Maxwell succeeded his brother as 3rd Baron Farnham and by 1785 had also achieved the viscountcy and earldom that his brother had enjoyed. In 1780 his son was elected in his place according to one parliamentary commentator ‘by a concurrence of accidents … but at the subsequent general election Mr George Montgomery and Mr Stewart were chosen to represent the county and though the young lord petitioned against both the petition against the former gentleman was speedily withdrawn as being unsupported by the slightest foundation and Mr Stewart was fixed in his seat with a majority of near 150 voices.’88 The 1783 election in the aftermath of the American war was one of the most turbulent of the century and ‘Mr Montgomery and Mr Stewart were elected on popular grounds.’ Montgomery died in 1787 and in the ensuing by-election there was another contest between the Maxwells and popular lesser gentry. Lord Farnham endeavoured to return his nephew John Maxwell the son of his brother the Bishop of Meath only to be defeated by Francis Saunderson on petition. Following this defeat ‘when every nerve was strained to the utmost’ it was thought that they would be cautious in the 1790 general election ‘for the business would be very expensive particularly to them and with all their contemptuous haughtiness they have a most tender regard to pecuniary considerations.’ In 1790 the sitting members Charles Stewart and Francis Saunderson were returned but Stewart died in February 1793 and Lord Farnham secured the return of his son and heir Lord Maxwell. Lord Maxwell was again returned in 1797 which was a quiet election in view of the increasing unrest in the country. Maxwell voted against the Union but in October 1800 Lord Farnham died aged 77. Although the Irish parliament had met for the last time on 2 August a by-election was necessary to determine the second MP for the county in the parliament of the United Kingdom. Nathaniel Sneyd previously MP for the now disfranchised Carrick was returned and duly took his seat for Co. Cavan at Westminster.89 Sneyd was a prominent wine-merchant and known for his claret throughout Ireland. His connection with the county was through his first wife Alicia the daughter of the popular MP George Montgomery 1438 and Sneyd sat in the popular interest. Co. Cavan had two boroughs: Belturbet and Cavan. Both became ‘close’ early in the century and both had distinctive characteristics. Belturbet was twice sold by the same family – the Butlers Earls of Lanesborough – while Cavan was the subject of a written agreement between two families which held until they shared the compensation for it at the Union. Cavan in the Ulster Plantation Extracted from “An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster at the Commencement of the Seventeenth Century 1608-1620″ Rev. George Hill M’Caw Stevenson & Orr Belfast 1877 including Nicholas Pynnar’s Survey of 1618-1619 Precinct now Barony of Tullyhunco Aka Tullyhconche or Tullochonco granted to Scottish Undertakers. Esme Stuart Lord Aubigney Aubignie Aubigny son of Esme Stewart first Duke of Lennox [pp. 308408451452] “During the years that the Bailies lived in Bailieborough Castle

Bailieborough Castle co Cavan

Bailieborough Castle A small hamlet or village grew up in Lower Drumbannon near where the Castle River emerges from the Castle Lake. The houses were likely built of timber or mud wall and roofed with thatch. Later in the century the Hamiltons demolished the village and had it rebuilt in Upper Drumbannon overlooking the Town Lake. It is likely that this was the village that Sir Charles Coote wrote of in his survey in 1801. ”In 1720 James Hamilton was granted a charter for the holding of fairs and markets on stated dates “in Newtown alias Bailieborough” but he seems to have had a change of mind for in 1724 he sold his castle and estate at Bailieborough and went to live on his estate at Hamilton’s Bawn in Co. Armagh. ”The new owner of the Bailieborough estate was Major Charles Stewart of whom we know very little. His son William Stewart was High Sheriff of Co. Cavan and later M.P. for the county. On his death his son another Charles Steward a Dublin lawyer succeeded him. He in turn became M.P. for Cavan. He had the reputation of being a good landlord. He was killed in a street accident in Dublin in 1795 and his estate passed into the hands of his nephew Thomas Charles Stewart Corry of Rockcorry Co. Monaghan. Mr. Corry was a minor when he inherited the Bailieborough estate. He never took much interest in the estate. In 1814 he sold out to Colonel William Young of Loughgall Co. Armagh.” Samuel Alexander Stewart 1826-1910 Stewart was the grandson of emigrants from Ballymena who settled in Philadelphia. In 1837 the family returned to live in Belfast. Stewart a dedicated botanist and geologist was a founder member of the Belfast Naturalist’s Field Club and curator of the Belfast Natural History Society Museum. He was the author of two important botanical papers published by the Royal Irish Academy relating to the flora of Cavan:

Co Cork

Clerical and parochial Records for Cork & Cloyne and Ross. Taken from Ft OM diocesan AM Parish Registries MSS in the Principle Libraries and Public Offices of Oxford Dublin and London and from private family papers. D.l. Printe by the Alexander Thom 87 88 abbey Street Dublin 1861. Gibbings Thomas. II. 394; I. 217 357. He had also a son killed in the Indian mutiny and a daughter Sarah wife of Rev. Alexander Stewart of the Co. Donegal. Stewart Charles Moore. II 1G7 Stewart I Jenry JI. Timoleague Stewart Henry. IL 557. William a.b. Deacon at Cork Stewart Henry 13 April 1823 Wilson. IL 552 557 495 Stewart Hugh. II. Stewart James. IL son of Henry Stewart esq. The second son of Rev. Jo n Rev. Stewart was Henry Commander R.X. who married F-an Ameha daughter of Rev. Thomas Kenny P. Donoghmore Cloy The third son of Rev. John Stewart was John * Stewart Thomas Orpen A.B. Deacon at Cork* 23 Dec 1798- Priest at Cloyne 24 1800 ‘ ‘ Stewart of Well- field CO Cork was Sequestrator of the parish of Crevh** Ko.s Colonel Stewart Lieutenant-Governor of Edinburgh Castle attainted in 1715 for implication in the plot to deliver that fortress to the Pretender in consequence of which he settled with his family at the Haijue. The Colonel’s son “William Stewart married a Dutch lady and with his wife left the Hague with Lord Chesterfield in 17l’8 and settled in the County Meath. They had two children —a daughter married to the Kev. Richard Drury D.D.; and a son Ileiiry who married Miss Jane Walsh of Ardagh House CO. Louth and had six sons and six daughters. The sons were—1. Rev. William of Wellfield who married firstly Eliza daughter of Rev. Thomas Townsend of Clugheen and had issue—Eliza wife of Capt. Robert? of Kilmoney and mother of Michael and William Roberts both Fellows of T.C.D. and also mother of Henry-Pepper Pepper John and Hodder Roberts as well as of two daughters—Eliza wife of Francis Hodder and Lydia wife of Ralph Westrop of Ravenswood Carrigaline. Rev. W. Stewart married secondly Jane relict of Thomas Hungerford esq. of Cahermore and daughter of Jonas Travers of Butlers town: by this marriage he had three sons Henry R. Rathbarry Ross q.v.; Robert M.D. dead; and William dead; and also four daughters—Katherine wife of Henry son of Sir Robert Warren; Martha wife of Bradshaw Popham esq. of Scortnamore; Alice wife of William son of Walter Atkin of Atkinville es j.; and another who died unmarried. 2. Anthony died unm. ; 3. George who married but had no issue; -4. Henry Wilson R. Templeomalus Ross q.v.; 5. John R. Templetrine Cork q.v.; 0. Ralph who died young. Stewart. William. Eldest son of Rev. John Stewart. I. 348. Born in Co. Cork. Entered T.C.D. on 4 July 1831 being then 18 years old. Deacon at St. Anne’s Dublin by the Bp. of Meath for Killrin curacy Cloyne on 18 April 1842; Priest at Cork on 5 May 1844 for the same curacy of Kilbrin and Liscarroll to which he was licensed on “lO Nov. 18oG. ‘Forced from this world’: massacre on the Mary Russell Published in 18th–19th – Century History

Mary Stubbs Ship

Sailing ship similar to the Mary Stubbs of c 1828 Features General Issue 5 Sep/Oct 2009 Volume 17 On 24 June 1828 as the schooner Mary Stubbs and the brig Mary Russell approached Cork Harbour a man suddenly jumped overboard from the Mary Stubbs and swam towards nearby ships one of which rescued him. A slight red-haired individual the swimmer said that he was Captain William Stewart in fear for his life. Distrusting his rescuers he jumped back into the sea from which a boat heading to West Cork retrieved him. When the Mary Stubbs and Mary Russell berthed at midnight at the Cove of Cork Raynes the harbour-master learned that his brother James was one of seven lying dead on board the Mary Russell. Inquest: Next day an inquest was held according to the practice of the time in the presence of the dead. Coroner Henry Hardy presided with Dr Thomas Sharpe. A ‘gentleman reporter’ from The Constitution or Cork Advertiser all indented quotations below described what he saw in the Mary Russell’s cabin: ‘There were seven human beings with their sculls [sic] so battered that scarcely a vestige of them was left for recognition with a frightful mess of coagulated blood—all strewed about the cabin and nearly a hundredweight of cords binding down their bodies to strong iron bolts which had been driven into the floor for that murderous purpose. Some of the bodies were bound round about six places and with several coils of rope round their necks and all were in a state of d.omposition so that it required a constitution of no ordinary strength to bear up against the spectacle and the effluvia that arose from a confined cabin.’ The skull injuries had been inflicted with a crowbar sufficient to cause almost instantaneous death. The coroner and jury were required to find how Captain James Gould Raynes Francis Sullivan John Keating James Murley Timothy Connell John Cramer and William Swanson met their deaths. Robert Callendar from New Brunswick captain of the Mary Stubbs an American ship plying between Belfast and Barbados testified that on 23 June he saw the Mary Russell 300 miles from the Cove of Cork flying distress signals. Hailed repeatedly Captain Stewart eventually appeared. He said he had put down mutiny aboard his vessel killing seven in the process and asked Callendar ‘for God’s sake come to my assistance’. When Callendar came Stewart handed him a loaded pistol gave a confused account of attempted mutiny then showed the cabin and its contents saying: ‘Am I not a valiant little fellow to kill so many men?’ Hearing Callendar’s voice first mate William Smith and crewmember John Howes both seriously wounded emerged from the hold and begged his help. Callendar took them to his own vessel leaving Captain Stewart three of the Mary Stubbs’ crew to sail his ship to port. The following day when Callendar revisited the Mary Russell Stewart believing the loaned crew to be enemies jumped overboard and was rescued twice before Callender had him removed to the Mary Stubbs. There recognising Smith and Howes he jumped overboard yet again as described in the opening line. Tragic story: Smith and Howes cabin boy Daniel Scully and eleven-year-old passenger Thomas Hammond testified to the inquest. Their combined accounts made a tragic story. Captain William Stewart an Englishman described as a ‘kind good master’ captained the brig Mary Russell which in early 1828 took a cargo of mules to the West Indies. She left Barbados to return to Cork on 9 May with hides and sugar carrying a crew of six. At first all went well but after a week at sea it was obvious that the captain was not himself. He looked ill and could not sleep then told several people that God had warned him in a dream that his crew would kill him and seize the ship. First mate Smith argued with him—unsuccessfully—about the unreliability of dream messages. Captain Stewart gradually became suspicious of everyone especially James Raynes whom he disliked. Raynes socialised with the crew speaking with them in Irish a language Stewart did not understand. He thought that Raynes was conspiring against him. Raynes and the others emphatically denied this but were disbelieved and threatened with injury if they spoke Irish again. The captain threw instruments and charts overboard saying that Raynes had driven him to do this. He destroyed the log so that no written records could be kept. Finally Captain Stewart boarded a passing ship to buy meat and returned with a pair of pistols. Stewart’s suspicions intensified. By 21 June he thought that Smith was plotting to kill him and ignoring the mate’s denials insisted on tying Smith’s hands behind his back. The others protested but Smith gave way to humour Stewart. Smith bound hand and foot was placed in the lazarette a shallow cellar under the main cabin floor. Captain Stewart who at intervals recovered his former humanity ordered the ship’s carpenter to make an air hole. Through this Smith overheard what followed. Each man summoned separately: ‘Representation of the interior of the cabin of the Mary Russell with the bodies [numbered] as they lay on arriving in Cork on Thursday morning the 26th June and four days after the tragical occurrence.’ The Constitution or Cork Advertiser ‘Representation of the interior of the cabin of the Mary Russell with the bodies [numbered] as they lay on arriving in Cork on Thursday morning the 26th June and four days after the tragical occurrence.’ The Constitution or Cork Advertiser Starting with Timothy Connell each man was summoned separately by John Deaves before Captain Stewart accused of conspiracy to mutiny and tied up as Smith had been under threat of being shot if they resisted. Only Howes the strongest and most experienced sailor challenged the captain. He resisted the latter’s assaults defending himself with a wooden case from Stewart’s inept attempts to shoot him finally grappling with the captain and bringing him to his knees. Stewart ordered Rickards to help him and the boy wounded Howes on the head with an axe. Blinded by blood from scalp wounds Howes released Stewart and sought refuge in the hold where Stewart fired at him and wounded him but did not pursue him. According to the boy Scully: ‘When Howes got away the captain applauded Rickards for what he did and said he would get 100 guineas from Lloyds and that he the captain would get some thousands of pounds. What the boys did was from terror as they were afraid of being murdered. Deaves began to cry and begged of the captain not to kill Howes on which the captain scolded them and said: “Why should they spare him—was it to be murdered?”’ Stewart made Scully sign a statement that the crew planned to mutiny. The captives remained on d.k overnight complaining about cold and discomfort but gradually realised that Stewart had no intention of releasing them. With the boys’ help he dragged his prisoners down into the cabin placed some on mattresses and Raynes in a berth and eased their bonds. Next he offered his crew the ship’s longboat. They accepted but Stewart would not release the men to launch it. Stewart d.ided that bonds alone were insufficient. Fixing metal bolts into the cabin floor he devised for each man a rope noose attached to the nearest bolt. Any free movement of the head would result in self-strangulation. His crew immobilised Stewart intended to sail the ship home with the help of the boys and as he possessed another set of instruments and charts this was feasible. Unknown ship twice approached: ‘The Liberator addressing the electors of Clare.’ The Mary Russell massacre pushed the Clare election of 1828 off the front pages of Cork’s newspapers. O’Connell was engaged for the prosecution but did not attend for the one day the trial lasted. Maclure & Macdonald Lithographers Glasgow ‘The Liberator addressing the electors of Clare.’ The Mary Russell massacre pushed the Clare election of 1828 off the front pages of Cork’s newspapers. O’Connell was engaged for the prosecution but did not attend for the one day the trial lasted. Maclure & Macdonald Lithographers Glasgow By now the Mary Russell was flying a reversed ensign at half-mast the recognised international distress signal. Next day 22 June an unknown ship twice approached the Mary Russell as though to intercept her then suddenly sheered off and disappeared. According to Scully Captain Stewart fell into deep despair crying: ‘“The curse of God is on you all there’s the ship come to us twice and went away” and he took the crowbar that lay on the floor and struck the second mate Swanson right on the point of the skull and knocked him senseless at once! They all cried out most piteously “The Lord have mercy on their souls” and they all gave Scully their blessing but Swanson who was senseless and Captain Raynes who was saying his prayers he then killed . . . while killing them he called out: “You ruffians you ruffians you were going to take my life but I’ll take yours . . .”. He then desired the witness to bring the beef and some grog having cut some slices off he drank and smoked his pipe over the dead bodies. He then had Deaves called down and he the captain raised his hand and said: “Look boys at my hand how steady it is—I think no more of killing them than if they were dogs”.’ Then Captain Stewart tried to harpoon Smith through the air hole with a harpoon injuring his left eye shoulder ear and face. The harpoon struck a bundle of hides which felt like a human body and Stewart convinced that he had succeeded in killing Smith gave up. Smith managed to untie his bonds and crawl from the lazarette into the hold. Captain Stewart did not physically harm the boys but alternately threatened to shoot them or reassured them that the ship’s owners would reward them generously. Terrified and exhausted they slept for several hours. When they awoke next morning 23 June a stopped watch hanging in Captain Stewart’s cabin had begun to go again which he took as a sign that God wanted him to take back the weapons recently issued to the boys. Once the weapons were back in his possession Stewart began to tie the boys up. ‘Little Tommy Hammond called out to the captain not to kill the boys or he would die.’ Captain Stewart knelt down handed his knife and pistol to Hammond and swore on the Bible that he would not kill the boys—if he did Hammond could shoot him. Yet he continued tying them up. Suddenly Captain Callendar’s voice was heard outside. While Stewart spoke with him Hammond untied the others and they transferred to the Mary Stubbs. The inquest was adjourned to the Bridewell Cork for next day. Stewart arrested and put on trial: Next morning police in Skibbereen notified the coroner that they had William Stewart in custody and that he had confessed to killing seven men. They added: ‘The above unfortunate man is well known here and was always considered extremely humane; he is very respectably connected being nephew to Dr Stewart DLL of Clonakilty’. The coroner’s jury delivered its verdict: ‘That the several sailors and passengers were killed by the hands of Captain William Stewart being then and for some days before in a state of mental derangement’. The trial of William Stewart for the murder of James Gould Raynes took place at Cork assizes on 11 August 1828 before Judge Baron Pennefather. The defence entered a plea of ‘Not guilty’ on the grounds that the prisoner was insane and incapable of knowing right from wrong. The prosecution engaged by relatives of James Raynes dwelt on the need to attach responsibility for a terrible crime. Both sides examined the witnesses and no attempt was made to prove mutiny on the part of the crew. Daniel O’Connell was engaged for the prosecution but did not attend for the one day the trial lasted. Evidence emerged of previous strange behaviour on the part of Stewart. Dr Edward Townsend local inspector of the county gaol said Stewart suffered from monomania defined as a condition in which ‘a man may be mad on one particular subject and quite rational and sane on all others. This is the case until the cord on which insanity turns is touched.’ The judge was impressed by Dr Thomas Carey Osborne of the Cork Asylum who said that if the evidence was true he had no doubt that the prisoner was insane. The jury gave its verdict as directed by the judge: ‘“Not guilty having committed the act while labouring under mental derangement.” Immediately on the verdict being read Captain Stewart threw himself on his knees raising his hands to heaven as if in prayer and continued in this posture for about half a minute.’ William Stewart was committed to the Asylum for Criminal Lunatics Dundrum now the Central Mental Hospital but Dr Osborne arranged transfer to the Cork Asylumon the site of the present South Infirmary. Stewart liked Osborne and made him a unique present—a full-rigged model ship constructed to scale from bones. He had first to make tools to carve it as he was not allowed knives. After Dr Osborne died Stewart had another psychotic episode and killed a hospital attendant. He was sent back to Dundrum where he died in 1873. Apart from a subscription list set up to help widows and children his helpless victims and their families attracted little attention. Patrick Connell made sure that his brother’s death at least would be recorded on a gravestone in Cill Muire cemetery at Passage West: The Tyrcallen Papers:

Lord Palmerston 1855

Lord Palmerstown 1855 Viscount Palmerston The Palmerston estate His most important clients were the 2nd and 3rd Viscounts Palmerston who owned Irish estates mainly in Cos. Dublin and Sligo. Henry Stewart was not appointed to this prestigious agency until 1784 so the majority of the papers were actually inherited by him from his predessor John Hatch. They include: case papers 1757-1792 about the debt due to the 1st Viscount Palmerston grandfather of the 2nd by Robert Roberts of Dublin who had been the 2nd Viscount’s deputy as Chief Remembrance of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland an office held by the 1st Viscount from 1727 until his death in 1757 closely followed by that of Roberts. When the 1st Viscount’s executors came to settle accounts with his successor as Chief Remembrance it was found that there were outstanding balances to the amount of well over £20000. A long legal battle then followed and in the end – in 1785 – all Roberts’s estates were conveyed to the 2nd Viscount Palmerston. The title deeds to these estates go back to 1693 and the estates consisted of property in Hanbury Lane Earl of Meath’s Liberty and Ballsbridge Co. Dublin and in Drumcondra Dublin City and at Garrynew Co. Wexford. Included among the title deeds are a copy Prerogative probate 1756 of the will 1755 of Joseph Maddock Captain in Colonel Stewart’s Regiment of Foot together with a grant of administration 1758 to the will 1757 of Robert Roberts himself. Other Palmerston estate papers include: a rental with observations of the ancestral Palmerston estate in the county and city of Dublin the residue of Palmerston itself Chapelozid Oxmantown Green and Hill and various houses c.1805; a rental and account with observations for the entire county and city of Dublin property 1821; accounts 1813-1815 between James Walker the local receiver of the Co. Sligo rents and Stewart & Swan Henry Stewart and his partner Graves Chamney Swan for receipts and disbursements on the 3rd Viscount’s account; and letters and papers 1820 1826 and 1841-1845 all relating to the Sligo estate of the 3rd Viscount. Other clients’ papers: Papers relating to the estates of other clients include: rentals and accounts 1822-1851 between Stewart & Swan and their successors on the one hand and successive Earls of Longford and Viscounts de Vesci on the other relating to the Longford/de Vesci joint estate in Dunleary Co. Dublin and in Cos. Cork Ballyhindon Glandore and Monkstown and Limerick; set of detailed accounts 1797-1800 between the ‘Hon. Colonel King [Robert King later 1st Viscount Lorton] as sole executor to his father Robert Earl of Kingston and residuary legatee … with Henry Stewart Esq. from 24 November 1797 to 30 June 1800′; title deeds leases and other papers 1688-1812 about the Co. Limerick property Ballymorelly Ballyroan etc of Sergeant Richard Benson Warren of Dublin; receipts rentals accounts surveys correspondence and a notice 1818 about tree-planting 1800-1824 all relating to the Fartagh estate of James Butler Stopford in the barony of Galmoy Co. Kilkenny with a rental of #1356 per annum in 1823; title deeds leases rentals accounts surveys and correspondence 1764-1882 about the estates of Mrs Gertrude FitzGerald nee Lyon at Watercastle Queen’s County and Mount Blakeney barony of Coshma Co. Limerick including a copy of the will 1802 of her father Thomas Lyon of Watercastle; leases deeds rent ledgers receipts accounts correspondence etc 1765-1850 all relating to the estates of the Nugent family of Castlerickard Co. Meath in Cos. Meath and Westmeath; and papers and voluminous correspondence 1814 1827 and 1844-1846 about the estate and financial affairs of the 2nd and 3rd Earls of Howth and the development of the Howth Castle estate Co. Dublin particularly in the mid-1840s.

Business records of Stewart and Swan Papers relating to the running of Stewart & Swan’s land agency business include: voluminous usually biannual and also with some duplication balance sheets of the firm 1804 and 1807-1824 recording the identity of the clients and the huge sums which passed through the books of the firm presumably the then equivalent of turnover and which could amount to £90000 or even £175000 during the half-year; a printed advertisement for the ‘New Brighton’ development on the Longford/de Vesci estate between Seapoint and Dunleary Co. Dublin c.1820; and copy testimonials to Stewart’s efficiency as a land agent from satisfied clients including the 3rd Viscount Palmerston 1834. Papers about the private affairs of Henry Stewart and G.C. Swan   Papers relating to the private estate and financial affairs of Henry Stewart include: accounts 1786-1801 between Henry Stewart and George Whitelocke Wokingham Berkshire all relating to their joint purchase of the Tyrcallen estate Stranorlar Co. Donegal from the Rev. Oliver McCausland in 1789 and the subsequent receipts from and disbursements on that property; subsequent Tyrcallen estate papers 1808 1819 and 1836-1850 including correspondence about the sale of the estate in the second half of the 1840s; receipts receipted accounts vouchers etc 1823 and 1828-1840 to Henry Stewart and other members of his family for all sorts of things among them work on Tyrcallen House 1828 a carriage 1829 work and other expenses relating to Stewart’s business office at 6 Leinster Street Dublin at various times his funeral expenses 1840 etc.; and an original bundle of ‘Vouchers of the Hon. Mrs [Elizabeth] Stewart’s accounts from 1 February 1843 to 31 January 1848 …’. Papers about the private estate and financial affairs of Henry Stewart’s partner Graves Chamney Swan include: deeds bonds judgements accounts and correspondence 1739 and 1774-1844 about Swan’s estates in Drogheda at Kildavin and Ballypierce Co. Carlow and at Bolecreen and Balinclea Co. Wexford and those of the Graves Chamney and Graham families in Drogheda Cos. Louth and Meath Cos. Carlow Wexford and Wicklow and Dublin City and County 1668-1799 including ‘A rent roll of the real and personal estates of John Graham of Plattin …’ Co. Meath 1763.

3. The Killymoon papers As might be expected James Stewart’s papers are at their best in documenting Co. Tyrone elections and politics during the period 1768- 1812 his role in the local Volunteer movement from the late 1770s to the bitter end in 1793 his position as spokesman for the Presbyterians particularly letters to him from the Rev. William Campbell of Armagh and the Rev. William Crawford of Strabane Co. Tyrone urging him to oppose a bill of 1785 to prevent clandestine marriages which the Presbyterians felt was particularly aimed at marriages celebrated by their ministers etc etc. Mrs Stewart’s letters and papers 1798-1831 which include a copy of her will 1821 principally consist of a run of 337 letters to her spread over this whole period from Rebecca Leslie wife of Colonel later General David Leslie the third son of the 6th Earl of Leven. The Leslies had come to Ireland in 1796 with the Tay Fencibles a Scottish regiment of which David Leslie was colonel and which had been stationed at Cookstown where the Leslies met and befriended the Stewarts. The letters begin towards the end of 1797 and become frequent and regular when the Leslies moved with the Tay Fencibles to Carrickfergus in 1798. They mostly contain news of family and social events but the ’98 and ’99 letters make many references to the rebellion and its aftermath. A letter of 27 January 1807 for example comments amusingly on the Marquess and Marchioness of Donegall ‘… who have come to Scotland to retrench and to starve as her Ladyship says upon £17000 per annum “which is all their cruel creditors will allow them” … are so dashing they quite astonish our sober Scottishies but our gentlemen have found out that the poor Marquess is very weak and does not understand literary conversation which is what they feed themselves upon; so they hold him rather cheap and look a little glum at the gold bragg parties which Ly D. has introduced….’ During the next thirty years the Leslies served or lived in various places in Ireland and Scotland and the correspondence between Mrs Leslie and Mrs Stewart continues throughout these years. The Stewart papers peter out uninspiringly with Stewart’s descendants huddling in Boulogne to escape their creditors. The Stewart finances always parlous finally collapsed in the 1840s so that there was nothing left for Stewart’s daughter Louisa who had married Henry John Clements of Ashfield in 1811 to inherit when her brother Colonel William Stewart died childless in 1850. Some 150 letter to Colonel Stewart’s Dublin agents Messrs Stewart & Kincaid 1841-1848 documenting the financial difficulties of these last years will be found at D/2966/92/B. James and Susan Stewart. James Stewart was born in Ireland in 1810. Susan Stewart was born in Donegal  Ireland in 1812. Susan Stewartstates in the 1880 US census that she was born in Donegal Ireland Ireland so I assume that she was born the town of Donegal. James and Susan Stewart gave birth to three children in Ireland. Their three sons were born in Ireland were George Stewart who was born 1838; William Stewart who was born in 1842 and finally David Stewart who was born in 1845. Probably the three sons were baptized in the Donegal Town Church of Ireland. Probably James and Susan Stewart were married in this church. The Stewart family was of Anglican faith. James Steward was a stone cutter. In 1845 James Stewart left Belfast Ireland on the ship Mertome and James Stewart arrived in New York on June 4 1845. I guess the Stewart family left at a later date for New York City. The James and Susan Stewart family living in New York City in the 1860 US Census. James and Susan Stewart had four other children all born in New York City. In the Stewart family William Stewart married  Emily Lilliss. Emily Lilliss’s father was William Lilliss who was born in 1800 in Ireland and he was of Anglican faith. If the Stewart’s are found in the Donegal Town Church of Ireland the William Lilliss family might also be in the marriage or baptism records of this church. William Lilliss was married to Hannah Grant. Hannah Grant was probably born in Scotland in 1808. William and Hannah Lilliss had four children born in Ireland as follows: Harriet Lilliss who was born 1825 John Lillliss who was born 1832 Fanny Lilliss who was born 1834 and William Lilliss who was born 1840. In 1840 the Lilliss family moved to Montreal Canada and they had seven more children in Montreal Canada. In 1850 the Lilliss were in BurlingtonVermont and in 1860 the Lilliss’s moved to New York. Alexander Stewart b. abt. 1630/1640 [father of Charles] “While the details of his lineage are obscure there’s no question but what Capt. Charles Stewart [Horn Head] descended from the Stewarts of Darnley probably through the Stewarts of Raiss in Renfrewshire Scotland. The arms and motto used Capt. Stewart bear this out. The basic arms are those of Sir John Stewart of Derneley created Lord of Aubigny in France. He was killed in 1429 at the Seige of Orleans while serving as Constable of the Scottish troops fighting for the Dauphin later Charles VII of France. Research undertaken in 2000 by P.L. Dickinson Richmond Herald in the files of the College of Arms London failed to reveal anything of the ancestry of Captain Charles Stewart of Horn Head. David Stewart of Raiss went to Ireland and married his kinswoman Elizabeth Stewart daughter of Sir Robert Stewart of Barscube also of Dernley ancestry and had issue an eldest son and heir Ludovic Stewart -1624 who returned to Scotland and had a lease of the lands of Derneley Richmond and Lennox. This Stewart head of the Derneley Stewerts was a grandnephew of Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke of Lennox who some years before had received some extensive grants of land in the Barony of Kilmacrenan Co. Donegal. At the time of the Civil Survey in Ireland c.1654-56 a David Stewart held the lands of Kilconnell in the parish of Kilmacrenan while Alexander Stewart held those of Downdowanmore [Dundooan More] in the parish of Mervagh [Mevagh] Co. Donegal. It is more than probable that both David and Alexander were two of the younger sons of David Stewart of Raiss and that they eventually settled in Ireland under the auspices of their the Duke of Richmond and Lennox since both Mervagh and Clonderhorkey were in the Barony of Kilmacrenan. About the year 1659 we find a record of a David Stewart of Raiss in Mervagh Rossgull parish while Alexander Stewart Esq. of Ballymore Co. Donegal was at the time the only person of standing to be mentioned by name in the entire parish of Clonderhorkey in which Horn Head is situated. Other Stewarts or Stuarts were afterwards to settle in Clonderhorkey who were not descended from this Alexander Stewart but it seems highly likely that the Horn Head Stewarts were and that he was the father of Capt. Charles Stewart of Horn Head.” Capt. Charles Stewart of Horn Head ” … a man of ancient Scottish blood being of the Darnley Stewarts and having their motto ” Avant Darnley” engraved  on the old silver seal which hung on his watch chain. He had been an officer in King William’s array had obtained from him a grant of lands in the King’s county but migrating northward in 1700 he purchased from Mr. Sampson Wray’s father – in – law the promontory of Horn Head &c. and there built a substantial and good house which from that time to this has ever preserved its name for generous and refined “Charles transferred in 1689 to the Enniskilling Regiment commanded by Col. Gustavus Hamilton created Viscount Boyne 1717 and fought for William III at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 where he is stated to have lost a leg.” “As a reward for his military service Charles received a lease of Doone Demesne in Offaly.There is some question as to whether or not he actually occupied Doone before settling in Horn Head.””In 1700 he located in County Donegal where a significant number of his Stewart and Hamilton kinsmen were settled. and purchased Horn Head House and the surrounding lands from Captains John Forward and William Sampson.”In 1707 Charles was High Sheriff of Donegal. In 1732 Charles had a quarrel with William Wray of Ards:-” …With this gentleman Wray had an extraordinary quarrel in 1732 which as illustrating the tone of the times and the peculiar idiosyncrasy of the Master of Ards’ character I will sketch for the public. At the time the feud took place William Wray was a young man-Stewart was bordering on seventy and his strength broken with gout and illness. Three years before at Horn Head “they had sworn a friendship” probably post prandial in its nature and over a bottle of claret and nothing interrupted the harmony of their intercourse until one day Wray walking on some of the silver strands which lined his verdant park discovered a girl gathering oysterswhom he recognised as one of Stewart’s tenants. This monstrous outrage on the sovereignty of his sway and the sanctity of his premises Wray highly resented and told the offender that he considered it a crime for any one to gather there but himself or his servants. This of course was reported to the stern old Williamite who next day dispatched his pinnace with twelve men with pistols and armed to the teeth commanded by Stewart’s son and “ready” so Wray writes “by your direction to use me I know not how.” This public affront awakened Wray’s loftiest indignation and on the 9th of November he challenges Stewart tells him he “must have speedy satisfaction: that he was concerned to do so with a man of his years but that his Wray’s honour was at stake. Be master of your own weapons fix the time and place; you must come alone as I will as the sooner this affair is ended the sooner will revenge cease. William WRAY.” Stewart’s answer was immediate-having the same date -it is so spirited and so like the neigh of an old war-horse that had probably heard the guns across the Boyne Water that I will transcribe it all. ” Nov. 9th 1732.-Sir you say that you have received a deal of ill usage from me; I am quite a stranger to that but not so to the base usage you have given me and all the satisfaction you intend me is banter by your sham challenge. If you be as much in earnest as your letter says assure yourself that if I had but one day to live I would meet you on the top of Muckish rather than lose by you what I have carried all my life. ” Yours Charles Stewart.” If we consider that the writer was near seventy years of age and a martyr to gout and that Muckish mountain is 2000 feet high and so steep as to be almost inaccessible we shall see what stuff these Boyne and Derry men were made of and what soldiers of steel King William led to victory. Happily this duel never came off some mutual friends “Dick Babington” and ” Andrew Knox” interfered Wray explained and Stewart apologized for calling his challenge a sham and a banter and testifies to the truth and honour of Wray ; and thus the matter ended as it should do in a renewal of good feeling. All this took place when Wray was a young man and probably unmarried. … Alexander Stewart  Born  Aft 1701 Carnamogagh Fort Stewart County Donegal. Will of Colonel Stewart dated May 14 1713. Died 1743 County Donegal Colonel William Stewart had a son named Alexander as evidenced by his will that follows. “Among other things to his wife Mary he left 100 lbs. per annum as jointure and certain ornaments. All real estate went to William Viscount Mountjoy in trust for the testator’s son Ezekiel and his heirs in tail male.  Failing him it went to second son Robert then to third son Richard then fourth son Alexander then to daughter Mary and for want of issue male to her  then to Lord Mountjoy. To son Robert 700 lbs. to son Richard 500 lbs. to son Alexander 500 lbs. He appointed as executors his wife Lord Mountjoy Dr. Andrew Hamilton Archdeacon of Raphoe and his sister Frances Stewart of Ballilane in the County of Donegal. The will was dated May 4 1713. It was amended on July 2 1713 with respect to his sister Frances Stewart acting as executor.” Colonel William Stewart died in 1713 following the amendment to his will. At that date son Alexander would have been about 12 years of age assuming  he was born at least after 1701. It raises the question Who had custody of son Alexander and where did he reside following the death of his father. Alexander is mentioned in his brother Ezekiel’s will dated June 11 1734 as a beneficiary in the event in the event Ezekiel’s male issue or older brother  Robert pred.eased him. Ezekiel died October 1734 and his estate went to son Annesley Stewart. Alexander is reported to have died in 1743 but there is no record of this. There is no record of Alexander’s will or that of the son Alexander. I believe it is reasonable to assume that Alexander remained in the general area of Fort Stewart on reaching adulthood and remained there until his death. Fort Stewart is on approximately 138 acres on the shore of Lough Swilly in the Parish of Aughnish in the the Barony of Kilmacrenan in County Donegal in the Province of Ulster in Ireland.  Green Hill Carnamogagh is approximately 600 acres in the Parish of Conwal in the Barony of Kilmacrenan. It is about three miles west of Fort Stewart and not far from Letterkenny which is situated on the River Swilly. Newton Cunningham or Conyngham is approximately 248 acres in the Parish of All Saints in the Barony of Raphoe North. It is near Lough Swilly but on the opposite bank to Fort Stewart approximately 20 miles by road. It is 6 and 1/2 miles west of Londonderry. The question remains is he the Alexander Stewart that married Rebecca Galbraith daughter of James Galbraith 1666-1744. My primary source is a chart on ‘The Stewart Genealogy’ photocopied by my cousin Heber Rankin from “A Family of Millers and Stewarts” by Dr. Robert F. Miller St. Louis Missouri August 1909. It was included in material sent to my mother in the late 1960′s and shows Alexander Stewart of Fort Stewart and Carnemauga son of Colonel William Stewart married to Rebecca Galbraith and having a son named William Stewart born 1738 who immigrated to Colonial America in 1758 actually 1745 with his mother and other siblings. In the commentary on son Alexander that appears on page 19 in Miller’s work he states among other things “For the Stewart or Stuart family we had access to many genealogies of record the old Bible of Lieut. Wm. Stewart of which a photograph is presented later and this page copied from the Bible of Lieut. Wm. Stewart’s older brother Alexander who remained at Green Hill near Letter-kenny Ireland. This latter Bible bought to America in 1832 by the descendants of Alexander brother of Lieut. Wm and given to the family of Wm. Stewart Jr. son of Lieut. William and now in the possession of  Mr. J. H. Stewart of Minneapolis Minn…” As discussed below in some detail Miller made a fundamental error in relying on the letters of J. H. Stewart. In subsequent correspondence with a descendant of the J. H. Stewart line from Ohio he stated that they were not descendants of the son Alexander in the Noble Stewart line and they were continuing to search for their heritage. A photocopy of the above chart was included in “Frontier Families of Toby Township Clarion Co. Pennsylvania by Heber Rankin Janice Yingling editor Pittsburgh PA May 1995. Rankin apparently chose to ignore the commentary in Miller’s work with respect to the incorrect references to the son Alexander and his descendants. There is nothing in Rankin’s published work that explains why he chose to ignore this aspect of Miller’s work but instead went directly to the correct conclusion that William Stewart II married first Sarah McKibben and second Polly Parker. Rankin was a very knowledgeable and thorough genealogist and there may be some additional details on this in his unpublished notes and files as well as some further documentation as to the lineage of Alexander Stewart who married Rebecca Galbraith. The book “Frontier Families ” was compiled by his niece Janice Yingling. There is however no detail or source reference shown that would confirm that Alexander Stewart married to Rebecca Galbraith is the son of Colonel William Stewart.  Heber Rankin who is now d.eased met with Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart 12th Baronet at his home ‘Carick Brack House’ Convoy in County Donegal on June 10 1965 at which time the Photostat copy of the Irish Times article of November 10 1940 was given to him. Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart married to Constance Mary Shillaber. Sir Jocelyn is the 7th great grandson of Sir William Stewart 1st Baronet. Again there are no details in his published work on this meeting. In addition to the errors in Miller’s work with respect to Alexander Stewart he is incorrect in his assertion that Rebecca’s father was John Galbraith of Newton Cunningham that appears in The Stewart Genealogy on page 21. On page 19 Miller states “…that according to tradition Rebecca was the daughter of John Galbraith.” Well documented research by members of Clan Galbraith Association states that Rebecca was the daughter of James Galbraith who came to Colonial America in 1718. Additional Issues as to the  Creditability of Miller’s Work In my copy of “A Family of Millers and Stewarts” which I obtained some years ago from the Library of Congress the reference to Rebecca Galbraith on the above chart has been crossed out and replaced apparently by Miller with the notation “Rose Hall’. In the Foreword on page 19 Miller states “The genealogy of the families of the Fort Stewarts is given as approved by the Stewart Society of Edinburgh Scotland.” The presumption here is that the Society approved Miller’s genealogy chart on which he subsequently made a number of additions and corrections. The original chart and the chart included in “Frontier Families” contain none of these penciled in notations. Given the number of errors in Miller’s work it raises a further question as to the creditability of Alexander Stewart son of Colonel William Stewart being married to Rebecca Galbraith. I have done considerable work Stewart Society and various historical references on the lineage from the early High Steward’s to William Stewart 1st Baronet which correct a number of Miller’s errors. These corrections are noted in each of the individual entries where the error occurred. Several other citations follow Alexander’s father was also called Buda Will. “He was called Buda Will from his having fought in the siege of Buda Budapest in Hungry in 1686.From a younger son Alexander came the family of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County Pennsylvania. Source – Stewart Clan Magazine Volume XI-XV 1933-1938 page 142″ “Notes and Queries” by William Henry Egle a respected genealogist dealing in the history of early Pennsylvania families states in the late 1890′s that “William Stewart who was a lieutenant in the Cumberland County Pennsylvania Militia during the Revolutionary War was the youngest son of Alexander Stewart and Rebecca Galbraith of Fort Stewart and Carnemauga County Donegal Ireland. William was born about 1738 at Greenhill near Letterkenny in County Donegal.” A good portion of Egle’s work relied on interviews with descendants which in a number of cases proved to be inaccurate. The December 1927 issue of Stewart Clan Magazine Vol. VI. No. 6 contains among other items on the Stewarts information on Alexander Stewart and Rebecca Galbraith. It is basically a copy of Miller’s work and I have not repeated the details here. The following two observations were submitted by well respected researchers in the Lieutenant William Stewart line. 1 “Alexander Stewart of Carnemauga owned a small estate called Green Hill which on his death fell to his eldest son Alexander. He married Rebecca Galbraith daughter of James and Rebecca Chambers Galbraith. The Galbraiths were said to have been from Newton Cunningham – still unproven. Alexander died about 1745 and his widow and younger children came to Pennsylvania. Rebecca Galbraith Stewart’s will was dated December 28 1748. She did not mention son Alexander  who stayed in Ireland. She did name ‘my son’ James Karr. I believe she meant son-in-law James Karr – husband of Elizabeth Karr one of the witnesses. I believe Elizabeth Stewart Karr/Kerr was another child of Alexander and Rebecca Galbraith Stewart. I believe that Elizabeth received her inheritance in Ireland as did Alexander Jr.” Taken from notes of Mary Hazeltine Cole Kentfield California 2 “I feel there is circumstantial evidence that Alexander was a son of Col. William Stewart and someone had to have info from somewhere to say Rebecca was married to Alexander it was not taken out of thin air. They were in the same area of Donegal and the will of 1713 does name Alexander he was the youngest son according to that and the date would fit. So it stands to reason that he may have been given a farm/estate in Greenhill Cranamogaugh. I understand that those who have found Greenhill found it was just farms and not a townland. “I found somewhere in my searches of the time then that in 1740 the country was ravaged by smallpox and at the same time 1740/1 there was famine so I have often thought that both Alexander Sr. and Jr. died. Not everyone died of smallpox so Rebecca and the rest of the children may not have gotten it. Her money may have come from the sale of the farm in Greenhill as we know she didn’t come empty handed. I have also often thought that maybe James Karr was a foster son as we have never found proof of his parents. Was there not something said somewhere that she traveled with Karr’s/Kerr’s ? Also do we see any other Stewart’s in the area of Ramelton. Charles Stewart did live in Donegal but it was at the other end of the county at Horn head and there is nothing in anything about him that says there was an Alexander or a Rebecca so I have figured he may have been a cousin of the Ramelton folks but not a son or brother.” Source – Pegi Males Nelson “The Index of Wills Diocese of Raphoe Donegal 1684-1858 lists an Alexander Stewart Cranmogach will dated 1715. As we consider whether this may be the Alexander Stewart married to Rebecca Galbraith a bit of background is helpful.The Diocese of Raphoe is an ecclestical boundary and includes nearly the whole of County Donegal with the exception of the Barony of Inishowen. Green Hill would be under the jurisdiction of the Diocese. As pointed out on the web site of Jane Lyons and as stated on the Index site the Church of Ireland as the Established Church was responsible for all testamentary affairs. Each Diocese had a Consistorial Court which was responsible for granting probate to a will. Probate is the legal authentification of a will and confers on the administrators the power to administer the estate. These courts also had the power to grant letters of Administration to the next of kin or the main creditor on the estates of those who died intestate without making a will. Each Court was responsible for its own Diocese but if the person owned property valued at more than £5 in another diocese then the responsibility for the will or the administration passed on to the Prerogative Court. The Prerogative Court was under the responsibility of the Archbishop of Armagh. The Church of Ireland at that time was Anglican. This raises an initial question did they have jurisdiction in such matters over the Presbyterians in Ulster. As I understand it Presbyterianism in Ireland dates from the time of the Plantation of Ulster in 1610. They were initially under the jurisdiction of the Church of Scotland but by 1642 they had established the Presbytery of Ulster under the jurisdiction of chaplains of the Scottish army. Under Cromwell congregations multiplied and new presbyteries were formed. Were the Presbyterians in Ulster at that time bound by or under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Raphoe a with respect to religious matters and b legal issues such as wills etc? I do not know the answer. I believe all individuals in Ulster were subject to the payment of tithes to support the Church of Ireland which of course was not looked upon with favor by the Presbyterians As I reviewed the list there was only one Gilbraith Galbraith a James from Cavanasa in 1777. None of the Stewarts from the Noble line are listed.  Alexander Stewart of Cranmogagh will dated 1715 may be the individual married to Rebecca Galbraith. However assuming he was born about 1700 he would have been about 15 or so years of age again raising a question. Is it possible that the list contains only Anglicans? I have listed this comment here for future reference. Prior to reaching a conclusion let’s review where Rebecca may have been born and where she might have resided prior to her marriage. When her father came to Colonial America he settled in West Conestoga Township that later in 1722 became East Donegal Township. He was a member of the Derry Presbyterian Church and is buried in the Derry Presbyterian Churchyard in Lancaster County. He was a prominent man in that area. It is reasonable to conclude that he probably came from the Derry area Londonderry in County Donegal Ireland. Dave Colwell in his excellent article “The 1718 Galbraiths” that appeared in the August issue of The Red Tower Clan Galbraith Association makes a compelling case that James the father of Rebecca was the son or natural son born out of wedlock of a natural son of James Galbraith the Gudman of Balgair Scotland. James the Gudman came to the Province of Ulster with his family in 1614. James Galbraith the Gudman of Balgair Scotland and his wife Mary Buchanan had at least four sons and a possible daughter. The sons of James Galbraith of Balgair were James Robert Humphrey and William. “The first three were well known well respected and well documented in various accounts and histories of Donegal in the 1600s. These Galbraiths were a leading Donegal family at that time. James served twice as a Member of the Irish Parliament and later as a Lt. Col. in the Lagan Army which was a military force of Scottish immigrants in Donegal mobilized to confront the Catholic Irish uprising in 1641 and which later fought a losing battle against the forces of Oliver Cromwell and Parliament. Robert was also a Lt. Col. in the Lagan Army. There is a possibility that both James and Robert had previous military service fighting in the Thirty Years War on the Continent and were accorded high rank in the Lagan Army because of it. Humphrey served as a minister in the Church of Ireland an Anglican church and rose to the senior position of Archdeacon. There are only a few references to William in the historical record and we know little about him except that he is explicitly referred to as a brother to the others.” James the Gudman also had at least five natural sons one of whom may be the father of James Galbraith 1666-1744the father of Rebecca. Given the prominence of the Stewarts and Galbraiths in Donegal it is reasonable to assume that Alexander and Rebecca may have met and married. Dave Cowell also has some interesting comments of the marriage of Alexander and Rebecca that appear in “The 1718 Galbraiths” on this web site under “Histories”. Conclusion While we may never know the answer to this but given the circumstantial evidence I have elected to treat Alexander Stewart married to Rebecca Galbraith as the son of Colonel William Stewart and great-grandson of Sir William Stewart 1582-1646 of the Noble Stewart line. The Son Alexander A second question arises and that is what happened to the older son Alexander Stewart brother of Lieutenant William Stewart who was reported to have inherited the property and remained in Ireland. The only information that I have been able to obtain on him comes from 1 ‘A Family of Millers and Stewarts’ which is suspect and 2 ‘Stewart Clan Magazine’ following which appears to be based on some degree of speculation and no sources are cited. I have elected not to enter on the web site the children and grandchildren of the older son Alexander as furnished by these two sources. “Alexander Stewart born about. 1725 in County Donegal is a traditional character. It was partly for the purpose of clarifying this genealogy that we commenced this detailed interview of the Stewart families in the North of Ireland and make it practical for there are a number of persons of Stewart descent in the United States who have asserted their descent to be through Lieut. William Stewart of Cumberland County Pennsylvania a brother of this traditional Alexander but who are obviously mistaken or are just plain bunglers. Alexander Stewart is said to have inherited the Carnemauga farm in County Donegal on his father’s death after 1734 and remained there married and had children while his mother Rebecca Galbraith Stewart with her other children left the old sod for ampler prospects in America. Now the traditional descent of Lieut. William seems all right. But the story of his oldest brother said to have been Alexander needs repair. His son Samuel who died in Ohio on Aug. 20 1835 is estimated to have been born about 1754 which could be. His wife Elizabeth who died in Ohio on Dec. 14 1837 kept a certificate of good certificate which the Reformed Presbyterian minister at Green Hill had given her on June 3 183l. We can dismiss this branch for there is no dissension among their descendants. The rub is over Lieut. William’s descendants principally because he had a Revolutionary war record. It is possible that some of the claimants are descended from one of Lieut. William’s other brothers Charles and Robert. They were probably Revolutionary soldiers too.” Source – Stewart Clan Magazine Tome I Volume 37 February 1960. As mentioned above Miller in his book lists grandchildren of Alexander II who were reported to have come to America. The following paragraphs refute this position. Miller states among other things 1 that William Stewart {son of Lieutenant William Stewart} married Eleanor Knox of Harrisburg Pennsylvania 2 settled on property on the Susquehanna River which property was given to him by his father Lieutenant William Stewart 3 subsequently moved to Wayne County Ohio and 4 was the grandfather of J. H. Stewart. An H. E. Keep Helen Elizabeth Keep of Detroit Michigan in “Egle’s Notes and Queries of Pennsylvania 1700s-1800s annual Volume 1898 XXXI page 185 states “William Stewart married Mary Knox of Harrisburg and removed to Bridgeport Ohio.” On page 186 she states that “William Stewart married Eleanor Knox and lists their six children the youngest of which is named William. Whether Miller copied Keep’s work which was written some 10 years earlier without attribution I do not know. Additionally Miller does not show a Charles or a Robert as brothers of Lieutenant William Stewart. I believe that Miller made a fundamental error in his reliance on the several letters he received from J. H. Stewart as shown on page 20 in “A Family of Millers and Stewarts” as commented on in the following paragraph. Miller’s error was compounded throughout the remainder of his analysis with respect to William Stewart II as explained in further detail below. As near as I can determine the only male Stewarts in America that may be from the lineage of Sir William Stewart above are the descendants of the sons of Lieutenant William and possibly Charles and Robert. The Keeps of Detroit Michigan In an article in Egle’s Notes and Queries of Pennsylvania Annual Volume 1898 XXXI pages 185-186 an H. E. Keep from Detroit Michigan states that Lieutenant William Stewart married to Mary Gass was an adjutant in Hazen’s Regiment called Congress Own in the Revolutionary War. She also states that William Stewart married Mary Knox of Harrisburg and removed to Bridgeport Ohio. She later gives the children of that union but uses the name Eleanor instead of Mary as the wife of Lieutenant William. She also mentions that William Jr. and his son became importers of stock from Ireland and Scotland and renewed their acquaintance with the family in Ireland and finally that some of these relatives came to Ohio to visit this branch of the family. As Miller’s’ book was not published until 1909 did he have access to Keep’s letter and other material and simply included it in his book. Perhaps he had access to this material and did some further research which in any case proved to be incorrect. I was finally able to locate a Helen Elizabeth Keep the daughter of William John Keep and Frances Sarah Henderson the granddaughter of Dr. William Gates Henderson and Hannah Isabella Stewart and the great-granddaughter of Robert Stewart born September 17 1718 son of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County and Mary Young born April 23 1786. Helen Elizabeth Keep is the 3rd cousin of Dr. Robert F. Miller A search of the Lineage Books of the Daughters of the American Revolution did not disclose a listing for a Helen Elizabeth Keep as a descendant of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County. She is however listed as a descendant of Samuel Keep 1739-1823 who served as a sergeant at the Lexington alarm [DAR ID Number 30711 Mrs. Elizabeth Keep Clark Born in Hartford Ohio wife of George Mark Clark Mrs. Elizabeth Keep Clark is the aunt of Helen Elizabeth Keep. In an earlier article in Egle's Notes and Queries of Pennsylvania Annual Volume 1898 XI pages 70 and 71 an "F.S.K." of Detroit Michigan makes the reference to Hazen's regiment lists the children of Lieutenant William Stewart from the old family bible but does not give the names of the spouses except for Galbraith married to Elizabeth Scott Robert married to Mary Young and George married to Jane Nelson. I believe that "F.S.K." refers to Frances Sarah Keep who is the mother of Helen Elizabeth Keep. There is a another article by Helen E. Keep Annual Volume 1898 XIV page 85 in which she lists the descendants of the John Young - Elizabeth Elder marriage. Their daughter Mary married Robert Stewart son of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County. She also states that Mary's sister Elizabeth born 1795 married a Charles Stewart of Hubbard Ohio and that this Charles was not a relative of Robert. It would appear that the Keeps had this information some few years before Miller. Did Miller rely on it and erroneously conclude that John Charles Stewart was the grandson of William Stewart born 1779.In Tome F of The Stewart Clan Magazine the editor George Thomas Edson states that the above William Stewart "...bought November 15 1794 of William Cook. Esq. of Point Township 200 acres of land on Larry's creek on the northeast side of the West branch of the Susquehanna River opposite lands of Charles Stewart and adjoining the lands of George Nelson Peter Duffy and others in Lycoming County set off from Northumberland County in 1796. The Charles Stewart whose land was on the opposite side of Larry's Creek was undoubtedly the Lieutenant Charles Stewart from Paxtang who married Elizabeth Hunter about 1767. He was not the father of William. ... "This William Stewart married about 1796 Jane Quigley and we shall guess that some of the children of William and Jane were a William Quigley Stewart born 1797 in Lycoming County Pennsylvania married January 17 1829 Phoebe Lawrence Wayne County Ohio b Alexander married Eunice Ward c Samuel died in 1835 d David died in 1838 and e James Charles Stewart married August 30 1832 Harriet Patience Mason." As Edson states above that "...we shall guess that some of the children..." it is possible that James Charles Stewart may not be a son of William Stewart of Lycoming Township Northumberland County.James Charles Stewart is the father of J. H. Stewart. His comments about his father being born on the silvery Susquehanna are probable correct based on the above paragraph. This William Stewart of Lycoming Township Northumberland County is not the son of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County. As pointed out in Stewart Clan Magazine Tome G November 1953 "In his book Mr. Miller inserted some records given him by J. H. Stewart which tend to support the statement that James Charles Stewart of Wayne County Ohio had Irish connections although we cannot see what they have to do with Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County Pennsylvania." As Edson pointed out on page 18 of Tome G Volume 31 November 1953 "J. H. went to Ireland one time to find his ancestors. He succeeded in locating a small place named Green Hill in County Donegal. He found a gentleman in that neighborhood who said he was Sir John James Stewart. When the American stated his mission the Irish gentleman spoke so gruffly and so rather arrogantly that the interview lasted hardly three minutes and J. H. started for home convinced however that he now had his genealogy sewed up. He really and truly was descended from the Stewarts of Fort Stewart Donegal Lords Mountjoy and before them the noble house of Darnley and so to the first or the brusque Sir John James would have denied it." When I first started to document my search for the forebears of J. H. Stewart I was of the view that he may have been a descendant of either Charles or Robert Stewart brothers of Lieutenant William Stewart of Cumberland County. Nowhere in any of the Keep material is there a reference to a Jane Quigley only Eleanor Knox. Edson in Stewart Clan Magazine Tome G November 1953 Number 5 states "We found no proof that William Stewart and Eleanor Knox ever lived in Wayne County. An Eleanor Stewart died April 24 1859 aged 71 years and was buried in the city cemetery at Wooster." While Galbraith Stewart son of Lieutenant William and brother of William bought government land in Sugar Creek Township in 1819; there is no indication that he had any connection to the Stewarts in Wayne County. Rebecca Galbraith had three sons; Charles Robert and Lieutenant William and three daughters Elizabeth Frances and Margaret. My assumption is that all of these children came to America in 1745 with their mother Rebecca Galbraith Stewart. Rebaka Stuart's will Rebecca Stewart dated December 28 1748 the original of which I examined in the archives of the Lancaster County Pennsylvania Courthouse provides among other things as follows: "Imprimis viz I give & bequeath to my son Charles Stuart the I know onley it is to be valued by tow inderrent men when the preches if first lad off then one third is for Charity & the other tow parts is to be equally divid between Robert and William Stuart my tow sons." After bequeaths to Frances and Margaret the will provides "I alow to be equal to my three sons after all debts is discharged." I assume the reason that Elizabeth is not mentioned in the will is that she was married to James Karr James Kerr one of the two executors and/or that she received her inheritance in Ireland from her father Alexander. I had earlier thought that either Charles or Robert may have had a son named William who was estranged from Lieutenant William's family and this is what J. H. Stewart was referring to in his letter of July 23 1898 when he states "... when his family were grown there was a disagreement and my grandfather William Stewart II moved to Ohio...". Finally in the letter of July 23 1898 J. H. Stewart states that "... my great-grandfather came to America after his older brother Alexander succeeded to the family estate ...". I believe that J. H. Stewart may have obtained this information from the Keeps see "Egle's Notes and Queries of Pennsylvania 1700s-1800s Annual Volume 1898 XXXI Page 185" which information was furnished by H. E. Keep of Detroit Michigan. Miller's and Keep's error with respect to William Stewart II was not picked up by descendants applying for membership in The Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Descendants of Lieutenant William other than William II probably accepted Miller's and Keep's version as the facts in their respective situations were generally correct and they had no reason to seriously question his work. Descendants of John Charles Stewart the son of William II also had no reason to question Miller's work. On page 19 Miller states "... that Lieut. Wm. Stewart was of noble birth but disagreeing with his family left Green Hill...he resented his older brother's inheritance of the estate of Carnemauga.." Lieutenant Stewart was seven years of age in 1745 when he left for America with his mother and other siblings. We have no exact date as to the birth of Alexander the purported older brother who inherited the estate. As Alexander and Rebecca's marriage date is listed as about 1732 then Alexander would have been not more than 13 years of age. Again it appears that Miller may have reached an incorrect conclusion. As noted above I have no information as to why Rebecca came to America other than her father her sister and her uncles and their families were in Lancaster County. My work on the Galbraith family indicates that they were successful and well established in Lancaster County at that time. Also Rebecca's sister Elinor was married to Benjamin Gass and they appear to be equally successful and established. On page 19 Miller states "The name John as the father of Rebecca is assumed ..." Well documented research on the Galbraith line shows that Rebecca's father was James Galbraith born about 1666 in Ireland who emigrated to America with his brother and their families in 1718. Some sources state that Rebecca was born about 1698 while other sources show the date as about 1703. I assume that the earlier date is correct as she would have been about 20 years of age probably married when her father and family left for America. Robert Stewart is in fact a son of Lieutenant William Stewart. The two trees show the same children as Miller except they do not include Phoebe Galbraith and surprisingly James Charles Stewart but do include a Hannah Stewart further confusing the situation. There are no descendants listed for these children. Given the erroneous listings and lack of documentation I have not pursued this further as I suspect the reference to William and Eleanor Knox was extracted Miller's work. The submitter of these two family trees is Norris Schiewe 432 Harrison Street Port Clinton Ohio. Letters of J. H. Stewart We only have his recollections and as we shall see there are some inconsistencies in the several letters. In none of these does he mention the name of his great-grandfather or his great-grandfather wife or the wife of his grandfather. I wonder whether he was aware of their names. In the letter dated July 23 1898 he states "... when his family was grown there was a disagreement ... and in many instances family troubles were never settled." The letter from Robert Stewart the youngest son to his brother Galbraith telling of the death of their brother William does not indicate any long-standing family problems. As a matter of fact Robert who lived on the inherited property at Indian Run approximately ten miles south of the town of Mercer Mercer County  Pennsylvania and speaking fondly of his brother William states that he plans "... to go next Monday to see the Widow and Fatherless Children..." At that time William was living in Dutch Hill east of the Allegheny River about 18 miles southwest of where the town of Clarion now stands. I would estimate the distance between Indian Run and Dutch Hill at about 33 miles consistent with Robert's comment about visiting the widow and fatherless children. If Robert were going to Bridgeport in Wayne County Ohio and at least 150 to 175 miles from Indian Run I would have thought the tone of the letter to be different. In the letter dated April 21 1909 J. H. Stewart states "... I will say that I have not a great fund of knowledge relative to the Stewart family other than tradition and our family Bible ...". This presumably the bible that Helen E. Keep was referring to in her letter to Egle. In the letter dated May 9 1909 J. H. Stewart refers to "... Galbraith who died young and was named for my grandfather's brother your ancestor ..." Again I believe the parenthesis was supplied by Miller who continued with his erroneous assumption. In my view J. H. was not attributing Galbraith's name to his grandfather brother it was Miller. The names Elinor and Ann were common Christian names in the Stewart line and Elinor was a sister of Rebecca Galbraith Stewart. In the letter dated May 11th he states that Alexander and Elizabeth died in Ohio and willed the property to his father and that his grandfather William II was alive at the time. Elizabeth died March 14 1876 and Alexander died January 21 1877. If William were alive in 1877 when Alexander died he would have been 98 years of age. Our William Stewart died August 9 1825 The Anne Stewart born 1805 died 1862 that he cites as a daughter of William II and sister of his father James Charles Stewart is shown as the grandmother of Mrs. Noel Morehouse Hainer DAR # 89958. On her DAR listing Mrs. Hainer also lists a Bennet Scott Thrapp 1810-1898 as the husband of Ann Stewart. Further Mrs. Hainer lists William II's date of death as 1839 well before the death of Elizabeth and Alexander but well after the date of death mentioned in Robert's letter to Galbraith above. Mrs. Hainer additionally states that William II was born 1779 and that he married Jane Quigley born 1783 died 1823 in 1800. Representatives at the Pennsylvania Historical Society in Philadelphia and the Genealogy Section of the Philadelphia Free Library advised me that the Lineage Books of the Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution contain many erroneously listings. I searched the somewhat voluminous books listing corrections but could not find any reference to a correction on Jane Quigley. Obviously William II's date of birth as 1779 agrees with my own analysis. Notes to File - JP Rhein Person ID        I0012   McKinney and Stewart of Clarion County Pennsylvania Father Colonel William Stewart   b. Abt 1665 Fort Stewart County Donegal Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location   d. 1713 Mother            Maria Anne Hopkins Married           25 Nov 1693   Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location Family            Rebecca Galbraith   b. Abt 1698 Newton Cunningham County Donegal Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location   d. 1749 Donegal Township Lancaster County Pennsylvania Find all individuals with events at this location Married           County Donegal Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location Children           1. Alexander Stewart II   b. Abt 1725 2. Elizabeth Stewart   b. Abt 1725 3. Charles Stewart   b. Abt 1727 4. Robert Stewart   b. Abt 1732 5. Frances Stewart   b. Abt 1734 6. Margaret Stewart   b. Abt 1736 7. Lieutenant William Stewart   b. 1738 Green Hill Carnemauga County Donegal Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location   d. 1811 Mercer County Pennsylvania From Burkes Landed Gentry @ http://archive.org/stream/genealogicalhera00burkuoft/genealogicalhera00burkuoft_djvu.txt Hugh Montgomery of Drumadravy Co. Fermanagh Capt. 52nd Regt. m. 23 Sept. 1857 Lizzie daughter of Sir Hugh Stewart 2nd bart. of Ballygawley and d. 1880 leaving issue Armstrong. 3. Edward of Riversdale Co. Fermanagh J.P. and D.L. High Sheriff 1813 m. 2 Oct. 1809 Matilda 2nd daughter of William Humphrys of Ballyhaise Co. Cavan and d. 12 May 1864 having had issue 1. Mervyn Edward s. his uncle. 2. William Humphrys late of Castle Archdale. 3. Edward of Lisnaskea Co. Fermanagh b. 1816 Lieut. -Col. in the Army and Col. Fermanagh Militia J.P. Co. Fermanagh High Sheriff 1872 ; m. 1st 21 Nov. 1846 Caroline Anne daughter of Charles Claude Clifton of Tymawr Co. Brecon. He m. 2ndly 9 Feb. 1875 Eleanor Jane d. 23 July 1907 youngest daughter of Robert Stewart of Lisburn and d. 1886. Mary m. Rt. Hon. Sir John Stewart 1st bart. of Athenry Co. Tyrone M.P. Attorney General for Ireland 1799 and d. 28 May 1795 leaving issue see Burke's Peerage Stewart of Athenry Bart.. Life Guards 3rd son of William Barton of Grove Co. Tipperary  by Grace his wife daughter of Very Rev. Charles Massey of Doonal' Dean of Limerick b. 20 April 1760 ; m. Feb. 1800 Susannah daughter of Nathaniel Weld Johnston of Bordeaux by his ist wife Anna Eleanor Stewart and d. 1821 leaving issue George Beamish  of Mountbeamish m. 1748 Frances daughter of Henry Jones J.P. of Drombeg Co. Cork and by her had issue besides a son George who in. Anne sister of Major Beresford Gahan and had issue George who m. a daughter of the Rev. W. Stewart of Kilgariff an eldest son William Blacker of Carrick and Ballytroan a staunch supporter of William III fought at the Boyne; he m. ist about the year 1666 Elizabeth daughter of Col. the Hon. Robert Stewart of Irry and Stewart and by her who d. ir Jan. 1678 he had issue 1. Stewart his heir. 2. Robert ancestor of Blacker of Drogheda and Meath. Mr. Blacker m. secondly Hannah Lawrence and 3rdly Theodosia daughter of Oliver St. John" of Tanderagee Castle Co. Armagh and had issue 3. Samuel ancestor of Blacker of Elm Park and Tullahinel. Mr. Blacker d. 1732 and was s. by his eldest son Stewart Blacker of Carrickblacker High Sheriff Co. Tyrone 1706 b. in 1671; m. 1704 Barbara daughter of the Rev. Henry Young A.M. niece and heiress of William Latham of Brookend Co. Tyrone and by her will proved 1/43 had issue Alicia m. 1772 General Sir James Stewart Denham Bart G.C.H. 5. Jane m. James Fleming of Belleville Co. Cavan 6. Letitia m. Lieut.-Gen. the Hon Edward Stopford 2nd son of James 1st Earl of Courtown. 7. Lucinda d. unm. 1843. Mr. Blacker d. 1783 and was s. by his eldest son The Very Rev.Stewart Blacker of Carrickblac Ker Dean c Leighlin Archdeacon of Dromore Rector of Dumcree Moyntagn and Donagheloney and Vicar of Seagoe b. 1740 ; m. Eliza daughter of Sir Hugh Hill Bart. M.P. for Londonderry by whom who d. Feb. 1797 he had four sons and five daughters.  James Stewart Rev. A.M. Rector of Keady Co Armagh b. 16 Feb. 1795; m. 30 Nov. 1824 Eliza eldest daughter of Conyngham Greg of Ballymenoch Co. Down and dying 1835 left issue Sophia m. 1st Matthew Forde of Seaforde Co. Down 2ndly 1818 William Stewart Hamilton of Brownhall Co. Donegal. June 1829 Anna Maria m. William Stewart Ross of Sheep Hill Co. Londonderry and is d.eased. Elizabeth Dorothea m. 5 Dec. 1871 Alexander Frederick Stewart of Ballyedmond Co. Down Capt. 6th Enniskilling Dragoons. John Buchanan of Omagh b. 1779 ; purchased Lisnamallard from Sir Hugh Stewart Bart in 1828 ; m. 6 April 1820 Mary Jane daughter of the late James Blacker a Divisional Magistrate of Dublin High Sheriff 1805 see Blacker  of Woodbrook. She d. Feb. 1857. He d. Jan. 1842 leaving issue Thomas Fulton of Eaton Brae Co. Dublin J.P. High Sheriff 1871 b. 1821; m. 1851 Charlotte daughter of William Stewart M.D. of Lisburn. She d. 2 Feb. 1897. He d. 1891 having had issue Frederick Jasper of Guelph b. in Nov. 1838 Capt. in the Reserve Militia; m. 3 Sept. 1861 Elisabeth daughter of Rev. Edward Michael Stewart of Clooney Co. Derry and of Killymoon Co. Donegal grandson maternally of Edward Michael 2nd Lord Longford and d. 20 June 1891 having by her who d 3 Aug. 1894 had issue John Stouppe of Finaghy House Co. Antrim and Island of Arranmore Co. Donegal J.P. Cos. Donegal Antrim and Borough of Belfast High Sheriff Co. Donegal 1875-6 b. 1825 ; m. 1851 Mary Stewart daughter of Francis Forster J.P. of Roshine Lodge Co. Donegal. d. 14 April 1878 having had issue Henry John Clements Col. in the Leitrim Militia and M.P. for Co. Leitrim from 1805 to 1818 and for Co. Cavan from 1840 till his death 1843; b. 16 July 1781; m. n Dec. 1811 Louisa 2nd daughter of James Stewart M.P. of Killymoon by his wife Hon. Elizabeth Molesworth daughter of Richard 3rd Viscount Molesworth and by herwho d. 27 April 1850 had issue William Stewart B.A. Trin. Coll. Dublin b. 27 Sept. 1860; m. 20 Aug. 1886 Edith daughter of J. K. Barton M.D. of Dublin and has issue. Richard Dobbs of Castletown b. 1660; who m. 1st Mary daughter of Archibald Stewart of Ballintoy and had with two daus. Jane m. Edward Brice of Kilroot ; and Elizabeth d. unmarried. three sons Elizabeth Dawson m. 18 June 1843 William Richard Steuart of Stewart's Lodge Co. Carlow High Sheriff 1820 and d. 4 March1893. Isabel m. Archibald  Stewart of Ballintoy Co. Antrim. Dunfanaghy Poor Law Union was formally declared on the 20th July 1841 and covered an area of 200 square miles. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians 18 in number representing its 10 electoral divisions as listed below figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one: The Board of Guardians had their inaugural meeting on August 31st 1841 at which Alexander Stewart of Ards was elected Chairman and William Ramsay Vice-chairman.

Dunfanaghy Workhouse

Dunfanaghy Workhouse now a Heritage centre The new workhouse built in 1843-4 was designed by George Wilkinson and could accommodate 300 inmates. It occupied a six-acre site to the south-west of Dunfanaghy purchased in 1842 from Alexander Stewart. The building used local stone with limestone quoins corner blocks from the nearby quarry at Ballymore. The cost of the building was £4350 plus £855 for fixtures and fittings etc. This was funded by a loan from the Poor Law Commissioners and repaid by the local poor rates. The workhouse was d.lared fit for the admission of paupers on 15th March 1844 and admitted its first inmates fifteen in total.

Co Down

The Londonderry Estate Office Archive The Stewart family of Stewart's Court and Ballylawn Co. Donegal settled in that county in the early 17th century. Letters of designation were granted to John Stewart in 1629 together with the proportion of Ballyveagh which was erected for him into the manor of Stewart's Court. The history of the family for the remainder of the century is obscure but they do not appear to have obtained any additional lands outside Donegal

The Cowan inheritance Their fortunes were transformed by a well-chosen marriage. Alexander Stewart who was born in 1699 appears to have inherited the Donegal estate from his brother Thomas about 1730. In 1737 he married his cousin Mary Cowan daughter of Alderman John Cowan of Londonderry d.1733 and heiress to her brother Sir Robert Cowan Governor of Bombay 1729-1734. Sir Robert entered the service of the East India Company before 1720. He retired in 1735 and died in 1736. There was a protracted lawsuit over his will which ended favourably for Alexander Stewart in 1743. In the following year Alexander Stewart employed a portion of his wife's legacy to purchase the manors of Newtown and Comber Co. Down from Robert Colville of Newtown. On the death of Alderman Cowan Stewart's wife had also inherited a small estate in Co. Londonderry and some property in Londonderry City. Apart from his good sense in choosing a wife Stewart appears to have been a man of business ability and experience. Before his marriage he was a partner in a Belfast commercial concern trading in flax with the Baltic and with Russia. He appears to have maintained his business contacts for many years after his purchase of Newtown and Comber. He died in 1781.

Lord Castlereagh

Robert Stewart 1st Marquess of Londonderry

His son Robert 1st Marquess of Londonderry 1739-1821 exerted a marked influence on the administration of his estates. By purchasing outlying town lands he rounded off the boundaries of the Co. Down estate and in 1817 he acquired the neighbouring manor of Florida Co. Down. In Co. Londonderry he bought a half-share of the lease of the Salters' Proportion at Magherafelt in 1786 which he and his descendants retained until 1853 for the records of this estate see PRONI D4108. He was meticulous in the keeping of accounts and initiated some of the principal series of records of estate administration in particular the 'Journals of Accompts' and 'Ledgers'. He has also left accounts and voluminous electoral registry papers relating to Co. Down elections 1789-1824 notably for the celebrated contest of 1790 at which his son Robert Stewart 1769-1822 later Lord Castlereagh and briefly 2nd Marquess of Londonderry was first returned. The house at Mount Stewart built in the 1770s-1780s was enlarged by the 1st Marquess to the designs of George Dance Jnr in c.1803-1805 and he drew up plans for the reconstruction of the centre of Newtownards of which a portion only were completed. His schemes for the reclamation of much of Strangford Lough are of considerable interest but little of it was affected. The Vane-Tempest inheritance 3rd Marquess of Londonderry Charles William Stewart who succeeded as 3rd Marquess of Londonderry in 1822 had married as his second wife Frances Anne Vane-Tempest heiress to her family's Co. Durham estates and collieries and to their seat Wynyard Park near Stockton-on-Tees. In addition to her inheritance in Co. Durham which the Londonderry’s substantially increased by acquiring the Seaham estate of Lord Byron's father-in-law and thus gaining a coastal outlet for their coal Frances-Anne Marchioness of Londonderry inherited in 1834 roughly one-third of the Co. Antrim property of her maternal grandfather the Marquess of Antrim d.1791. Her share of this estate was centred on the fishing village of Carnlough above which her husband and she built a new house Garron Tower in 1848-1850. The Antrim Estate Papers in PRONI D2977 include most of the correspondence and reports 1840-1865 of John Lanktree and other agents concerning the administration of this estate and the construction of Garron Tower. Frances Anne Marchioness of Londonderry As a result of the Vane-Tempest marriage a considerable quantity of correspondence and other papers relating to Co. Down and Co. Antrim estate and political affairs has come to rest in the Durham County Record Office much of which – dated 1826-1880 and 1910-1917 – has been photocopied by PRONI and either added to D654 or separately accessioned. The main instance of a separate accession is T3438 which comprises photocopies from the Durham R.O. of the 3rd Marquis’s correspondence 1834-1835 1839-1840 and 1849 with Robert Jocelyn 3rd Earl of Roden about Irish politics relations between some Irish Conservatives and the Tory Party led by Sir Robert Peel and the Dolly's Brae affair of 1849. The Durham Record Office photocopies which have been incorporated in D654 comprise c.900 items mainly correspondence and accounts relating to the estates of the Marquises of Londonderry at Carnlough Co. Antrim Magherafelt Co. Londonderry and at Comber and Newtownards Co. Down. They include: letters about the Carnlough estate from John Lanktree agent at Carnlough and others to the third Marquess of Londonderry 1844-1849 and a substantial group of letters from Richard Wilson Carnlough agent to the 3rd Marquess and Lady Londonderry with some references to Mount Stewart 1852-1864; statement of accounts for Carnlough railway and harbour 1854-1855; agent's account for Mount Stewart house and garden 1850-1851; letters to the 3rd Marquess from John Andrews of Comber agent for the Co. Down estates covering such topics as the relief of distress during the Famine tenant right and improvements at Mount Stewart 1846-8 and 1855 and from Mark Cassidy Newtownards about an epidemic of smallpox in 1837; letters and accounts of Andrew Spotswood Millbrook Co. Londonderry to the 3rd Marquess about the Magherafelt estate 1837-1847 and in particular the relief of distress in 1847; correspondence from John Vandeleur Stewart a kinsman of the 3rd Marquess relating to his unsuccessful candidature in the 1852 Co. Down election; letters from Edmund McDonnell Glenarm Castle Co. Antrim to Lady Londonderry [his step-daughter] mainly about the settlement of the Earl of Antrim’s estates 1834-1846; and letters from Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart 7th Marquess of Londonderry to his mother in which he comments on the Irish Convention of 1917 of which he was a member. The Vane-Tempest marriage and the Durham connection also explain the presence in D654 of an original volume of plans and elevations by James Gibbs c.1720s-1740s for a house which is almost certainly a Wynyard Park that was never built. 7th Marquess of Londonderry Charles William Stewart 3rd Marquess of Londonderry 1778-1854 The 3rd Marquess died in 1854 and Frances-Anne in 1865.

Dynasty The position of the Stewart family as one of the great ruling families of the United Kingdom was founded first on Lord Castlereagh’s achievements at the Foreign Office and the Congress of Vienna in recognition of which the marquisate of Londonderry was conferred on his father in 1816 secondly on his half-brother’s marriage to the Vane-Tempest heiress and the subsequent discovery of coal on her Durham estate and thirdly on the confluence of all the different family estates in England and Ireland in the one branch of the family and bearer of the marquisate. This last however occurred only by accident and as the result of the failure of two successive plans of a quite contrary tendency. In 1804 at the time of the first marriage of the future 3rd Marquess of Londonderry his father settled the family estates so that those in Co. Down would pass to Lord Castlereagh the future 2nd Marquess and those in Cos Donegal and Londonderry to the future 3rd Marquess who was created Baron Stewart of Ballylawn in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 1814. Similarly following the future 3rd Marquess’s second marriage to the Vane-Tempest heiress in 1819 arrangements were made whereby her Durham estates would pass to the sons of this second marriage for whose benefit an earldom of Vane and a viscountcy of Seaham both in the peerage of the United Kingdom were created in 1823 while all the Irish estates would pass to the 3rd Marquess’s only son by his first marriage Lord Castlereagh later 4th Marquess of Londonderry. Both these partition schemes foundered from natural causes. The 2nd Marquess of Londonderry committed suicide in 1822 leaving no children so that the marquisate and the other Irish honours together with the Co. Down estate devolved on his half-brother the 3rd Marquess. Likewise the 4th Marquess died childless in 1872 with the effect that the Irish honours and estates devolved on his half-brother the 2nd Earl Vane who now succeeded as 5th Marquess of Londonderry. In the end the only estate which the family managed to hive off from the main branch and the bearer of the marquessate was the Co. Antrim estate at Carnlough.

The papers The estate archive which comprises most of D 654 begins with c.1000 title deeds trust deeds with accounts abstracts of title legal and testamentary papers etc c.1670-c.1850 relating to the estates in Cos Down Donegal and Londonderry. Next come c.2500 leases late 17th century – c.1870. There are c.250 pre-1750 leases relating to the estates in all three counties but chiefly to Comber and Newtown. For the period from 1750 to 1799 there are c.600 leases for the Newtown estate c.200 for the Comber estate and c.60 for the Florida estate. For the period from 1800 to 1850 there are c.800 leases for the Newtown estate c.500 for the Comber estate and c.200 for the Florida estate. For the post-1850 period there are only c.70 leases and these are all for the Newtown estate. Throughout there are only a handful of leases for the Co. Londonderry and Co. Donegal estates. At its full extent the estate comprised more than 80 town lands. To each has been allotted a number which it retains throughout those sections of the catalogue relating to the estate records. Thus Ballyblack is allotted number 6: title deeds for this town land appear at D6 leases at L/6 and maps at M/6. Business records Much further removed from estate management are two important series of business records which had found their way into the Newtownards Estate Office. The first is the business papers of Alexander Stewart purchaser of Newtown and Comber comprising c.200 letters and papers and three ledgers or account books 1725-1735. Alexander Stewart was in partnership in Belfast with Isaac Macartney James McClure John Gordon and John Wallace. The firm dealt largely in flax and the letters demonstrate its contact with agents in Narva St Petersburg Stockholm Hamburg Rotterdam La Rochelle and Cadiz. D654 The Londonderry Estate Office Archive 1629-c.1940 consisting of most of the Irish estate papers and the mercantile papers of Alexander Stewart and Sir Robert Cowan D4127 and D2784/19 the Stewart-Bam/Stewart of Ards Papers 1771-1849 deriving from a junior branch of the family and closely linked with D654 and D3030. Biographies of Members of the Northern Ireland House of Commons Charles Stewart an Independent member Sat for Queen’s University Belfast from the general election of 1958 until his resignation on 4th October 1966. Samuel Alexander Stewart 1826-1910 Samuel Alexander Stewart “He was a remarkable example of a man who starting life almost without education and from the age of eleven years earning his livelihood by long days of scarcely remunerative work nevertheless succeeded by sheer determination and industry in attaining a recognised position in the world of science and in being looked up to as a local authority not only in botany but in zoology and geology as well.” Stewart was born in Philadelphia but his family had been settled at Ballymena for dose on two centuries before his grandfather emigrated; his father came to Belfast in 1837 when the son was eleven and the latter began life as an errand-boy. He early became interested in natural science and was instrumental in getting the Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club founded in 1863. He supplied many localities to Ralph Tate for his Flora Belfastiensis published in that year. He became Curator of the museum of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society 1891-1907 relinquishing the little shop in North-street where he occupied himself chiefly in making trunks. His death at eighty-three was due to a street accident. Stewart’s principal work was the Flora of the North-east of Ireland 1888. The name of T. H. Corry q.v. appears on the tide-page as Co-author but his connection with the book on which Stewart had laboured for thirty years was brief as he was drowned in Lough Gill in 1883 in his twenty-fourth year. Stewart’s work in botanical exploration elsewhere in Ireland in local Quaternary geology and on both the phanerogams and the higher cryptogams was extensive; and his wide knowledge of the fauna and flora especially of the north-east caused him to be consulted on a great variety of local scientific problems. His work was recognized by the Linnean Society by his election as an Associate and by Honorary Membership of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. F. J. Hanbury dedicated to him Nitration Steward?. His portrait is in the National Museum in Dublin. Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club 1910-11 410 portrait. Britten & Boulger ed. 2 289. Irish Nat. 19 201 portrait. Praeger: The Way that I Went 92. Belfast Nat Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Volume 102-104 portrait. Personal knowledge. Robert Stewart – Lord Castlereagh’s family. The family called McCauley can be traced back to the 16th century when a Alexander McCauley came to Ireland as part of the Plantation of Ulster. A Captain William Stewart is recorded as raising horse in 1689 during the seige of Londonderry. Records are sketchy up until the recording of Alexander Stewart (McCauley’s) birth in the 1700’s. This family acquired lands in Ballylawn near Movill Co Donegal. Alexander changed his surname to Stewart. In 1743 they acquired a large estate called Mount Pleasant in Co Down and re-named it Mount Stewart which is on the Ards peninsula south east of Belfast. The main house still stands to day. Alexander married Mary Cowan 30th June 1737. They had a son Robert Stewart Born 27th September 1739 in Mount Stewart. Robert married Lady Sarah Seymore Conway in the Anglican church in Dublin Barracks on the 3rd Jun 1766. The had 4 children, Alexander who died in 1769, Robert born 18th June 1769,  Charles Tempest Vane later a Lieutenant in the British Army and a sister  Selina. Lady Sarah died 1770  1 year after the birth of their second son Robert Stewart who was later to become Lord Castlereagh. Robert Stewart who became Marquess of Londonderry  re-married in 1775 to Francis Pitt who became Lady Londonderry. Francis Pitt had a number of Children from her first marriage who became ste brothers & sisters to Robert Alexander – a Step Brother Caroline – a Step Sister later became Wood. Elizabeth Mary – a Step Sister Emily Jane – a Step Sister Francis Ann – A Step Sister later became Lady Fitzroy Georgina – A Step Sister later Lady Garvagh Matilda Charlotte – A Step Sister later Wood Octavia – A Step Sister later Lady Ellenborough, she died in Italy March 1818 Aged 26 Selina – A Step Sister later Kerr Thomas Henry – A Step Brother Died 1810. With Francis Pitt they had  1 child: Charles Tempest Vane – A brother of Roberts later became a Lieutenant in the British Army and served in Ireland during the 1798 Rebellion and was involved in the destruction of the Village of Prosperous Co Kildare after the burning of the local barracks and the killing of the soldiers. Lt Col. Charles served mainly on the Continent of Europe before coming back to London to sit in the House of Lords. He married Catherine (Fanny) (who became Robert’s sister in law) who died February 1812 froma  brain tumor. They had one son Frederick. Charles re-married in 1819 to Francis Anne Taylor, at this time he cange his name to Charles Vane Tempest. With Francis he had a son (no name listed) as he asked for Robert Lord Castlereagh to be his sons  godfather in 1821. Robert Stewart Lord Castlereagh Born 18th Jun 1769 in 28 Henry Street Dublin Died 12th August 1822 (having committed suicide by cutting his own throat), is buried in Westminster Abbey in London. Robert Married Amelia / Emily Camden who became Lady Castlereagh. The had no children together. Robert had a short military career. He was sent Co Cork at Bandon & Bantry Bay when the French Army attempted to land during trhe 1798 Rebellion in Ireland. Robert’s political career began when he took over from his father to sit in the Old Irish Parliament. He became Chief Secretary of Ireland. Later moving to London where he served in a number of different ministry’s of the British Government.  He spent much of him involved in the war with Napolian Bonapart, and was a central figure in pushing for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland. He was deeply involved in the setting up of county boundries in Europe after the war.

 

Stewarts of Crossnacreevy Moneyreagh Co. Down. Great-great grandfather Joseph Stewart ironmonger mentions on his marriage certificate that his father was Joseph Stewart a farmer. On the 1901 Census following his move to Dublin Joseph Stewart ironmonger told us that he had been born in Co. Down.  Our great-great-great grandfather was therefore Joseph Stewart a farmer of Co. Down. I had narrowed an exhaustive search down to Joseph Stewart a farmer of Crossnacreevy Moneyreagh Co. Down or to a neighbouring Joseph Stewart in Gransha.I eliminated all other Joseph Stewarts – most already had a son named Joseph Stewart living close by. There were actually two Joseph Stewarts farming in the same Moneyreagh/Comber area at the same time and they are definitely related possibly cousins.  From their death certs – both lived from circa 1800 to 1870 – we see that one lived in Gransha and the other in the neighbouring town land of Crossnacreevy close to Moneyreagh town.   We appear to descend from Joseph Stewart of Crossnacreevy….. I recently discovered that the daughters of our great-great grandfather Joseph Stewart travelled in 1914 to Philadelphia to visit a cousin Jane Orr.  Jane née Stewart was the daughter of a William Stewart who was a hosteller of Ann St Prince’s St and New Lodge Road in the Shankill area of Belfast.  He was sometimes referred to as William A. Stewart in the street directories and this seems to link him to a William A. Stewart of Crossnacreevy who was a subscriber in 1844 to a local book of Moneyreagh poetry.  William A. Stewart the son of Joseph married Margaret Burke in Downpatrick registry office in 1851 and settled subsequently in Belfast. Church Records:  Although they’d settled in Crossnacreevy and Gransha in Comber south of Belfast City our Stewart family didn’t use one particular church but married in a variety of parishes which has made tracking them down extremely taxing. The following church registers have already been checked for records of our Stewart family but have shown up nothing: Bangor Church of Ireland – although a Joseph was born to a Joseph and Mary Stewart in 1840 here in Bangor parish I think it’s unlikely to be our Joseph.   The Joseph and Mary of Bangor don’t reappear in the Bangor parish register either prior to or after this one 1840 entry. Our Stewart ancestors married in the following churches: Our great-great grandparents Joseph Stewart and Elizabeth Madine married in St. Anne’s Shankill Belfast on 14th May 1859. His brother John Stewart of Crossnacreevy married Mary Mills in Gilnahirk Presbyterian Church Dundonald north of Crossnacreevy on July 9th 1859. Their brother Robert Stewart married Jane Madine in Killinchy Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church Unitarian on July 9th 1860.  Their sister Mary Stewart of Crossnacreevy married Hugh Morrow a labourer the son of a sailor John Morrow decased on 13th Sept. 1865 in York Street Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church Unitarian in the centre of Belfast. Both were living in Crossnacreevy at the time of their marriage and Crossnacreevy has its own Unitarian church so this makes their choice of venue even more bewildering. Their brother William Stewart or William A. Stewart married Margaret Burke in Downpatrick Registry Office on 27th December 1851. The following records show that the Stewart family have lived in this Moneyreagh area of north County Down for a very long time:

The Hearts of Steel Memorials The Stewarts of Moneyreagh appear in the Hearts of Steel Memorials of 1771 – 1772. The Hearts of Steel was a Protestant Agrarian protest movement set up to fight against the re-letting of farms in Antrim; the agrarian unrest later spread to other counties.  Those who abhorred the subsequent violence signed lists of protest known as the Memorials which were published in the Belfast Telegraph.  These were the Stewarts who signed the petition: Neven Stewart John Stewart x 4 Simon Stewart Alex. Stewart x 2 Arch. Stewart Sam. Stewart And. Stewart

Freeholders Records

The 40-shilling freeholders either owned or leased land worth more than 40 shillings; this entitled them to vote. They held the lease for either the length of their own life or for the length of three other lives which are named in the lease.  I accessed these records for free on the PRONI website. 1769:  James Stewart John Stewart William Stewart all of Crossnacreevy.  All three of these men appear on headstones in the Moneyreagh graveyard.  ‘Here lieth the body of John Stewart of Crossnacreevy who departed this life 27th of August 1795 aged 72 years.  Here resteth the remains of the late William Stewart of Crossnacreevy who departed this life the 19th of June 1813 aged 83 years. Also the remains of his wife Elizabeth Stewart alias Allen who departed this life the 17th of February 1814 in the 73rd year of her age. Here lieth the body of Ann Hill alias Stewart who departed this life the 27th of June.’ ‘Underneath is interred the remains of the late James Stewart of Crossnacreevy who departed this life the 7th day of May MDCCCIII aged 83 years.  Also his wife Margaret Anderson who died April 3rd aged 87 years undated.’ In the same Freeholders lists we find the name Robert Stewart of Crossnacreevy mentioned in 1813 1814 and 1824. The online searchable catalogue for PRONI in Belfast notes the existence of a document about several Stewart in Crossnacreevy dated 1821. The document title mentions the following residents of Crossnacreevy: William and Ann Stewart. Robert and Agnes Stewart. Joseph and Ann Stewart. The 1821 Census noted a Joseph Stewart of Comber aged 26 and also a second Joseph Stewart we know there were two of them of Newtownards whose age wasn’t recorded.

The Tithe Applotment Books 1835 The Tithe Applotments were land records drawn up by the established Church of Ireland in order to impose a system of taxation upon the Irish population.  The survey for Co. Down was carried out in 1835 and gives us the following information on the Stewarts of Crossnacreevy and the adjacent town lands of Ballykeel Lisleen and Gransha which all centre on the town of Moneyreagh. Ballykeel Townland:  Joseph Stewart was farming 31 acres of land in partnership with William Madole. Madole = McDowell. Crossnacreevy Town land:  Joseph Stewart 6 acres/ William Stewart 15 acres/ Robert Stewart 23 acres.This was most likely the same Robert Stewart who had been earlier noted in the Freeholder records and may be the father of Joseph Stewart farmer. Also in Crossnacreevy in 1835 was Alexander Johnston farming 4 acres  whose son or grandson later witnessed the will of John Stewart a second son of Joseph Stewart farmer. Gransha Town land:  Joseph Stewart farming three plots of 6 acres 14 acres and 15 acres. Francis Stewart 7 acres. Lisleen Town land:  Samuel Stewart 11 acres. Alexander Johnston 7 acres. Robert Huddleston. One of the most prominent farming families in this Moneyreagh area were the Huddlestons.  In 1844 Robert Huddleston a poet published a volume of his works ‘A Collection of Poems and Songs on Rural Subjects.’ Included at the end of the collection was a list of subscribers and these include Joseph Stewart of Gransha and William A. Stewart of Crossnacreevy both of whom appear on the 1835 Tithe Applotment lists.  We are definitely related to a William A. Stewart who settled in Shankill Belfast and who was the brother of our great-great grandfather Joseph Stewart who migrated south to Dublin and settled there.

Griffiths Valuations 1863 A 2nd land survey for the purposes of taxation was carried out in the 1840s to 1860s.  Co. Down was surveyed in 1863 and we see the following entries for the Moneyreagh area. Joseph Stewart 1793 – 1876 of Crossnacreevy is leasing a house shop outhouses and 7 acres of land. Close by his property William McDowell who had been farming in partnership with him in 1835 is leasing 8 acres. Both men can both be found in the neighbouring town land of Ballykeel – Joseph is leasing 16 acres of land but no house which seems to suggest that this is the same Joseph Stewart of neighbouring Crossnacreevy. William McDowell is here again in Ballykeel leasing a caretaker’s house and 16 acres of land. Francis Stewart of Crossnacreevy is leasing 27 acres a house and outbuildings and subletting two houses to James Floyd and William Anderson. He was leasing his land from the representatives of the late Rev. Fletcher Blakely who had been the Unitarian minister of the Moneyrea Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church and from the Marquis of Downshire.   Although the 2nd Joseph Stewart 1790 – 1870 of nearby Gransha is still alive he doesn’t appear on Griffiths Valuation; he had probably retired and was living with relations. Joseph of Crossnacreevy died in 1876 aged 83. He died of debility. According to the certificate he was married but his wife’s name was not mentioned. His son John Stewart of Crossnacreevy was present at his death. The second Joseph Stewart died in Gransha in 1870 aged 80. He too was married and the cause of death was unknown. His son William Stewart of nearby Moneyreagh town was present at his death. Alexander Stewart Male 1860 – 1926 nickname Sandy? Birth  1860 Co Down  also known as Stuart  Died 2 Oct 1926 Donaghadee  Buried Donaghadee  Possibly born 24 Oct 1864  Donaghadee  son of Hugh Stewart & Rosina Adair – this would have made him 46 in 1911 census. If so had a brother William Stewart born 12 Jan 1867 Donaghadee Marriage certificate to Sarah would suggest Father was actually James. 3 June 1830 PRONI D4389/D/6/7 Assignments of Mortgage in the sum of £1846 3s 1d on lands mainly of Cultra between James Lewis Esq. and Alexander Stewart Esq. both of Belfast of the first part; William Chambers of Bath in England late a Lieutenant Colonel and Frances Chambers otherwise Pottinger his wife of the second part; Hugh Kennedy Esq. late of Cultra but now residing at Boulogne in the Kingdom of France of the third part; John Kennedy Esq. eldest son and apparent heir of the said Hugh Lieutenant in the 14th Regiment of Light Dragoons of the fourth part; John Turnly Esq. of Rockport of the fifth part and Arthur Crawford Esq. of Bloomfield of the sixth part. Written across several parchments signed by Lewis Stewart the two Chambers and the 2nd Kennedy and sealed by all parties. 13 October 1823 PRONI D665/41 Settlement release for 500 & 1000 years with schedule of debts attached affecting the Estates in the County of Donegal and in the County City and Liberties of Londonderry: John Carleton Esq. Lisburn Co. Antrim Rev. John Cleland Stormount Co. Down Clerk Esther Martha Cleland née Jackson his wife and Mrs Elizabeth Bowden née Allen née McKibben Portaferry Co. Down 1st part; Alexander Allen Esq. Ballyobiean Co. Down The Hon. Robert Ward Esq. & William Strean Esq. John Jackson Esq. Knock Co. Down farmer & Samuel Thompson Esq. Belfast Co. Antrim grocer Arthur Crawford Esq. Bloomfield Co. Down 2nd part; John Turnly Rockport Co. Down & said John Cleland 3rd part; The Most Hon. Charles William Vane Marquis of Londonderry 4th part; George Peter Holford Esq. Bolton St Co. Middlesex & William Groom Esq. Russell Sq. Co. Middlesex 5th part; of Comber & Newtown Estates Co. Down. “Arthur Crawford Esquire as substitute to the extent of portion charged in favour of Lady Frances Anne Fitzroy* [1777-1810] which the money borrowed from him on Bond was applied to pay off – £5000 Bond. Signed: Arthur Crawford dated 13 October 1823.” *She was the daughter of Robert Stewart the 1st Marquis of Londonderry and brother of Charles William Vane formerly Stewart the 3rd Marquis of Londonderry. Lurgan Directory 1880 Model School Head Master Alexander Greer living in Hollywood first assistant W.J. Keatley; second assistant Andrew Gaddis; head mistress girls’ school Elizabeth Collins; first assistant Julia Greer; second assistant Christina Stewart Head mistress infants’ school Ellen Gray; first assistant M.J. Brown; second assistant Elizabeth Canavan Samuel Robert Born: 1883ca Assistant county surveyor for Co. Down from 1905 until 1922 or later. Samuel Robert Stewart a farmer’s son from Killough Co. Down was born in Co. Down circa 1883.1    In 1905 he was elected by a large majority from among thirty-eight candidates who applied for the post of assistant county surveyor for Co. Down made vacant by the death of William Tennent Henry.  2 Address:  Ballygallum Killough Co. Down 1911.31 1911 census http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002226413/ last visited Jan 2009.  2 IB 47 25 Feb 1905 139. 3 See note 1 above. Stewarts of Londonderry Ireland who went to America from the Stewart Clan magazine 1922

Stewarts of Londonderry by B Frank Walter Stewart had an estate in Perthshire Scotland. Son: Robert. Robert Stewart Walter born 1655 married Janette Forsyth. He is said to have been one of the Covenanters who took part in the Battle of Bothwell Bridge in 1679 against the troops of Charles II in which the Covenanters were defeated. Crossing the North Channel in an open boat Robert Stewart took refuge in Ireland settling at Londonderry where he had kinsmen and where he was soon joined by his family. His estate in Scotland was forfeited. He died in Edinburgh in 1715. His widow is supposed to have died in Colrain Mass. at an advanced age. John Stewart {Robert Walter settled in Ireland where he married 1 Elizabeth daughter of John Clark. He came to America with his family and his mother and her family landing at Boston Oct. 14 1718. He was one of the 16 settlers of Londonderry. New Hampshire one of the proprietors and a prominent man in the Scotch-Irish settlement. He married 2 Elizabeth Forsyth. He was a carpenter by trade. He made his will Apr. 3 1741 and died Apr. 6 1741 in his 60th year and is buried in Deny N. H. His widow died in Colrain Mass. Children of John Stewart all but Mary being mentioned in his will: “The following letters were written by Joseph Stewart. He lived to be over 100 years old dying Feb. 22 1821 in White Creek Washington County N. Y. White Creek. N. y. Aug. 28 1818. To John Stewart: – I have received your letter and am sorry to hear of your sickness. By all accounts of our descent we are of the Royal House of the Stewarts. My father was John the eldest son of Robert my grandfather who was obliged to fly to Ireland when they were newly married. My granny »as sent to Edinburgh and he was born there. As far as I can learn they belong to the House of White Rose and not altogether separated from the House of Black Hall. My grandfather’s family’s names were John and Robert and their sister’s name was Juleyan. Samuel the youngest. My grandfather had a good estate in Scotland when he fled from it. King J William would do nothing about it; neither would Queen Anne but when King George came to the crown their uncle Samuel Stewart by the help of the Duke of Argyle recovered it. This must be the estate you mention. I was informed that Uncle Samuel died without issue left no heirs.  The way that I came to know of our descent was by old Father James Stewart of Colraine. You may remember young James who married at last Margaret Anderson your cousin. That descent was from White Rose for he himself belonged to Black Hall. He had a catalogue of the house of Stewart many hundred years but son carried it away him to Pennsylvania. I did not know all of this until after my father’s death. This I knew they belonged to the Rose party by reason of the high esteem they had for Charles I who bad many good properties. My father’s eldest son Charles who is your uncle and my father and your grand uncle Robert would never own the last pretender or any of the race by reason of his spurious birth. No man dare assail the name of Stewart that was if he would not forfeit his life. It gives you the reach: James I had two sons James and Robert; James III had two sons James and Robert. This is the whole I can give you at present. I am afraid you can’t read for since I got that fall at your house I could never hold a pen to write straight. I would not beg you would acquaint me of your proceedings therefore I rest. Your father Joseph Stewart. White Creek. March 16 1819. Dear Sir: -I received yours of the 16th February last informing me that the heirs of Elisabeth Forsyth that she married a Stewart. My father’s name was John Stewart the eldest son of Robert Stewart. My mother’s name was Elisabeth Forsyth. My grandmother’s name was Forsyth her Christian name forgot. My great-grandfather’s name was as I believe Walter. My grandfather’s name by my mother’s side was either William or James which I cannot tell. The last letter seems to have been left unfinished and was never sent. It is now a highly prized relic in the possession of Joseph’s descendants. Charles Stewart Mr Robert. Walter married in Londonderry Nov. 15 1727 Mary Ayers daughter of Samuel Ayers. On Feb. 27 1748 he bought of Samuel Rankin of Londonderry two lots in Colrain Mass. and sold his homestead in Londonderry on Aug. 26 1748 to his brother John Stewart and removed to Colrain. Robert Stewart Mr Robert Walter born in Ireland about 1707 was bequeathed  in the will of his father in 1741 of which the “son Charles Stuart aforesaid and Samuel Stuart of Andover” were named executors. He was a soldier in the French and Indian war; was at no. 4 Charlestown N. H. in 1747; enlisted at Windham N. H. Apr. 7 1760 in Capt. Alexander Todd’s company under Col. John Goflfe. There was a Robert Stewart who married Feb. 22 1 733 Lydia Blair in Andover Mass. The Andover church records give the baptism July 11 1726 of Mary daughter of Robert Stewart. This doubtless refers to another Robert. James Stewart {son Robert; Walter’ born in Ireland about 1709 was living in 1741. He is thought to have died about 1750 leaving a son John born Sep. 12 1746 at Londonderry N. H. See Samuel. John  Stewart {John Robert Walter’ born in Ireland about 1711 married Rebecca Costa born in Edinburgh widow of Robert Patten who died on the passage to America. John Stewart removed to Windham N. H. where he was invoice taker in 1743 selectman in 1745 surveyor in 1748 and tithingman in. 1749 1768 and 1759; he was an innkeeper in 1 765. He was a soldier in the French and Indian war and was one of the garrison which so gallantly defended no. 4 Charlestown N. H.. He again entered the service Mar. 26 1760 under Capt. Alexander Todd Col. John Goffe’s regiment for the invasion of Canada. The regiment went to Crown Point. He died Mar. 29 1761 from the effects of overexertion in their 44-day advance through the wilderness. His widow married 3 David Hopkins and removed to Shelbume Mass. where she died Feb. 6 1802 aged 90. Samuel Stewart Johns Robert Walter’ born about 1718 in Ireland or aboard ship married Alice.t They settled in Colrain prior to 1751 ; owned and occupied the east half of lot 6 which was located about 40 rods north of Fort Morris. They removed to Shelburne in 1769 selling their home lot in Colrain Aug. 24 1770. They sold land in the second division Apr. 20 1780 and removed to New Perth Hebron Washington County N. Y. where on June 11 1783 they deeded land in Black Creek to Stephen Smith of Rupert Vt. Alice was living in 1800 with the Merriman family in Salem N. Y. and is thought to have The vital records of Londonderry N. H. contain this isolated entry; John son of John and Jean Stewart was born June 29 1787.’ Thought to have been Alice Atchison perhaps widow of his brother James. Archibald Stewart had son Thomas. Thomas Stewart Archibald lived in County Down He married Mary Stewart or Stuart born in County Monaghan died Dec 1799. Rev. Thomas died Dec 1816 at his home in Cootehill County Cavan Ireland. They had: Susanna 1770; Margaret Catharine. 1772; Olivia 1776. and Thomas.

Co Dublin

A topographical dictionary of Ireland; exhibiting the names of the several cities towns parishes and villages with the barony county and province to which they respectively belong … Collected from the most authentic documents and arr. in alphabetical order. Being a continuation of the topography of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1810 Dublin from time immemorial to the Curacy of Portrahon : a Church in good repair in the parish of Donaghbate : a Glebe of 2 a. 3 r. 7 p. adjoining the Church-yard and on which a Glebe House is now building by a Grant of 320. out of the late Loan granted by Parliament : The Rev. Abraham Stewart A. B. the Incumbent in 1806 who has cure of souls and is resident at the Hibernian School for Soldiers’ Children of which he is master : the duties are discharged by his Curate The Rev. Robert Maw at a Salary of 60. per annum together with the use of the glebe house and offices when finished and the glebe land. Donaghbate is in the Dioceses of Dublin and Glandelagh and Province of Dublin. It is 3 m. N. E. from Swords. It is situate near the Irish Sea. The parishes in the Union of Donaghbate are contiguous ; their extent from East to West being 2 miles and from North to South 1 mile. George Stewart Died: 1764 Carpenter and building contractor of Dublin. During the 1730s George Stewart worked as a carpenter for Michael Wills on the building of Steevens’s Hospital and from the mid-1740s until 1760 he received payments for work done at Dublin Castle and the Parliament House.1 During the 1750s he was involved in various work at Trinity College Dublin including the building of the west front and galleries in the chapel.2 He was one of the builders who submitted proposals for the rebuilding of St Werburgh’s church which had been gutted by fire in November 1754.3 He may be the same person as the George Steward carpenter named in the Georgian Society Records as having built Nos. 55 and 56 Sackville Street Upper between 1752 and 1755.4 In 1759 he was one of the three contractors asked by the Barrack Board to make an assessment of the condition of the Royal Barracks with a view to discrediting the Surveyor General Thomas Eyre. In response to the Board’s report Eyre alleged that Stewart was a ‘mere carpenter’ who had earlier been dismissed for fraudulence when he was working under ARTHUR DOBBS   in the 1730s or 1740s. Stewart died ‘suddenly’ in Marlborough Street at the end of May 17645 leaving a widow named Anne.6 All information in this entry not otherwise accounted for is from F. O’Dwyer ‘Building empires: architecture politics and the Board of Works 1760-1860′ Irish Architectural and Decorative Studies 5 2002 114-117129. 1 MS. cash book of Michael Wills Acc. 80/81; K. Severens ‘a new perspective on Georgian building practice; the rebuilding of St Werburgh’s Church Dublin 1754-59′ BIGS 35 1992-93 4-6. 2 TCD muniments MUN/P/2/97 101 105 112 126 130 132 135 138. 3 See note 1 above. 4 Georgian Society Records III 9394. 5 Freeman’s Journal 29 May 1764. 6 TCD muniments MUN/P/2/141. John Stewart Stone and wood carver of 45 Montgomery Street Dublin listed in Wilson’s Dublin Directory from 1798 or earlier until 1818 or later. He – or possibly his son Richard Stewart-is probably the person referred to in a draft letter among Bryan Bolger’s papers which sets out the rates charged by ‘Mr Steward the carver’ for carving four capitals. The anonymous draft dated 18 August 1807 and addressed to the Rev. Mr Duan Mountrath gives the carver’s rates as four guineas for timber and blocking out four capitals and eighteen guineas for carving them five guineas being payable in advance.1 John Stewart worked with Richard Stewart on the Chapel Royal at Dublin Castle and at St George’s church Dublin.2 He is probably the John Stewart stonecutter of Dublin who witnessed the will of Anthony Robinson of Dublin in March 1808.3Address: 45 Montgomery Street 1898-1818 1 Bryan Bolger papers NA/PRO 1A/58/129. Could these capitals have been for the Catholic Church in Mountrath described by Lewis as large and cruciform? 2 Papers relating to St George’s Church Dublin…Ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed 29 April 1825 9. 3 E. Ellis & P.B. Eustace eds. Registry of Deeds Dublin: Abstracts of Wills III 1785-1832 1984 249. Richard Stewart was a Stone and wood carver of Mabbot Street Dublin active in the first half of the nineteenth century. Richard Stewart who appears to have been the son of John Stewart signed the carved arms of the fourth Duke of Richmond over the front door of the Richmond Lunatic Asylum Dublin built between 1810 and 1814. He worked as a wood carver with his father circa 1813 on the Chapel Royal at Dublin Castle1 and – also initially with his father – at St George’s church – from 1812-1814.2 Later – by 1819 – he was employed at Carton Co. Kildare.3 In the first three cases the architect was Francis Johnston in the last apparently Richard Morrison. Stewart appears to have been – or become – a difficult character. In 1823 he addressed a letter to the Chief Secretary complaining about a ‘combination’ among Dublin carvers.4 Soon afterwards he was in dispute with Francis Johnston about carving the Wellesley arms in the Chapel Royal. The file on the matter from the State Paper Office is labelled ‘Dispute between Francis Johnston and Stewart the mad carpenter’.5 He remains in the directories until 1847 or later designated ‘sculptor’ from 1844 onwards. He has disappeared by 1853. The sculptor named R. Stewart who exhibited a model of a satyr taking a thorn out of the foot of a slave at the Society of Arts of Ireland in 1810 No. 243 and a family group at the Society of Artists of the City of Dublin in 1812 No. 1596 is probably the same person.Stewart was a subscriber to William Stitt’s The Practical Architect’s Ready Assistant; or Builder’s Complete Companion Dublin 1819 Addresses: 10 Mabbot Street 1823-1831; 18 Mabbot St 1839-1844. 1 NA/SPO 558AAE/984 and 984/2 IAA Edward McParland files Acc. 2008/44. 2 Papers relating to St George’s Church Dublin…Ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed 29 April 1825 919-20. 3 Bryan Bolger MSS NA/PRO 1A/58/125 Carton inset.  2 NA/CSORP 1823/6731 IAA Edward McParland files Acc. 2008/44. 5 A letter and memorial on this matter from Francis Stewart.1825 is among the Clements papers at Killadoon Co. Kildare.  See A.P.W. Malcomson The Clements Archive Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission 2010 556. 6 ALEI II 684.

Royal Irish Academy-thestewartsinireland.ieroyal-irish-academy-dublin

Royal Irish Academy Dublin Front & Interior

Letters 12 R 41/19 24 May 1775 h Letter from Dr. R. Stewart Ardpatrick near Lurgan Green to Andrew Caldwell Denmark Street Dublin – discussing the purchase of books; noting that he has a ‘violent Passion for Colliers Hist Dictionary’ and asking what was the sale price of the copy of the Fontaine? 12 R 41/61 16 July 1777 Letter from Andrew Caldwell London to Mrs Elizabeth Caldwell Cavendish Street Dublin -Lord Bessborough is grateful for the money sent to him by the recipient; Bessborough has recommended Hackney School to him; he is ‘almost in a fever’ concerning Hamilton’s behaviour; suggesting that the recipient move to Mrs Stewarts due to the situation with the house; he will meet General Paoli for dinner and notes that George Maconchy looks very ill; mentioning the prizes which Benjamin has taken and noting that he will arrive home with a lot of money 12 R 41/126 18 October 1788 Letter from Andrew Caldwell Dublin to George Cockburn Hanover – recommending that Cockburn visit the Gardens of Herenhausen at Hanover; he is not surprised at the poor quality of the Prussian Troops noting that ‘our own were far superior & you know I am not over national’; William Riall has got leave to travel to Italy; Stewart the Painter has gone to London as the death of Gainsborough leaves prospects open; William Miessenden’s business is reported to have failed; he is travelling to Lord Bessborough; Lord Nugent’s father a fine stout and hearty man has died following a feast 12 R 41/129 24 November 1788 Letter from G.C. George Cockburn Hanover to his uncle Andrew Caldwell Rutland Square Dublin – reporting that fresh disturbances have broken out between Poland and Russia and that he has learned from a Captain White that 400 Artillery with 18 cannon have marched from Berlin for Varsovie [Warsaw]; predicting that ‘our foolish Treaty with Prussia may drain waggon loads of Guineas from England’; commenting on the strengths and weaknesses of the Prussian army in comparison with the British noting that while the continental armies are large the strength of Britain lies in a small body of active soldiers and a powerful navy; the Hanoverians are praying for their king who is very ill; hoping that Stewart will undertake the picture before he leaves Dublin; he thinks that the ‘Haywood Ministry’ is ‘laughable’ as they never remain employed for longer than six months. 12 R 41/164 14 December 1658 Copy of a letter from John Thurloe Whitehall to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Dublin -reporting that preparations are being made for the new parliament which Thurloe believes will be a great crisis as ‘noe endeavours are omitted to give trouble’; he hopes that agreement can be reached as he dreads ‘the consequences of a breach’; he believes it certain ‘that C. Stewart & his brother James have designed to be here at the first meeting of the parliament taking it for granted that troubles will come’; he believes that they are not on good terms with the Dutch who will do them ill when possible; the ‘States Generall also agreed to the motion of His Highness to endevour a peace between the 2 Northern Kings’; includes note in a separate hand noting that the letters were copied at Shangana Castle for C.B. Charles Benjamin Caldwell 12 R 42/5 12 September 1745 Letter from Charles Caldwell Dublin to an unknown recipient – using strong language to express his astonishment at the ingratitude shown by the recipient; stating that without his help the recipient would never have secured a position as Mr William Colvill’s receiver due to his inexperience; noting that he unsuccessfully intervened when Mr Colvill of London sold his Cumber estate to Mr Stewart; Caldwell threatens to surrender the borough peacefully to Mr Stewart on condition that he leaves the recipient in the lurch. 12 R 42/37 4 August 1753 Letter from Ann Caldwell London to her father Charles Caldwell at Arthur Heywood’s house Liverpool – noting that Mrs Card does not have a great collection of books and that she has mainly been reading romances from which she derives little pleasure or improvement; having read the Marquis of Langalleries memoires of Europe she concludes that Louis the Fourteenth and the French are ‘a Treacherous sort of people’; hoping that the recipient and Ben will agree to rent rooms at Mrs Card’s house; mentioning Mr Campbell; Mr Worthington informed her that Aunt Stewart intends to go to Ireland; she is grateful for Faulkner’s 12 R 42/56 29 August 1753 Letter from Benjamin Caldwell London to his mother [Elizabeth Caldwell] – letter written by a child in a formal style; noting that he met with Aunt Heywood in Liverpool that Sally Haywood is plain looking that Aunt Ben is well-bread; Aunt Stewart and Nancy are planning to travel to [Ireland] with his father; he is to visit Lord Duncanon who supports the division to put Benjamin to sea stating ‘if I live I’ll make the Boy a Captain’. 12 R 42/71 15 February 1754 Letter from Ann Caldwell Bath to her father Charles Caldwell Custom House Dublin – enclosing a copy of her brother’s letter from Barncluth as requested; promising to follow instructions regarding ‘a moderate pursuit of pleasure’; fearing that Mrs Card is not deriving much benefit from taking the waters at Bath; noting that Aunt Stewart will make a visit to Ireland; Mrs Lennox has given a melancholy story of Miss Rochfort; it is said that the Ball of the previous evening was the last of the season but this may not be true as the town is still very full. 12 R 43/64 21 June 1797 Letter from J.C. Joseph Cooper Walker St Valeri Bray to Andrew Caldwell Cavendish Row Dublin – regretting the death of Mr Riall; noting that he has not seen Mrs Smith’s latest works; discussing Milton’s alleged ignorance of poets before him who wrote in blank verse including Lord Surrey who translated part of the Aeneid into blank verse; mentioning the title of the ballad which first appeared in 1723 upon which Burgess’ ‘Leonora’ was based; noting that Mr Malone is to critique Chalmer’s long book and is to publish ‘Memoirs of Sir Joshua Reynolds’; Mr Irwin has acknowledged obligations to Mr Malone; noting that Andrew Lumisden author of an ‘Antiquity of Modern Rome’ was a secretary to ‘Prince Charles Stewart’ [words 'The Pretender' crossed out]‘; enquiring about Mr Roscoe’s work?. 12 R 43/132 17 April 1802 Letter from M.A. Rainey Greenville postmark – Belfast to Andrew Caldwell Rutland Square Dublin – observing that he is busy overseeing the decoration of his house; he is unable to visit Lord and Lady Donegal in Belfast as he has yet to get a coach; enclosing an account of receipts and payments on Charles Wolster’s account; mentioning Mr Stewart Mr Chaplin and Dr Bire. 12 R 44/73 23 April 1804 Printed account by Andrew Caldwell Dublin – entitled ‘An Account of the Extraordinary Escape of Athenian Stewart from being put to death by some Turks in whose company he happened to be travelling. Communicated by Dr. Thomas Percy Bishop of Dromore as related to his Lordship by Stewart himself’; noting that Stewart was travelling in the company of the Bashaw of Athens who it was alleged wanted to have him killed.

Co Fermanagh

Miscellaneous 1823 – Connaught Journal anon It will be recollected that about a fortnight since Sir James Stewart  presented to the House a Petition from Ballinasloe against Roman Catholic Claims- We were extremely anxious to ascertain the names of the Subscribing Petitioners and have procured a copy of them taken from the original on the Table of the House of Commons We had other feelings than curiosity to gratify in looking after this manuscript; for we felt that it was a duty we owed to the County of Galway and the Town of Ballinasloe to remove from the rank-the landlord interest of these places- the odium of having originated such a Petition but we wish it to be understood that we are far from finding fault with any man for acting according to his conviction This is by no means our inclination- it would be unfair and ungenerous and in giving insertion of the names of the enlightened Petitioners our sole object is to point out to our Readers who are and who are not the enemies of Emancipation On the entire of this list we cannot recognize the name of a single individual who has been at any one period on the grand panel of our County; and we are certain that no four if any at all ever had the honour of sitting in a Petit-Jury box either at Session or Assizes The greater number indeed the entire of the names with a few exceptions sound as strange in our ears as if they were the property of Sydney Cove or Talbe Bay; but let the names speak for themselves The following is taken from the Newry Telegraph of Dec. 1826: “Enniskillen Nov. 25. In consequence of the Be V. Mr. Stewart Rector of Aghavea refusing to sign the Protestant Petition of this County many of the paiishioners have manifested great displeasure and have we understand acted very unbecomingly towards him. On Sunday last on his commencing the Morning Service the greater part of the congregation left the Church. Such conduct to say the least of it is rather arbitrary and unbecoming the character of the moral and respectable people of that neighbourhood. Enniskillen Chronicle”; History repeats itself as somewhat similar scenes are known to have taken place in the North regarding the Ulster Covenant and in B.C. Churches in the South regarding the Sinn Fein Movement. 1907-12. William Ivors Stewart Lie. O.-in-Cbarge Feb. 1 1907 D.R. and again U Clejenish 1912. William Ivera Stewart inst. Feb. 2 D.R. T.C.D. B.A. 1906 ord. D. 1906 P. Enniskillen 1787 Andrew Stewart appears and up to 1776 V.B. * Should it not be Alexander SL son of Bev. Boberfc S. b. at Carlon Co. Tyrone ed. by Mr. Blaokall at Dungannon School ent. T.O.D. Aug. 9 1755 aged 17 Soh. 1762 B.A. 1764 ord. D. or P. * 24 Nov. 1765 S.R. Galloon 1747. John Corry appears and up to 1764 V.B. ; was son of Isaiah C. “gen.” b. afc Gribby Co. Mon. ed. by Mr. Folds Carrickmacross ent. T.C.D. Sep. 24 1723 aged 18 B.A. 1728. He was C. St. Wer burgh’s Dub. 1736-8 was app. J.P. Co. Mon. 26 Feb. 1738 being then “of Fin-field Rockcorry.” He m. Alice daughter of Rev. John Vaughan father of Rev. Geo. V. above and his Will /codicil dated 10 Sep. 1782 was proved 2 Aug. 1786. By his wife Alice who d. 23 Nov. 1791 he had issue 1 John of Sport- hall Co. Mon. J.P. Co. Mon. M.A. Glasgow 1765 H. Sheriff Co. Mon. 1769 m. Feb. 1762 Catherine daughter of Chas. Coote of Cootehill M.P. for Co. Cavan and d. 1768 ; 2 Thomas of Fairfield H. Sheriff Co. Mon.  1782 m. Rebecca Stewart of Bailieborough was ancestor of the Corrys of Rockcorry; Inisahmaosaint 1904. James Forde Lea th ley inst. April 22 DM. b. Nov. 1861 at Kingstown Co. Dublin son of Forde L. of 3 Longford Terr. Kingstown ed. at St. Aidan’s Coll. ; ord. D. 1884 Oss. P. 1886 Arm. for Down C. Enniscorthy 1884-5 C. Skerry and Rathoavan 1886-7 C. Ballymena 1887-91 R. Trillick 1892-9 Chapl. Miss to Seamen Dub 1899-1904; res. this parish for R. Dunboyne Meath 1908-24 ret. on superannuation 1924 j m. April 16 1895 Elizabeth H. Stewart daughter of Rev. Edward Hallam M.A. of Suffolk and has issue a son Forde b. 1896 Flight- Lieut. R.A.F. and a daughter Muriel. Lisnaskea Fermanagh A New Parochial Hall was built in 1912 at a total cost of 1100 of which Miss Selina Stewart contributed 750 and her sister Emily 100. The Parish Registers from 1804 are in Parochial Custody. Vestry Books date from 1870. Mullaghfad 1847 William Henry Edward Wood Wright eldest son of James W. ” Miles” b. at Golagh Co. Monaghan 29 Nov. 1816 ed. by Mr. O’Beirne; ent. T.C.D. Nov. 6 1832 aged 17 B.A. 1837 M.A. 1844; m. 1862 Jane Eliz. only daughter of N. Stewart of Shellfield  Co. Donegal ; d. May 1870 ; had a son Wm. Henry Edward High Sheriff Co. Monaghan 1877. Stewart – Architect of Enniskillen Co. Fermanagh active circa 1805 mentioned in a letter of 4 January 1805 from General George Vaughan Hart of Kilderry Co. Donegal to his son John Hart at Ballynagard:  ‘I expect a Mr Stewart an architect from Enniskillin to breakfast with me here.’1 Letter in PRONI D3077/B/7/21 see PRONI e-catalogue http://applications.proni.gov.uk/LL_DCAL_PRONI_ECATNI/ResultDetails.aspx last visited Nov 2011.

Co Kerry

A topographical dictionary of Ireland; exhibiting the names of the several cities towns parishes and villages with the Barony County and province to which they respectively belong … Collected from the most authentic documents and arr. in alphabetical order. Being a continuation of the topography of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1810 Aglish in the Barony of Magunihy Co. of Kerry  a. 3 r. 1 p. : The Rev. Walter Stewart the Incumbent in 1806 who has cure of souls and resides by permission in Kenmare : tile duties are discharged by the Curate of Killarney at a Salary of 10. per annum. Aglish is in the Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe and Province of Cashel. It is 4 m. S. S. E. from Milltown. According to the Ecclesiastical Report this parish is too small to afford the means of comfort to a Resident Incumbent. Ballyduffe  in the Barony of Corcaguinny Co. Of Kerry and Province of Munster: an entire Rectory : no Church: no Glebe House: The Rev. Thomas Orpen Stewart the Curate in 1806 who performs the duties at a Salary of 75. per annum. Ballyduffe is in the Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe and Province of Cashel. It is 7^ m. N. E. b. N. from Dingle. This Impropriation belongs to the Earl of Cork. Killgarvan in the Barony of Glanerought Co. of Kerry and Province of Munster: a V. : no Church: no Glebe House: a Glebe of about 4 acres ; it is near the old church and it is supposed that it ought to contain 11 acres; but no other evidence exists of its extent than Vallanccys Copy of the Down Survey : The Rev. William Hughes the Incumbent in 1806 who has cure of souls and resides at Limerick where he is Residentiary Preacher at the Cathedral : the duties are discharged by The Rev. Walter Stewart of Kenmare at a Salary of 6. per annum. Killgarvan is in the Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe and Province of Cashel. It is 4^ in. N. E. from Kenmare. It is situate upon the River Roug/iy. According to the Ecclesiastical Report this Benefice is too small to afford the means of comfort to a Resident Incumbent.

Co Leitrim

Killadoon Papers Dated Description Killadoon List in NLI printed 20/11/07 Page 4 Deeds and related documents 1588-1877 of said banking house to Lord Charlemont that Nesbitt & Co. did at the desire of his Lordship … remit a bill to Sir Annesley Stewart who was then a partner in a banking house in Dublin which transacted the business of Nesbitt & Co. in Dublin and who was also agent to Lord Charlemont for …interest … making in the whole the sum of £827 7s 3.d Nesbitts’ bank afterwards failed and the bill being filed in the Court of Chancery in England by one Scott for an account of the property and debts affecting it a decree was made for that purpose and Lord Charlemont having made a claim for said sum and the interest as the representative of his brother a report was made by which it appeared that on 3rd March 1789 there was due on the foot of said sum for principal and interest £10591 12s 4d out of which his Lordship gave credit for said sum of £827 7s 3d being the amount of said remittances of interest. …’ Lord Charlemont claims that ‘… the payment of interest was a private agreement between the Nesbitts and Major Caulfeild … and … also says that no part of this interest money ever came to his hands but was applied by Sir Annesley Stewart in discharge of the Major’s debts. …’ [Since the only matter in dispute is the £827 it would seem that the entire sum of £10591 12s 4d was rescued from the wreckage of Nesbitt & Co. and was duly paid to the personal representatives.]

Co Londonderry

Abraham McCausland Stewart Born: 1857 Died: 1924 Engineer of Derry City. Abraham McCausland Stewart third son of Abraham Harvey Stewart secretary to the Belfast Port and Harbour Commissioners and a younger brother of Charles Edward Stewart were born in 1857. 1 He studied engineering at Trinity College Dublin graduating BA and BAI in 1879. After working as an assistant to Thomas C. Rayner on the Banbridge extension of the Great Northern Railway of Ireland 1880-1881 to George P Culverwell on the Letterkenny railway 1881-1883 to William Lewis in Dublin 1883 and to his brother Charles Edward Stewart in Derry 1883-1886 he set up in independent practice as an engineer in Derry. It was presumably when his brother moved to London in 1890 that he succeeded him as consulting engineer to Derry Corporation and permanent engineer-in-chief to the Port and Harbour Commissioners.  Stewart was engineer for the Stranorlar & Glenties Railway opened in 1895 and architect for the stations on the Donegal-Ballyshannon line of the Co. Donegal Railways circa 1904. 2 In 1904 he was appointed arbitrator for lands acquired by Stranorlar Rural District Council. 3 He was also diocesan architect for the dioceses of Derry and Raphoe. 4 Stewart died in 1924 at the age of sixty-seven. He had married Alexandrina b.1865 daughter of Frederick William Elsner music teacher of Stillorgan Co. Dublin and herself a singer in 1898. There were two sons and a daughter of the marriage. 5 He was succeeded as diocesan architect by W.E. Huston. His pupils and assistants included John Francis Sides. ICEI: elected member 7 June 1882; 6 no longer on list of members for 1920.Inst.CE: member by 1899 transferred to class of member 1898?. 7 Addresses: 8 20 Pump Street Derry 1887; 20 Ship Quay 1890-1902; 5 Castle Street 1903 9-1904; 10 Victoria Chambers Strand 1904-1918.Home:  9 Crawford Square Derry 1911. 11 All information in this entry not otherwise accounted for is from Stewart’s candidate’s circular for admission as member of Inst. CE kindly supplied by Susannah Roberts Inst. CE archives London. Information from www.kelcran.com kindly forwarded by Susannah Roberts as above. IB 46 23 Apr 1904 254. IB 46 17 Dec 1904 870. Irish Church Directory 1905; Irish Church Directory 1912 64. 5 See note 1 above and www.familysearch.org. 6 TICEI 14 1881-1883 7 McCausland’s candidate’s circular is dated 3 Dec 1896; is he the Alexander Stewart who was transferred from Associate Member to Member 6 Dec 1898? Min.Proc.Inst.CE 1898-99 Pt. I 174. From TICEI lists of members unless otherwise stated. 9 IB 45 7 May 1903 1750. IB 46 23 Apr 1904 254. 11 1911 census of Ireland http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/ last visited Oct 2009. Charles Edward Stewart Born: 1849 Died: 1901 Engineer of Derry. Charles Edward Stewart who was born in 1849 was the eldest son of Abraham Harvey Stewart secretary to the Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners and an elder brother of Abraham McCausland & Stewart.1 He was educated at Foyle College Derry the Royal School Dungannon and Trinity College Dublin. He served his pupilage with Robert Collins of Derry and succeeded to Collins’s general practice when the latter was appointed engineer to the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway in 1874. He also succeeded Collins as consulting engineer to Derry Corporation and as engineer to the Derry Port and Harbour Commissioners and to the Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway Company. In 1881 to 1883 he superintended the construction of the Letterkenny Railway and subsequently took charge of its maintenance. He also prepared plans for a light railway from Buncrana to Carndonagh. According to his obituary in the Minutes and Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Stewart also succeeded Collins as city engineer for Derry and as such was responsible for the construction of a main sewerage scheme in 1882 and extensions to the water supply. His position seems however to have been that of a consultant; 2 the post of city engineer does not appear in the lists of city officials in Thom’s directories for the period only that of city surveyor which was held by William James Robinson from 1874 until 1909. In 1890 Stewart joined the staff of the Water Department of London County Council working chiefly on water legislation and a proposed new supply from the Welsh mountains. His health collapsed some ten years later and after a few months of sickness he died at home in Finchley on 7 July 1901. 3 He is described as married in the English censuses of 1891 and 1901. His pupils and assistants included his brother Abraham McCausland Stewart and Edward J Toye Inst.CE: elected associate member 7 April 1891. Address: Pump Street Derry 1875-1789; 4 59 Elgin Cresecnet Kensington 1891; 5 4 Park Hall Road East Finchley London at time of death. Inst.CE: elected associate member 7 April 1891. All information in this entry not otherwise accounted for is from the obituary of Stewart in in Min.Proc.Inst.CE146 1900-1901 Pt. IV 288-9. 1 Information from www.kelcran.com kindly supplied by Susannah Roberts Inst. CE archives. 2 Abraham McCausland Stewart in his candidate’s circular for membership membership of Inst. CE describes him as ‘Consulting Engineer to the Corporation of Londonderry’ in the period 1883-1886 information from Susannah Roberts as above. 3 He was a patient in the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat in Golden Square Westminster at the time of the 1901 English census. 4 Derry Almanac. 5 English censuses 1891. William Stewart Builder carpenter or joiner of Ferryquay Street Derry listed as such in Pigot & Co.’s City of Dublin and Hibernian Provincial Directory 1824 398.Possibly the same person as the W. Stewart ‘architect’ who leased fifty-six perches of land in the suburbs of Derry from Holland Lecky of Armagh in 1777.11 Lease for 3 lives 3 Oct 1777 in PRONI D2035/8/1 see PRONI E-catalogue.

Co Tyrone

Biographies of Members of the Northern Ireland House of Commons Joseph Francis Stewart wine and spirit merchant. Born 1889. Educated at the Christian Brothers’ School in Dungannon. Also worked as an Auctioneer and Publican. President of the Ancient Order of Hibernians in County Tyrone. Agent for T.M. Kettle Nationalist candidate for East Tyrone in 1910. Member of Dungannon Board of Governors from 1923 to 1948. Member of Tyrone County Council. Member of Dungannon Urban District Council until 1961. A Nationalist member. Sat for East Tyrone from the general election of 1929 until his death in May 1964. Member of the United Kingdom Parliament for Fermanagh and Tyrone from the by election of 27th June 1934 until the general election of 1935. Chairman Leader of the Nationalist Party at Stormont from 1958 until his death. Died 6th May 1964. John Marcus Stewart Sir Bart. of Ballygawley Tyrone. Coll. Rugby. Co. Tyrone 27905. 6409 Club. Carlton. Co. Galway 629. 343 b. 1830 s. 1854 m. 1856. Served in the Enniskillin Dragoons in 28534 . 6752 the Crime Alexander Stewart Died: 1808? Mason and clerk of works active in Ireland from the 1770s until the 1790s. Alexander Stewart who may have come from Scotland was associated with the building of three major late eighteenth-century houses in Ireland. He is first heard of in 1778 as a mason at Baronscourt Co. Tyrone which was being rebuilt for the eighth Earl of Abercorn to designs by George Steuart. 1 In about 1785 he moved to Slane Co. Louth where James Wyatt was starting to remodel Slane Castle for William Burton Conyngham; 2 here Stewart is recorded as handling the stone quarrying. 3 Wyatt seems to have fallen out with Conyngham and left the project abruptly in 1787.3 In 1788 Stewart moved to Castle Coole Co. Fermanagh 4 where soon afterwards Wyatt was engaged to design a new house for the first Viscount Belmore. Stewart acted as Wyatt’s clerk of works for the building of the house which was completed in 1797. 5 The Alexander Stewart ‘formerly of Co. Fermanagh and late of N. Britain’ whose will was proved in England or Scotland? in 1808 may perhaps be the same person. 61 John H. Gebbie An Introduction to the Abercorn Letters Omagh 1972 119-120123. 2 Gebbie op. cit. above 155. 3 F. Fergusson letter and catalogue IAA Edward McParland files Acc. 2008/44. 4 Mark Odlum ‘Slane Castle Co. Meath – II’ 24 Jul 1980 280-281. 5 The Castle Coole papers show him as signing weekly accounts in 1788 IAA Edward McParland files Acc. 2008/44. 6 North West Ulster 178.  7 Arthur Vicars Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810 1897 439.

The Stewart of Tyrcallen Papers Public Record Office of Northern Ireland The Stewart papers comprise c.2250 documents including some volumes and c.25 outsize maps. They derive from the Tyrcallen branch of the Stewarts of Killymoon Cookstown Co. Tyrone: in particular to Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen Stranorlar Co. Donegal 1743-1840 younger brother of James Stewart of Killymoon MP for Co. Tyrone 1768-1812. For further information about the family see the calendar of the Stewart of Killymoon papers D3167 one section of which was also deposited by Mr H.W.B. and Mr G.P. Stewart. For another related collection see T3007. Henry Stewart’s wife Elizabeth was a daughter of the 2nd Lord Longford and a sister of the Duchess of Wellington. For this reason some sections of these papers consist of letters to as well as from members of the Longford/Pakenham family 1755-1846. The letters from the Duchess of Wellington run from 1813 to 1831 and there are earlier ‘Grand Tour’ letters from Mrs Stewart’s and her brother the 2nd Earl of Longford 1793-1795. Henry Stewart himself was a land agent – perhaps ‘accountant’ would be a better word – who managed the estate affairs of a number of families on a basis which was professional by the standards of the day from an office in Clare Street and then at 6 Leinster Street Dublin. The bulk of the archive relates to his clients’ and his own estate and business affairs.

The Papers: Palmerston Estate His most important clients were the 2nd and 3rd Viscounts Palmerston who owned Irish estates mainly in Cos Dublin and Sligo. Henry Stewart was not appointed to this prestigious agency until 1784 so the majority of the papers were actually inherited by him from his predecessor John Hatch. They include: case papers 1757-1792 about the debt due to the 1st Viscount Palmerston grandfather of the 2nd by Robert Roberts of Dublin who had been the 2nd Viscount’s deputy as Chief Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland an office held by the 1st Viscount from 1727 until his death in 1757 closely followed by that of Roberts. When the 1st Viscount’s executors came to settle accounts with his successor as Chief Remembrancer it was found that there were outstanding balances to the amount of well over £20000. A long legal battle then followed and in the end – in 1785 – all Roberts’s estates were conveyed to the 2nd Viscount Palmerston. The title deeds to these estates go back to 1693 and the estates consisted of property in Hanbury Lane Earl of Meath’s Liberty and Ballsbridge Co. Dublin and in Drumcondra Dublin City and at Garrynew Co. Wexford. Included among the title deeds are a copy Prerogative probate 1756 of the will 1755 of Joseph Maddock Captain in Colonel Stewart’s Regiment of Foot together with a grant of administration 1758 to the will 1757 of Robert Roberts himself. Other Palmerston estate papers include: a rental with observations of the ancestral Palmerston estate in the county and city of Dublin the residue of Palmerston itself Chapelizod Oxmantown Green and Hill and various houses c.1805; a rental and account with observations for the entire county and city of Dublin property 1821; accounts 1813-1815 between James Walker the local receiver of the Co. Sligo rents and Stewart & Swan Henry Stewart and his partner Graves Chamney Swan for receipts and disbursements on the 3rd Viscount’s account; and letters and papers 1820 1826 and 1841-1845 all relating to the Sligo estate of the 3rd Viscount.

Other Clients Papers Papers relating to the estates of other clients include: rentals and accounts 1822-1851 between Stewart & Swan and their successors on the one hand and successive Earls of Longford and Viscounts de Vesci on the other relating to the Longford/de Vesci joint estate in Dunleary Co. Dublin and in Cos Cork Ballyhindon Glandore and Monkstown and Limerick; set of detailed accounts 1797-1800 between the ‘Hon. Colonel King [Robert King later 1st Viscount Lorton] as sole executor to his father Robert Earl of Kingston and residuary legatee … with Henry Stewart Esq. from 24 November 1797 to 30 June 1800′; title deeds leases and other papers 1688-1812 about the Co. Limerick property Ballymorelly Ballyroan etc of Serjeant Richard Benson Warren of Dublin; receipts rentals accounts surveys correspondence and a notice 1818 about tree-planting 1800-1824 all relating to the Fartagh estate of James Butler Stopford in the barony of Galmoy Co. Kilkenny with a rental of £1356 per annum in 1823; title deeds leases rentals accounts surveys and correspondence 1764-1882 about the estates of Mrs Gertrude FitzGerald née Lyon at Watercastle Queen’s County and Mount Blakeney barony of Coshma Co. Limerick including a copy of the will 1802 of her father Thomas Lyon of Watercastle; leases deeds rent ledgers receipts accounts correspondence etc 1765-1850 all relating to the estates of the Nugent family of Castlerickard Co. Meath in Cos Meath and Westmeath; and papers and voluminous correspondence 1814 1827 and 1844-1846 about the estate and financial affairs of the 2nd and 3rd Earls of Howth and the development of the Howth Castle estate Co. Dublin particularly in the mid-1840s.

Business Records of Stewart & Swan Papers relating to the running of Stewart & Swan’s land agency business include: voluminous usually biannual and also with some duplication balance sheets of the firm 1804 and 1807-1824 recording the identity of the clients and the huge sums which passed through the books of the firm presumably the then equivalent of turnover and which could amount to £90000 or even £175000 during the half-year; a printed advertisement for the ‘New Brighton’ development on the Longford/de Vesci estate between Seapoint and Dunleary Co. Dublin c.1820; and copy testimonials to Stewart’s efficiency as a land agent from satisfied clients including the 3rd Viscount Palmerston 1834. Papers about the private affairs of Henry Stewart and G. C. Swan Papers relating to the private estate and financial affairs of Henry Stewart himself and of his partner Graves Chamney Swan include: accounts 1786-1801 between Henry Stewart and George Whitelocke Wokingham Berkshire all relating to their joint purchase of the Tyrcallen estate Stranorlar Co. Donegal from the Rev. Oliver McCausland in 1789 and the subsequent receipts from and disbursements on that property; subsequent Tyrcallen estate papers 1808 1819 and 1836-1850 including correspondence about the sale of the estate in the second half of the 1840s; receipts receipted accounts vouchers etc 1823 and 1828-1840 to Henry Stewart and other members of his family for all sorts of things among them work on Tyrcallen House 1828 a carriage 1829 work and other expenses relating to Stewart’s business office at 6 Leinster Street Dublin at various times his funeral expenses 1840 etc; an original bundle of ‘Vouchers of the Hon. Mrs [Elizabeth] Stewart’s accounts from 1 February 1843 to 31 January 1848 …’; and deeds bonds judgements accounts and correspondence 1739 and 1774-1844 about the estates of Graves Chamney Swan in Drogheda at Kildavin and Ballypierce Co. Carlow and at Bolecreen and Balinclea Co. Wexford and those of the Graves Chamney and Graham families in Drogheda Cos Louth and Meath Cos Carlow Wexford and Wicklow and Dublin City and County 1668-1799 including ‘A rent roll of the real and personal estates of John Graham of Plattin …’ Co. Meath 1763. [See Also D3167 and T3007].

Various

Calendar of State Papers Ireland Charles 1 1625-1632 Vpl CCXLVI P 354 Jun 27 Westminster 1047 Ordering the Lord Deputy to place the house & castle of Magevlin & other lands &c in Donegal in the possession of Thomas Holmes agent for the Duke of Lennox with all the cattle furniture &c lately belonging to Sir John Steward knt lately convicted of capital crimes in Scotland Vol CCL P 519 Feb 23 No 1612 The King to the Master of the Wards in Ireland for Sir William Steward Ordering that the undertakers of Ulster who are discovering titles in Tyrone Fermanagh Armagh and Donegal seek for their particular grants of their lands according to the King’s promise these undertakers shall pay Steward the sums which they formerly proposed to pay under these circumstances to him and to Malcolm Archbishop of Cashel

Co Wicklow

Wicklow Papers MSS: 38500-38640 Accession No.: 5280 formerly 911 Papers of the Earls of Wicklow including estate political and personal papers. MS 38513 1 Bargain and sale of lands at Dromoghill and Drumbarnard barony of Raphoe county Donegal from John Stewart of Dromoghill to Francis Stewart his son for £500.20 Aug. 1666 I.A.i.1 Coolmactrean Raphoe barony MS 38507/2 Copy royal grant of lands at Coolmactrean to Sir William Stewart latin.14 July 1631 MS 38507/1 Fee farm grant of lands at Drumbarnet from William Stewart to Anthony Stewart.1 Feb. 1622 MS 38515 Memorandum of indenture re lands at Little Mallin Barony of Raphoe from Charles Moore to Mrs. Alice Stewart. 13 June 1703 MS 38517 Bargain and sale of lands at Killyverry Parish of Rymoghy Barony of Raphoe by William Stuart and John Wilkinson. 10 4-5 Feb. 1683 MS 38520/1 1 Parties: 1. Jane Stewart Anthony Stewart and John Stewart.Indenture re lands at Mount Stewart Drumbarnett Dromoghill and Portlough. 1 Feb. 1640 MS 38520/1 2 Parties: 1. Archibald Stewart and Jane Stewart John Stewart Indenture concerning lands at Mount Stewart Barony of Raphoe county Donegal.15 Oct 1650 MS 38520/2 1 Parties: 1. Capt. William Hamilton and Capt. William Stewart and their wives Henry ColmanAssignment of the Manor of Mount Stewart latin document.Easter 1695 MS 38520/2 2 Parties: 1. John Maxwell and Robert Maxwell Alice Stewart Release of lands at Mount Stuart Drumbarnett  Drombarnard Kilbarry Killyverry and others in the Barony of Raphoe. June 1716 MS 38521/2 2 Parties: 1. Arthur Earl of Donegal William Forward Richard Stewart and Roger Foley Bargain and sale of lands at Castle Burt county Donegal 29 Sept. 1716 MS 38522/8 1 Parties: 1. William Hamilton and Isabella Hamilton; William Stewart and Alice Stewart John Lesley and John [Sincler] Sinclair Robert Mortimer and John Stewart Henry Coleman Indenture concerning lands at Mount Stewart Coolaghy  Portlough and barony of Raphoe: Monimore Killyverry Dromoghill Mondooey Dromalis 13 Feb. 1694 MS 38522/9 Parties: 1. John Maxwell of Collegehall county Armagh and Robert Maxwell his brother Alice Stewart of Dunduff County Donegal Bargain and sale of lands at Mount Stewart alias Coolaghy Portlough barony of Raphoe; lands at Drumbarnett  Monimore Killyverry Mountcloynt Dromoghill. Mondooey and Dromalis being in the Barony of Raphoe. 4 July 1716 MS 38522/10 Parties:John Maxwell of Collegehall county Armagh and his brother Robert Alice Stewart of Dunduffe county Donegal Grant of lands at Mount Stewart alias Coolaghy Portlough barony of Raphoe: Drumbarnett Monimore Killyverry  Mountcloynt Dromoghill Mondooey Portlough barony of Raphoe 5 July 1716 MS 38500 Parties: John Stewart of Drumoghill Co. DonegalDavid Stewart Robert Bollard John Ewing and James Buchanan Lease of lands at Ards barony of Kilmacrenan parish of Conwal county Donegal for 9 years at annual rent of £28. 3 Apr. 1679 MS 38534 Lease of lands at Killyverry with the Cloth Mill parish of Raymoghy Barony of Raphoe from John Willison of Coleraine county Londonderry and William Stewart of Mount Stewart county Donegal.21 Apr. 1684 MS 38535 Parties: Alice Stewart David Macken and John Alexander 14 year lease of lands at Killyverry parish of Raymoghy Barony of Raphoe.29 Nov. 1718 MS 38536 Lease of property at [Moneymore] and Cashel county Donegal from Jean Stewart widow of John of Dunduffe to William Stewart  of Dunduffe. 1 Oct. 1684 MS 38538/1 Lease of lands at Moneymore and Coolaghy Mount Stewart from Captain William Hamilton to Jean Stewart and  Isabella Stewart. 8 Jan. 1694 MS 38538/2 Deed d.laring uses of a fine of lands at Mount Stewart from Alice Stewart widow and Isabella Stewart spinster to Michael Sampson. 18 Sept. 1717 MS 38543 1 Loan agreement for £1400 secured on property in Donegal by Anne Forward Dr. Andrew Hamilton Henry Wray and John Stewart all of county Donegal from Margaret Eweing widow Londonderry. 1 Apr. 1712 MS 38546 1 Bond for £300 between William Stewart of [Dromoghill] and John Stewart of Mount Stewart county Donegal. 25 Jan 1661 MS 38546 2 Bond for £15 15s; between William Stewart of Mount Stewart and William Stewart of Kill Kilmacrenan. 1 Nov 1686 MS 38546 4 Bond between William Stewart of Mount Stewart Raymoghy and Mrs. Jean Stewart. 28 Dec 1687 MS 38547 Bond between Richard Hamilton Dublin and Alice Stewart of Dunduffe county Donegal concerning £1000 and claims arising from the Dunduffe Estate. 3 Apr. 1716 MS 38548 Release by John Maxwell Collegehall county Armagh to Alice Stewart and her daughter Isabella of all claims relating to Mount Stewart also know as Coolaghy county Donegal. 5 July 1716 MS 38550 1 Bond between Daniel Machin and John Alexander of Ardee Taughboyne and. Alice Stewart of Mount Stewart concerning bond for the sum of £20. MS 38557 Parties: William Hamilton and Isabella Hamilton of Clady; William Stewart of Kill and Alice Stewart his wife; Jane Stewart of Mount Stewart John Leslie of Tyrone John Sinckler [Sinclair] of Tyrone Robert Mortimer of Ramelton John Stewart of Manorcunningham Henry Coleman of Dublin Deed concerning uses of a fine of lands at Coolaghy Drumbarnet Moneymore Killyverry Dromoghill Mondooey and Dromalis in the precinct of Portlough Barony of Raphoe county Donegal. 13 Feb. 1694 MS 38563/12 3 Bargain and sale of house in Newgate parish of St. Audeons piece of land and houses on north side of Ballybough Lane Dublin between Thomas Pollexsen Dublin city and John Stewart Dublin city Dr. Thomas Kingsberry Dublin city and Robert Marshall of Clonmel county Tipperary. 15 June 1733 MS 38569/4 Defeasence of a bond for £300 between John Stewart of Abbey Street Dublin and Richard Coote of Bellamont Forest county Cavan. 21 Sept. 1833 MS 38569/5 Defeasance of a debt of £100 and £187 between John Stewart and Richard Coote. 21 Sept. 1833

County Wicklow: Barony of Arklow I.C.i Title deeds and conveyances MS 38571/7 Bargain and sale of lands in county Wicklow from Sir Arthur Forbes Castleforbes county Longford and Sir Francis Hamilton Castlehamilton county Cavan to Sir William Stewart NewStewartown county Tyrone. 31 Aug. 1671 MS 38571/8 Release of lands in county Wicklow from Sir Arthur Forbes Castleforbes county Longford and Sir Francis Hamilton Castlehamilton county Cavan to Sir William Stewart NewStewartown county Tyrone MS 38578/3 3 Lease of lands at Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown County Wicklow between Katherine Stewart of Castleruddery and Richard Nuttal. 20 Mar. 1693 MS 38578/3 4 Assignment of lands at Ballyrowan Ballincallow Downings Ballycarrigin Castleruddery Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Katherine Stewart Castleruddery to James Barkley Castlefinn county Donegal. 1 May 1698 MS 38578/4 1 Conveyance of lands at Killybeg Brusselsstown and Edestown barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Trustees nominated by William III Sir Cyrill Wick Francis Annesley John Baggs John Trenchard John Isham Henry Langford James Hooper John Carey Henry Shere Thomas Harrison William Fellows and Robert Stewart Dublin. 23 June 1703 MS 38578/4 2 Lease of lands at Ballyrowan Ballincallow Downing Castleruddery and Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown County Wicklow by Robert Stewart Castleruddery to Hercules Davis Dublin. 2 Jan. 1709 MS 38578/6 Assignment of £200 on lands at Ballyrowan Ballincallow Downings Ballycarrigan Castleruddery Donaghmore between Elizabeth Stewart county Cavan and Lewis Pollard Dublin. 24 June 1728 MS 38578/9 Lease of lands at Castleruddery Newtown Killybeg Brusselstown Ecclestown Ballyadis Downings Cloghnegan Ballycarrigeene and Keadeen barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between 1. Rebecca Stewart Dublin William Hoey his wife Maria Hoey of Dunganstown county Wicklow 2. William Lingan Dublin. 18 May 1731 MS 38578/10 Bargain and sale of lands at Castleruddery Newtown Killybeg Brusselstown parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between 1. Rebecca Stewart 2. Whitfield Doyne 3. Thomas Staunton.6-7 Sept. 1731 MS 38578/11 Bargain and sale of lands at Castleruddery barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Charles Powell Dublin and Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery. 7 Sept. 1732 MS 38578/15 Conveyance of land at Newtown Killebeggs Brusselstown barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between 1. Whitfield Deyne Dublin 2. James Stewart and his wife Rebecca Stewart 3. Robert Howard Lord Bishop of Elphin. 1735 MS 38579/16 Affidavit by Robert Stewart concerning lands at Castleruddery Estate parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow. 5 Jan. 1709 MS 38579/17 1 List of leases which Capt Stewart contracted mainly in the Castleruddery Estate parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow. 1 Oct. 1719 MS 38579/17 2 Deeds of ettlements and accompanying leases concerning lands at Castleruddery Newtown Killybeg part of Brusselstown called Stonyquarter parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between James Stewart and Rebecca Stewart and John Maxwell and Luke Gardiner Dublin Trustees.11-12 Oct. 1732 MS 38579/18 1 Incomplete deed referring to James Stewart and Rebecca his wife concerning charges on lands and premises Not dated MS 38579/182 Twenty-one year lease of lands at Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Major James Stewart and Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery and William Jackson Winetavern. 1733 MS 38579/191 Twenty-one year lease of the Bush Field Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Major James and Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery and William Jackson Winetavern. 1733 MS 38579/29 Twenty-one year lease of lands at Killybeg parish of Donoghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between James Stewart and his wife Rebecca Dublin and Thomas Waters Spinnans county Wicklow. 14 Mar. 1731 MS 38580/1 2 Deed of mortgage concerning lands at Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Katherine Stewart and Richard Nuttal. 22 Mar. 1693 MS 38580/2 Mortgage of lands at Ballyrowan [Ballycarrigine] Downing Castleruddery Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Robert Stewart Castleruddery and Hercules Davis Dublin. 3 Jan. 1709 MS 38580/3 Deed of mortgage concerning lands at Ballincallow Downing [Ballycarrigine] Castleruddery Donaghmore and others barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Robert Stewart Castleruddery and Hercules Davis Dublin. 3 Jan. 1709 MS 38580/4 2 Counterpart of mortgage concerning lands at Ballyrowan Ballincallow [Ballycarrigine] Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Robert Stewart Castleruddery and [Welbene] Bishop of Kildare 1 Oct. 1719 MS 38580/6 Assignment concerning Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between 1. Charles Stewart and Catherine Stewart alias Cosby wife of the first part Edward Cosby 2. Elizabeth Stewart 3. Lewis Pollard Dublin. 24 July 1728 MS 38580/7 1 Certificate of satisfaction concerning mortgage between Rebecca Stewart and Charles Powell. [1737] MS 38580/8 1 Deed of Mortgage of lands at Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery and Charles Powell Dublin. 31 Oct. 1729 MS 38580/8 2 Mortgage on lands at Castleruddery Newtown Eadstown Cloghnegan Killybeg Briswellstown sic Spinans Downings Ballyrowan Calvinstown Ballycarigeen and Keadeen barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery and Charles Powell Dublin. 6 Mar 1729 MS 38580/9 Deed of partition of the estate of Castleruddery Donaghmore and others in the barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between Rebecca Stewart and William Hoey and Maria his wife née Stewart. 19 May 1731 MS 38580/10 Deed of partition of the estate at Castleruddery Newtown Killebeggs Brusselstown Spinans Eadestown Downings Cloghnegan Ballycallow Ballycarrigeen Keadeen and Ballyrowan county Wicklow between Rebecca Stewart Spinster and William Hoey and Maria Hoey his wife née Stewart which d.rees equal division of their father’s estate between both Rebecca and Maria. 19 May 1731 MS 38581/2 1 Results of search of judgements made against Robert Stewart Castleruddery county Wicklow. 1700-July 1722; 28 May 1735 MS 38581/2 2 Results of search of judgements made against Robert Stewart Castleruddery county Wicklow 1700-1722; judgments against James Stewart Dublin and Rebecca Stewart Castleruddery from 1714. 26 May 1735 MS 38581/2 3 Contract between Robert Stewart and Hercules Davis appointing Hercules Davis as administrator and executor of his estate Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown County Wicklow. Jan. 1709 MS 38581/2 4 Search for a covenant made by Robert Stewart regarding lands in Castleruddery barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow. 4 July 1720 MS 38581/6 2 Grant and release of lands at Ballyrowan Killalease Garrykilberry Ballincallero Downings Ballycarrigan and Castleruddery barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow other land at Granard county Longford and Drogheda county Louth between 1. Katherine Stewart widow and Robert Stewart 2. James Stewart Drumskeny Tyrone. 25 May 1686 MS 38584/15 Indenture concerning lands at Killibary estate of Dunduffe and Clondahork county Donegal; lands in county Leitrim between William Stewart Charles Stewart and James Stewart; in consideration of marriage between Alice Wilkins and William Stewart. 28 Sept. 1693 MS 38584/16 Articles of agreement between Captain William Stewart and Thaddeus Coan concerning lands at [Aghnahu] [Rosowrolagh] and [Gortinderry] parish of Rossinver barony of Rossclogher county Leitrim. 9 July 1700
Dr Ralph Howard c.1640- 1710 II.A.i Correspondence MS 38595/1 Letters from various people concerning property transactions and other matters for example letter from Alexander Stewart to John Howard re property transactions; notes and letter from Richard Kennedy to Dr. Howard concerning payments; from [John Twigg] from William Dudley; from M. Boyd to Isabella Stafford; from Richard Chicheley to John Chicheley. 1664-1717 MS 38613/2 Articles of marriage agreement between Lieut. Robert Dunbar [Carrowcashel barony of Kilmacrenan] and Anthony Stewart barony of Kill county Donegal. July 1634 MS 38613/3 1 Articles of agreement concerning marriage settlement between Anthony Kennedy son of David Kennedy and Margaret Stewart Mount Stewart barony of Raphoe county Donegal. 20 Aug. 1643 MS 38613/3 2 Marriage settlement concerning Archibald Stewart Ballinlogh county Antrim his daughter Jeane Stewart and Major John Stewart Dunduff. 17 Oct 1650 MS 38613/4 3 Indenture concerning 1. William Stewart of Dunduff county Donegal 2. Charles Stewart of Belantoy county Antrim and James Stewart and marriage between William Stewart and Alice Wilkins. 28 Sept 1693 MS 38613/17 2 Marriage settlement between Edward Bolton John Walmesley and Richard Stewart referring to marriage between Edward Bolton and Margaret Walmesley lands at the Abbey Bective county Meath and others in the counties Dublin and Louth and £1000 marriage portion. 1723 MS 38615/11 Last will and testament of William Stewart Mount Stewart county Donegal. 13 Dec 1637 MS 38615/13 Last will and testament of Sir William Stewart Baronet of Mount Stewart county Donegal. 4 Oct 1647 MS 38615/15 2 Last will and testament of Major John Stewart of county Donegal. 8 Aug 1665 MS 38616/2 Last will and testament of John Stewart of Dunduff county Donegal. The estate of Mount Stewart is left to his sister Isabella Stewart and her husband on condition that he takes the name Stewart. William Stewart is left a commission 29 Oct. 1695 MS 38616/5 2 Last will and testament of Isabella Stafford Dunduff barony of Raphoe county Donegal Archibald Stewart was made heir. 21 July 1724 MS 38616/6 1 Last will and testament of Robert Stewart Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow. 3 June 1722 MS 38617/2 Reconveyance of lands at Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow between 1. John Powell Esq. 2. James Stewart and his wife Rebecca 3. James Howard William Hoey and Marie Hoey. 1 July 1732 MS 38619/19 1 Petition by James Cooper behalf of Hugh Cosby minor to Lord Chancellor Robert Stewart Dublin regarding a legacy of £30. 21 June 1728 MS 38619/20 Results of search by Thomas Croker for judgements against Robert Stewart Castleruddery county Wicklow 1700-1723 and James Howard and Rebecca Stewart 1714-1734. 23 May 1735 MS 38620/1 1 Results of search by Thomas Croker for judgements against James and Rebecca Stewart 1714-1735 Castleruddery parish of Donaghmore barony of Talbotstown county Wicklow. 28 May 1735 MS 38639/23 1 Receipt for Robert Stewart for payment of interest on mortgage to Hercules Davis witnessed by Jo Parnell and [In] Knightley. 20 Oct 1716 MS 38639/23 2 Note referring to land at Mount Stewart Donegal Isabella Stewart and the succession of the land to Ralph Howard. 1732 MS 38622/10 2 Bond between Robert Stewart Dublin to William Lord Viscount Mounjoy Dublin for £832. 7 Aug 1703 MS 38622/13 Bond between Richard Hamilton Dublin and John Maxwell College Hall county Armagh to Alice and Isabella Stewart Dunduff county Donegal to pay £1000. 3 Apr 1716 MS 38622/14 1 Pledge by Robert Stewart to pay John Waters £100 at 6% interest. 12 June 1721 MS 38622/14 2 Pledge by Robert Stewart to pay John Waters £45. 15 May 1722 MS 38638/1 Assorted business and legal documents including: award to John Forward from James Cunningham and James Barclay 1685; incomplete legal brief of transactions 1730; bond between Robert Stewart and John Anderson 1714; bond between Edmond Byrne and Gerald McDonough 1629. c. 1629-1750 MS 38639/14 1-5 Receipts belonging to Ralph Howard; Receipts for poll money by Sir Richard Kennedy. Dr Ralph Howard tailors accounts. Bond of indemnity against all things relating to the office of treasurer of the post office by Henry Stewart James Stewart and Lord Longford to William Forward. Receipts regarding the estate of Richard Kennedy by Elizabeth Walsh. 1696 – 9 Nov 1700; 4 Mar 1800

Irtish Coatguard Station

Irish Coast Guard Station

Old Irish Coastguard Station Westport co Mayo

Old Irish Coastguard Station Westport Co Mayo

oldcrewat_tramore_spcUniform - Boatmans - c1900

Old Irish Coastguard Boat Men  - In Uniform George Stuart by Dominic Price Irish Coastguard Records in the early 19th Century & Public Record Office Kew. PRO at KewThe Public Record Office at Kew London England holds a treasure trove of records on the establishment and maintenance of the Coastguard Service in Ireland England Scotland and Wales. I have recently returned from a reconnaissance trip to see what records on the early and middle 19th century might be available. I was searching for evidence of a George Stuart who served with the coastguard during that period. The first information on George Stuart’s involvement with the Coastguard had surfaced on his daughter Margaret’s marriage certificate from Clifden County Galway on 7th October 1871. Subsequently his death certificate just two years later on 18th January 1873 revealed he was a Coastguard Pensioner of 86 years. From this his date of birth was around 1787. A search for coastguard records was going to have to concentrate on the first half of the 19th century. Many internet searches and a trip to the Irish National Library and Archives showed the records were held at Kew. A trip to England was the next step. The fact that George was listed as a Coastguard Pensioner led me to look for Pension Records. I believed this might reveal considerable information on George Stuart and his family. Pension Records are held on accessible microfilm under Cust 39/161 and Cust 39/162. The records are very extensive and list not just coastguard pensioners but also widows in receipt of a pension also. The records are organised on a county by county basis. The existing pensioners are listed first and followed by a section for widows. I ran into some problems as the original documents had been compacted in storage very tightly or had received water damage. The bottom of the pages were extremely difficult if not impossible to read. Kew did advise that as a last resort access to the originals under ultraviolet light is an option but only when all other avenues are exhausted. It was at this point I spoke to a specialist on Coastguard Records James didn’t get his surname who coincidently is preparing work for those researching relatives who served in the Coastguard Service! James pointed me to another source: Registers of Admiralty nominations of Officers and Ratings to the Coastguard in Ireland 1820-1849. The records can be accessed on microfilm under ADM 175/74. The records can be photocopied on A4 or A3 size. ADM 175/74 is the ‘Holy Grail’ for those seeking records for Irish Coastguard personnel in the first half of the 19th century. The document in typical  British Civil Service fashion is highly organised and legible. The document begins with Inspecting Officers for the various Coastal Counties.  What follows is a list of every Coastguard Station on the Irish Coast for the Period along with some which were decommissioned. There are a series of  Principal Ports Subordinate Stations and Detachments. The Register begins with South County Dublin and proceeds on to Wicklow Wexford and so on around south west and north until you come back to north County Dublin. As regards the search for George Stuart I was going to have to look at the entire register for the Country of Ireland. Being a Pensioner in Clifden did not mean he served there. I searched Dublin to Clare and there was no sign but when I came to County Galway the radar began to report. George Stuart spelled Stewart in the records was stationed in Bayleek Clifden. The records indicated there had been a Station at Mannin Bay but it was decommissioned in favour of Bayleek. The information on personnel is extensive for this period. The following information can be gathered:Date of Appointment to the Station. Which Station or Arm of Service the person served previous e.g. Royal Navy. Rank Date the person is removed discharged or retired Reason for removal discharge or retirement. Station removed to afterwards George Stuart arrived in Bayleek Clifden on 18th May 1849. He was previously stationed at Killeries Head of Killary Harbour? – beautiful painting of it by W.H. Bartlett c.1841. His rank was Chief Boatsman. He was discharged on 31st December 1860 at 73 years of age. It was from this first reference that I was able to follow George Stuart’s service in the Coastguard. Killeries was Subordinate Station to Clifden. George arrived there on 29th April 1847 from Comd. Bt. Kilcummin County Mayo. 1847 or Black ’47 was a terrible time to be in this area. It was the middle of the Famine. If you travel the surrounding area today the ghostly ‘lazy beds’ or potato ridges dug by the unfortunates who perished still haunt the hillsidesand valleys. George was only in Killeries for two years. George Stuart served 3 years at Kilcummin County Mayo. He arrived there on 13th January 1844 having served previously at Lacken County Mayo. Lacken had a small detatchment attached to the Station at Kilcummin which was in turn subordinate to Ballina. Sligo had previously been the Commanding Port but the development of Ballina as a port and town of significance meant control of the Mayo Stations passed there. It was here my search for George Stuart came to a halt for the moment. There are no records for the detachment at Lacken. It is likely this detachment was a ship or boat and that the records lie elsewhere. The Register for Ireland dates from the 1830’s to the 1860’s. It lists all personnel who came and went from every Irish Coastguard Station. List of names includes Officers like D’Alton Stokes Goslin Irwin Bryce and McFall and Ratings like Higgins Farley Mulligan Donovan Ellis Murphy Sweeney Tyrrell and Groves. Most of the Rating’s names are Irish. The numbers of Coastguard personnel run to hundreds. It demonstrates how important an employer the Coastguard was and also in receiving a pension the men and their families were not left destitute in old age.My first trip to Kew has been an eventful one. I have extended my knowledge of George Stuart by 26 years at a time when records on the period are scarce.  Unfortunately there are no photographs of the man. Perhaps that’s just as well as the picture of my Great Great Great Grandfather in my own mind is perhaps a better one. Fatal Shooting accident in Monaghan 21st Sept 1897 Yesterday morning between 10 and 11 o’clock a shooting incident resulting in the immediate death of a boy named Francis Keeley about 14 years old took place in the neighbourhood of Scotstown a district about five miles from this town. It appears that the deceased lad who lived in the townland ofDrummonds with a man named Myles Treanor of the same townland went out to shoot rabbits. Treanor who is a man between 35 and 40 years old was armed with a double-barrelled fowling piece and the two proceeded to the townland of Derryleddigan Treanor keeping the gun cocked on the chance of having a shot. In Derryleddigan they came to a ditch over which Keeley climbed and stoof on the other side a distance of about two yards waiting for his companion. Treanor put his left hand on the top of the ditch for the purpose of getting across holding the fowling piece still cocked in his right hand. In pulling himself up the trigger must have caught in a branch as the left barrel went off the contents lodging in Keeley’s head at the back of the right ear. Death must have been instantaneous. When Treanor got across the fence and found the unfortunate boy lying bleeding he fell in a fainting fit beside him. When he recovered consciousness and found Keeley was dead he immediately proceeded to the police station in Scotstown and reported the occurrence. He was placed under arrest by Sergeant Farrell. The body of the deceased was removed and Dr. Stewart Coroner for North Monaghan was communicated with with the result that an inquest will be held tomorrow.

The Modern Nobility in Tir-Owen

IN the survey of Ulster by Captain Pynnar A.D. 1619 as stated in Harris’s Hibernica the following English and Scotch families are given as those whosettled in Tyrone: Hamilton the earl of Abercorn more lately the title was “marquis” and now in 1881 his grace the Duke of Abercorn is the of that ancient family. Sir George Hamilton Sir Claude Hamilton Sir Robert Newcomen Sir John Drummond the Earl of Castlehaven Sir William Stewart Sir John Davis. the Lord Ridgeway George Ridgeway Sir Gerrard Lowther the Lord Burley Sir Francis Willoughby Sir William Cope John Leigh William Parsons Sir Robert Heyborne; Stewart Lord of Uchiltree; Captain Saunderson Robert Lindsay Alexander Richardson Andrew Stewart David Kennedy the Lord Chichester Sir Toby Caulfield Sir Francis Roe Sir Francis Annesley and the Lord Wingfield. Since the reign of James the First the following noble families have settled in Tyrone: the Le Poers were earls of Tyrone a title which afterwards passed by intermarria to the Beresfords. Blount viscounts Mountjoy a title which afterwards passed to the families of Stewart and Gardiner. Trevor viscounts Dungannon. Stewart viscounts Castlestewart. Knox earls of Ranfurley. And Alexander barons of Caledon. Derry: In the reign of Elizabeth “O’Cahan’s Country” was formed by Sir John Perrott into a county which was called from its chief town the “County of Colerain;” and in the reign of James the First on the plantation of Ulster a company of undertakers consisting of merchants and traders from London got grants of the “County of Colerain” and town of Derry: hence the city and county got the name of “Londonderry.” Derry in Irish “Doire” signifies an Oak Wood: and the town was anciently called “Doire-Calgach” signifying the Oak Wood of Calgach from a chief of that name; and afterwards “Derry-Collimbkille” from the abbey founded there by that saint. The territory which now forms the county Derry was part of Tir-Eoghain or Tirowen; and O’Cahan being the head chief it was called “O’Cahan’s Country.” Derry is Latinized “Derria.” The following noble families derive their titles from this county: The family of Pitt formerly marquises of Londonderry a title now possessed by the Stewarts. Hamilton earls now Dukes of Abercorn and barons of Strabane. The families of Hare and Hanger barons of Coleraine. Part of ancient Tyrone was about A.D 1585 formed into the county Tyrone by the lord deputy Sir John Perrott. The ancient “Tir-Eogain” has been Latinized “Tironia” and sometimes “Eugenia.” Tirowen in later times was called “O’Neill’s Country.”

The New Settlerts in Tirconnell Or Donegal

ON the confiscation of Tirconnell and the settlement of British colonies called the “Plantation of Ulster” in the reign of King James the First the following families are in Pynnar’s Survey A.D. 1619 given as the possessors of Donegal: John Murray got all Boylagh and Banagh. The following had various districts: Captain Thomas Dutton Alexander Cunningham or Conyngham John Cunningham James Cunningham Cuthbert Cunningham Sir James Cunningham James MacCullagh; William Stewart the Laird of Dunduff; Alexander MacAwley alias Stewart; the Laird of Lusse Sir John Stewart Peter Benson William Wilson Thomas Davis Captain Mansfield Sir John Kingsmill Sir Ralph Bingley Sir Thomas Coach Sir George Marburie Sir William Stewart Sir Basil Brooke Sir Thomas Chichester Sir John Vaughan John Wray Arthur Terrie Captain Henry Hart Captain Paul Gore Nathaniel Rowley William Lynn and Captain Sandford.

Scotch Undertakers

The following were the Precincts or Baronies set apart for the Scottish Undertakers only: 2.– Precinct of Mountjoy or a part of the Barony of   Dungannon  Co Tyrone . Andrew Stewart Lord Ochiltree. 2. Robert Stewart gent.   Laird of Locnories. 3. Sir Robt. Hepburne Knt. 4.– Precinct of  Portlough or a part of the Barony OF Raphoe Co Donegal 2. Sir Walter Stewart Knt. Laird of Minto 9. John Stewart Esq. 5. William Stewart Laird of Dunduff. 5.– Precinct of Boylagh Co. Donegal 3. William Stewart Esq. 9.– Precinct of Clanchy now Clankee Co Cavan 1. Esme Stuart Lord Aubigny son of Esme Stewart the first Duke of Lennox The Irish House of Commons In 1797 The Representatives of the People Parliaments Octennial Sir John Stewart Bart Stewart Henry Ireland under the ordinary law: a record of the agrarian crimes & offences reported in the Dublin Daily Press : for the six months running from 1st October 1886 to 31st March 1887 1887

The Murder of Byers. Last night a party of men apparently well armed fired at and severely wounded two Emergency men and a police sergeant just outside Ballycar railway station. Two Emergency men named James Hatfield and John Byers have been for the past three months in charge of a farm at Clunagh three miles beyond Newmarket-on-Fergus on the estate of Surgeon E. Stamer O’Grady of Dublin from which two brothers named Lynch were evicted this winter. Residing on the farm along with the Emergency men are Acting-Sergeant Maurice O’Connor and Constable William Dowling who are engaged protecting them. The policeman having complained of the bad condition of the house iv which they lived an artisan named Michael M’Manus was sent down by the Defence Association to repair it. For this some timber was needed and as the whole party are vigorously boycotted the Property Defence Association promised them a horse and cart to take up the timber from Ballvcar station which is about six miles from Clunagh. The men expect- ing the horse and cart to arrive by train from Limerick went down every evening since Friday last to the station to meet it. The cart only arrived on last night the horse coming to-day and Byres and M’Manus who with the sergeant had come to Ballycar leaving Hatfield and Constable Dowling at Clunagh left the station about 8.15 p.m. with the object of returning to Clunagh. They had not gone 200 yards from the station when shots at least ten in number were fired at them from behind the stone wall which skirts the road. Byres was the first struck and he fell. Sergeant O’Connor then fired four shots from his rifle calling on M’Manus to fire aUo. Both Byres and M ‘Manus had revolvers. The night being very dark none of the sergeant’s shots appear to have taken any effect and the attacking party which had followed them up the road keeping well behind the wall fired again wounding the sergeant on the right side and hip and M’Manus on the right elbow. Byres crawled from where he fell in the middle of the road to the wall from behind which the shots were fired and the sergeant and M’Manus ran on into Newmarket where they gave the alarm. Mr. Cunningham stationmaster at Ballycar and his son-in-law Mr. Stewart hearing the shots ran up the road with a lamp. They discovered Byres who by this time was insensible and procured a luggage cart on which they brought him into the station where they put him to bed. By this time a number of police had come down from Newmarket and were followed shortly after by Dr. Frost of Newmarket who attended Byers’s wounds which he pronounced very dangerous. Byers was struck on the back and left side by at least seventeen pellets several of which penetrated the groin and leave him in a veiy precarious condition. Indeed the general impression is that he will nut recover Byers was removed to the Ennis County Infirmary this morning on an ambulance car. Serjeants O’Connor and M’Manus their wounds having being dressed by Dr. Frost have returned to Clunagh. District Inspector C. M. M’Donnel! Newmarket was on the scene last night which was visited early to-day by Mi”. Kilkelly R.M. and County Inspector C. Heard. No traces beyond a few foot-prints in the field from which the shots were fired were discovered the general wildness of the district as well as the sparseness of its population no doubt aiding the Moonlighters in escaping unrecognised. No arrests have as yet been made but the police believe they have discovered a clue to the perpetrators of the outrage which they are actively following up. — Freeman’s Journal Feb. 16th 1887.

Burnings. Two further outrages occurred on Sunday morning. A rick of hay the property of Mrs. Quirke was fired near Abington and four shots were fired into the house of the stationmaster at Drumkeen Maurice Heffernan. No injury was done and it is supposed that this case has no connection with the firings. Mr. Heffernan acted as an auctioneer on some occasion on which a farm was sold for non-payment of rent. It is supposed that it is for this that his house was fired at more for the purpose of intimidation than from any desire to inflict bodily harm. — Freeman’ s Journal March 8th 1887.

Moonlight Raid. On the night before last a party of men disguised went round Clooneygoolane Kiltumper and other townlands in Cahermurphy in the parish of Kilmihill and wrecked all the houses of tenants suspected of having paid their rents to the landlord Major-General Alexander Stewart on whose estate the Plan of Campaign had been adopted and many of whom have recently been served with ejectment writs. The windows in the houses thus visited were all broken in with sticks and stones with threats to the owners that as soon as it was positively ascertained that they had paid their rents their conduct would be more seriously noticed. The police have been investigating the matter. — Freemaris  Jotirna! March 9th 1S87. A Genealogical & Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry in Ireland http://archive.org/stream/genealogicalhera00burkuoft/genealogicalhera00burkuoft_djvu.txt Ireland Stewart. 4 Sampson now of Crobeg b. 3 Oct. 1848 ; m. ist i Oct ; 1885 Frances Matilda Daughter. of Charles Cavanagh Murphy of Streamhill Co. Cork who d. without issue 16 Oct. 1888. He m. andly Susanna Mary Daughter. of Spiers Norcott of Cottage Doneraile. 1 Anna Letitia m. ist 20 July 1870 Warden Francis Grove Anneslay 5th son of Lieut.-Gen. Hon. Arthur Grove Annesley of Annesgrove Co. Cork who d.s.p. 19 Sept. 1875. She m. 2ndly Oat. 1878 Rev. J. Rice who d.s.p. 1882. She m. 3rdly 1885 Edward Fitzgibbon. 2 Katharine Letitia m. Oct 3. 1878 Rev. William Henry Cotter LL.D. Rector of Buttevant Co. Cork and d. 1894 leaving issue. 2. John Robert of Summerhill b. 17 July 1812 Capt. in the 38th Foot ; m. 14 Dec. 1854 Frances Anne 3rd Daughter. of Sir John Allen de Burgho Bart. of Castle Connell Co. Louth and had issue. i John Allen George b. 18 Dec. 1858 ; d. unm. 23 March 1893. .? William Eustace b. 12 Dec. 1859 ; d. 1860. 1 Anna Maud Katherine m. 1 June 1880 Henry Bird who d. 20 Feb. 1900 leaving issue. 2 Mildred Frances Elizabeth d. 1862. 3 Elizabeth Maria Teresa d. August 1864. “anas b. 17 July 1814. He was a Capt. in the 45th Foot and afterwards served as Principal Barrack Master at the Cape of Good Hope. He d. 16 Nov. 1885 having m. 1st 25 Nov. 1840 Henrietta 2nd Daughter. of Thomas Prothero of Malpas Court Co. Mon. J.P. and D.L. High Sheriff of Mon- mouthshire 1846 who d. on 2 Sept. 1850. He m. 3rdly 14 Feb. 1854. Harriet Innes Daughter. of Capt. Thompson by which marriage there was no issue. By his 1st marriage he had issue a son George Dodsworth b. 14 July 1849. He served in the Devonshire Regt. and retired from the Army with the substantive rank of Col. Dec. 1002. He m. 20 July 1887 Eleanora Mabel 3rd daughter. of Edward Byrom of Culver Exeter and Kersall Cell Lanes. D.L. of Devon and High Sheriff of that Co. in 1888 and has issue Katharine Eleanora Innes. 4. William of Kilbrack J.P. B.A. Trin. Coll .Dublin 6. n Nov. 1819. He inherited the property of Kilbrack Co. Cork on the death without male issue of the Rev. Francis Stawell in 1866 see Stawell of Kilbritiain. He d. 31 March 1880. He m. 17 April 1855 Eliza Daughter. of the Rev. Thomas Croker by whom he had issue r Francis formerly of Kilbrack and now of Mitchelstown Co. Cork J.P. b. 14 Jan. 1859. 2 William b. 4 June 1862 ; tn. 3 July 1900 Ellen Daughter. of Carre M.D. i Eliza Emilia Arcthusa. t. Elizabeth m. 20 July 1825 Nathaniel Webb Ware of Voodfort Co. Cork and had issue. She d. 9 Jan. 1865. 2. Catherine m. 16 Feb. 1833 Hugh Delacour of Beareforest Co. Cork. She d.s.p. June 1841. He d. March 1873. 3. Susan Patience m. 6 Aug. 1827 Capt. Robert Vivian 22nd Foot who d. 18 Dec. 1871 and had issue. She d. 1882. 4. Charlotte tn. 14 Dec. 1840 Robert Longfield Q.C. who d. in 1868. She d.s.p. Aug. 1894. We now return to the eldest surv. son of George Stawell of Summerhill Ballylought and Bally veniter Jonas Stawell of Oldcourt Co. Cork b. 8 Jan. 1769 Ensign in the Mallow Independents B.A. Trin. Coll. Dublin Barrister-at- Law J.P. for Co. Cork. He d. 25 July 1840 having m. 14 Feb. 1805 Anna Elizabeth who d. 15 Nov. 1833 Daughter. of the Right Rev William Foster D.D. Bishop of Clogher whose father the Right Hon. Anthony Foster was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer Ireland and his brother John who was Chancellor of the Exchequer and last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons before the Union was created Baron Oriei in 1821. They had issue five sons and five daughters. 1. George Cooper of Oldcourt b. 16 Sept. 1809 ; tn. 15 May 1843 Elizabeth 3rd Daughter. of George Tandy of Balrath Co. Heath and d.s.p. 14 Jan. 1862. 2. William b. 1810 ; d. 3 Nov. 1814. 3. Sir William Foster K.C.M.G. of Gurrane Co. Cork and D’Estaville Melbourne B.A. Trin. Coll. Dublin and Barrister-at-Law b. 27 June 1815. He emigrated to Australia where in 1851 he became the first Attorney-General of the newly created colony of Victoria of which on 25 Feb. 1857 he was appointed Chief Justice. He was knighted 1857 and in 1873 the degrees of LL. B. and LL.D. were conferred upon him by the University of Dublin. In 1875 1877 and 1884 he acted as Governor of Victoria and in 1886 he was created K.C.M.G. In August 1886 he resigned his office of Chief Justice and was appointed Lieut. – Governor of Victoria. He d. 12 March 1889 having m. Jan. 1856 Mary Frances Elizabeth Daughter. of William Pomeroy Greene of Collon House Co. Louth by whom he had issue 1. Jonas Molesworth b. 12 July 1858. He is a Civil Engineer and resides at Sydney N.S.W. 2. William Melbourne] 6. 22 March 1860. He tn. 1894 Clara de Castilla Daughter. of Charles Lyon and has issue i Juliet. 2 Joan. 3. Charles Leslie B.A. LL.B. Camb. Barrister-at-Law Perth W.A. b. 15 Sept. 1861 ; m. 1902 Mildred Daughter. of Robert Kennedy and has issue Richard b. 25 April 1905. 4. George Cooper b. 23 Dec. 1862. Is in P.W. Dept. India. He tn. 1894 Kathleen Daughter. of Capt. Alan Deane and has issue . William Arthur McDonald b. 22 Jan. 1895. 5. Richard Rawdon M.D. Melbourne with gold medal D.P.H. London Melbourne b. 14 March 1864; m. 12 Aug. 1908 Evelyn Daughter. of Henry Connolly and has issue 1 Mary Elizabeth. 2 Anna Evelyn. 6. Rodolph de Salis B.A. M.B. B.C. Camb. F.R.C.S. Eng. Castle Gates Shrewsbury b. 30 Nov. 1871 ; m. 5 Sept. 1900 Maud Daughter. of Admiral Right Hon. Sir Astley Cooper Key G.C.B. F.R.S. 1. Anne Catherine m. 17 Oct. 1889 Sylvester John Browne of Whittingham N.S W. and has issue. 2. Mary Letitia m. 14 May 1890 Edward Willam Hawker of Adelaide South Australia and has issue. 3. Henrietta. 4. Florence Melian who was educated at Melbourne University and Newnham Coll. Camb. She was placed in the first division of the first class in the Classical Tripos Camb. 1892. 4. Jonas Sampson of Hillsborough Co. Down and Gurrane’ Co. Cork b. 19 April 1817 ; d. unm. 2 Dec. 1887. 5. John Leslie Rev. Canon B.A. Trin. Coll. Dublin late Rector of Aughnameadle Toomavara Co. Tipperary b. 16 Oct. 1818 ; d. 25 July. 1911; m. 25 Aug. 1848 Frances Daughter. of John Wilmot Smith of Ballynanty House Co. Limerick by whom he had issue i. Jonas Cooper Lloyd B.A. M.B. Trin. Coll. Dublin b. 9 Jan. 1857 ; m. 4 Oct. 1885 his cousin Charlotte Mary Daughter. of Charles Wilmot Smith of Ballynanty House Co. Limerick who d. on 4 Jan. 1890. He d.s.p. 26 Jan. 1901. i. Mary Anna Grace. 2. Letitia Frances Charlotte. 1. Catherine Elizabeth Anna tn. 10 Feb. 1830 George Gamett J.P. of Williamstown Co. Meath who d. 1856. She d. 15 April 1880 having had issue. 2. Elizabeth Georgianna tn. 2 Sept. 1844 Arundell Hill of Donnybrook Co. Cork and had issue. 3. Anna Henrietta m. 10 March 1834 ner cousin George Stawell of Crobeg q.v.. She d. April 1877. 4. Esther Harriet d. unm. Sept. 1818. 5. Letitia d. unm. 2 Aug. 1894. Arms Gu. a cross lozengy arg. a crescent or for difference. CrestOn a cap of maintenance gu. turned up erm. a falcon rising arg. in his beak a scroll thereon the motto En parole je vis. Seat Crobeg Doneraile Co. Cork.

Antony Maitland’s Genealogy – Stewarts

Stewarts of Killymoon & Tyrcallen Index of Principle Individuals Debrett’s Baronetage of England 1815. Stewart of Athenry 5      Generation Elizabeth Stewart 1839 6 Generation Edward Michael Stewart 1797 Henry Stewart 1749 Elizabeth Pakenham 1769 William Stewart 2 1710 James Stewart 2 1665 William Stewart 1 1625 James Stewart 1 14  Stewart Background papers 14.1  The  Stewart of  Killymoon  Papers 14.2  The  Stewart of Tyrcallen  Papers This is the history of the family of Elizabeth Stewart daughter of Edward Michael Stewart wife of Frederick Chadwick and great grandmother of AlicKirk-Owen_Maitland. The Stewarts are thought to have come over to Ulster in the early 17thC from Scotland. Much of this history has been collected from papers in the PRONI and from the work of Gerald Pakenham Stewart. Appendices: 1. Hamilton Family Sources Sources are shown as footnotes in the format 123… Other notes such as email addresses not for publication are given as footnotes in the format iiiiii… Try T3007 Stewart papers – letters T559/36 p86 PRONI has a Pedigree of the Stewarts of Killymoon starting with a Henry Stewart: this should be James Stewart 1. PRONI D3319/13/2: GPS: “Stewarts of Ballymenagh Killymoon & Tyrcallen”. A monograph by GP Stewart BA LLB Indian Civil Service til 1947 then to home in New Zealand 1982.  About 30 pps. A copy of this is held in the PRONI and held by A Maitland in a separate volume. Comments about sequence of male Christian names James & William: James 1 father William? PRONI Stewart papers D3319-27-11. Stewart-Kennedy Notes: D700 p455/6 EMC: Edward Marion Chadwick – Chadwick History. EMCO/Ont: EMC – Ontarian Families Graves: From research by Ontario Genealogical Society. SLP: Succession Lists for Parishes. JJF: Genealogy of the Jaffrey-Jeffrey Family by Helen H. Iver 1925. PC sent by Linda Hill Apex NC 4/4/2003. Copy of copy sent to Carl G. Smedberg. Charles Addison: 11/2006 letters re Henry Stewart 1799-64. Dewin: http://www.wingfield.org/Charts/dewin001. An extensive pedigree of the Wingfield family of England and Ireland. A Charles Wingfield of Shropshire who must have been of the same family was an early member of the Midland Gliding Club at the Long Mynd a club to which Antony Maitland belonged. Debrett’s Baronetage of England 1815. Debrett’s Baronetage of England: Containing Their Descent and Present State Their Collateral Branches Births Marriages and Issue from the Institution of the Order in 1611… / by John Debrett Published by Printed for F. C. and J. Rivington 1815Item notes: v.2Original from Harvard University Index: http://books.google.Co.uk/books?id=A5oBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR9&dq=subject:%22Baronetage%22+Debretts&output=html http://books.google.Co.uk/books?output=html&id=iI8BAAAAYAAJ&jtp=1120. Page 1120 Stewart. Stewart of Athenry Co Tyrone. June 14 1803. The Right Hon. John Stewart late Attorney-General in Ireland M.P. in 1802 for the county of Tyrone created a Baronet as above married Mary daughter of Mervyn Archdall of Castle Archdall Co. Fermanagh Esq. by Mary Dawson daughter of Viscount Carlton and by her who d. in 1795 had issue: 1. Mary b. in 1791 d. 1810; 2. Hugh 6. March 17931 and 3. Mervyn b. in 1799.Andrew Stewart commonly styled captain Andrew Stewart who with lord Castle Stewart to whom he was related and his Andrew’s brother James who afterwards fixed his residence at Ballymona Co. Tyrone went from Scotland to Ireland about the year 1627: on his marriage as hereafter mentioned he obtained from lord Castle Stewart the greater part of the manor of Castle Stewart; but he afterwards built and resided on another seat called Gortigil near Stewart’s Town Co. Tyrone at a spot immediately adjoining the present residence of the Castle Stewart family which has ever since been in possession of captain Stewart’s descendants : he served with colonel Robert Stewart of Fry in defence of the forts of Dnngannon and Mountjoy in 1641; and at the rising of the rebels at Artrea or Ardtreigh Co. Tyrone for the purpose of destroying the protestant families of that county his house was attacked; but with a few Scots’ followers he defended it for two days when assistance was sent to him from Mountjoy Fort. Captain Stewart m. Sarah eldest daughter of lord Castle Stewart commonly styled lord Ochiltree and sister to Mary countess of Suffolk by whom who survived him and d. in 1687 he had issue : l. Robert who had an only child Janet who m. in 1684 John Bell of Mulluntear esq.; 2. Hugh of whom hereafter; 3. James an officer R. N. who m. —— daughter of admiral sir Cloudesley Shovel A3M: who was responsible for and died in a major naval disaster in the Scilly Isles and d. gallantly in battle. Captain Stewart having long been an object devoted to vengeance for the zeal and loyalty he evinced in the royal cause was at length put to death by rebels about the year 1650. Hugh the 2d son m. Margaret daughter of Thomas Morris of Mountjoy Castle esq. and had issue John of Gortigal who m. Mary daughter of —- Kennedy and had issue Hugh and James and several daughters. Hugh Stewart the eldest son in holy orders rector of Suman Co. Tyrone m. Sarah daughter of the rev. Andrew Hamilton a relative of the marquess of Abercorn from whom he obtained the two valuable parishes of Toboyne aud Donogheady both in the presentation of the Abercorn family in Ireland: by his 1st wife the sole daughter and heiress of sir William Cunningham of Cunningham Head in North Britain and of Castle-Conyngham Co. Donegal bart. and had issue: 1. John created a baronet as above; 2. Andrew an officer in the service of the East India Company who fell in an engagement in India; and 3. Henry in holy orders rector of Toman Co. Tyrone m. Sophia daughter of -— Clossy of Dublin esq. and has issue: Henry John William Bagnall Hugh and other children; 4. Anne m. Humphrey Nixon of Nixon Lodge Co. Cavan esq.; 5. Sarah m. William Baillie of Termsker Co. Tyrone esq.; and 6 Amelia d. unm.; and 1. The right hon. sir John the eldest son was created a baronet as above. Anns—Or a lion rampant within a double tressure connterflory gules within a bordure gobony azure and argent 5 Generation Elizabeth Stewart 1839 KO05/06  GPS533 Sources: EMC IGI Newspaper Cemetary ref Wellington Hist Soc Parents: Edward Michael and Jane Renwick Stewart Ref Grave: Born: 13/10/1839 Married: Frederick Jasper Chadwick 3 September 1861 Died: 3/8/1894 buried Woodlawn Cemy Guelph. Graves 6  Generation Edward Michael Stewart 1797 KO06/11 Much of the detailed lineage of the Stewarts that follow is from the  work by Gerald Pakenham Stewart Stewart2 file. Other sources are documents in PRONI newspapers and several papers on the Jeffrey family and EMC papers.Born: Dublin 24/9/1797 GPS522 & SLP Died: at Knockbreda Belfast Dec 2 1883 SLP. no will details Buried: Glendermot Church Co Derry. Parents: Henry Stewart and Elizabeth Pakenham Summary: AM from PRONI info 8/1999 with extra from JJF EMS was farming in a small way in SW Scotland at Baldoon near Wigtown near the shore of the estuary where there are still “Baldoon sands” shown on maps. Possibly after a hard winter by 1832 he had decided it was not a viable proposition.  The land was rented from Mr Arbuckle. There was evidently talk and papers about life in North America. He decided to go to Upper Canada with Matthew Arbuckle the son of his landowner? with whom he may have been farming at Baldoon to see for himself what Canada was like. He sailed by the “Eagle” on 27 May 1832 from Liverpool. It is not known howlong he spent in Canada but he was presumably in Britain when he was married in September 1833.His time in Baldoon explains his meeting Jane Renwick Jeffrey who is said by EMC to have come from Dumfries-shire: JJF describes her father as an Edinburgh lawyer; maybe he had property in Allerbeck. No information has appeared about his marriage except for a reference in the notes of letters received by his parents of congratulations sent and a date in GPS. A collection of drawings and paintings in Jane’s sister Agnes’s Sentiment Book holds a pencil drawing by Jane of Wigtown from Baldoon: Jane must therefore have been at Baldoon at some time.A number of Jane’s siblings emigrated to North America in the 1830′s the first seeming to be her younger brother Alexander at the age of 16. They were mostly in the US but her sister Isabella married Rev Bold Cudmore Hill of Co Haldiman Ontario. Another sister Agnes was a painter. Several of her close relatives were also artists. Who set the trend is unclear.He his wife Jane son Henry William and maid arrived in Canada by February 1835 and lodged for a time  with a Doctor. History does not relate where.They were in Cayuga by 1839 when his mother wrote to her nephew Charles Wellesley asking him to look out for them. Note: IGI Mathew Arbuckle was ch 16/12/1804 at Kirkmuir near Wigtown opposite Baldoon Sands child of Robert Arbuckle and Jean Anderson.He was in Holy Orders of Guelph and of Clooney Co.  Derry SPL: educated Armagh Roy. Sch. by Dr Carpendale TCD as FC June 7 1813 aged 15.  BA 1817 MA 1824 BA Cantab 1820. 1820 Termoneeny SLP: Curate nom Dec 2 DR 1830 Donaghenry Armagh SPL: “appears” curate. 1832 onwards: Canada. 1867 Balteagh SLP: acted as Temporary Curate residing in Glebe House. In son Henry’s Entry in SLP refered to as “of Ballymenagh co Tyrone & Corearn Donegal” Barrister at Law. Went to Canada 1832 but afterwards lived in Derry. Window to father and son at All Saints Clooney. Internet 26/11/00 list of Clergy Archives of Diocese of Niagara: 1851-59 St Alban’s Acton 1858 St George’s Guelph Assistant. 1859 Returned to Ireland MA Cantab wore black scull cap in later years. Came to Canada about 1832 residing for a time in Cayuga in Co Haldimand; not having at that time any Ministerial charge he joined the Militia called out to suppress the rebellion of 1837 French Canadians led by Papineau rebelled in 1837 opposing the union of French and British Canada and served in the Niagara Frontier where he was captured by the rebels and narrowly escaped being put to death by them; subsequently settled at Guelph as Assistant Minister of St George’s Church and resided there many years but ultimately returned to Ireland. Letter from EM Stewart to Mother PRONI D3319/9/4: My dear Mother I will go to Pakenham Hall on tuesday next I know no objection to my going to Tyrcallen with you and Heny. I saw Aunt Bess today Miss Edgeworth & Miss Honora Edgeworth & Master Francis Beaufort Edgeworth paid her a long visit. Miss Edgeworth very condescendingly recognized me and asked particularly for James & I had the honor of handing her to her coach – Mr Edgeworth as she told us is trying experiments on wheel carriages but he is not able to walk tho’ he is much better – I saw Saint Lawrance several times lately he walks very well. George Knox son to the Bishop of Derry got a premium – Willy seemed to think that Marpendale had been beaten but it was no such thing he cut for the premium with Honnor. Dicky Pakenham has not the first Volume of Willy’s Demosthenes. pray tell him that me? try & recollect who has it that I may get it from him that I may bring it with me that I may read my examinations in it. Pray tell him also that I took proper care tho’ he did not to notify to the proper officers his departure from Colege? I am your afft son EM Stewart. This letter must have been written about 1814 whilst he was at TCD. The reference to “Aunt Bess” must have been to his spinster great aunt Elizabeth Pakenham who died about 1818. D3319/7/11 Letter from Edward Michael Stewart re Canada 1832. Addressed to Henry Stewart esq 6 Leinster Sq Dublin. Liverpool 12 May 1832 My dear father I have received your letter begun the 10th and ended 11th from Dublin. Dr Wm and I left our friends at Baldoon yesterday morning after breakfast & Matthew drove us to Garhiestown and saw us off – we had a good passage & came into the smooth water of the river late last night & up to the quay this morning – Dr Robert was not at home having been called up before 5 this morning – His landlady has received us hospitably & given us a good breakfast & dressing rooms; but not knowing where the lodging which Dr Robert has engaged for me is I am staying here with all my luggage which is not a little till the Doctor comes home. I am particularly glad that you are writing to Matthew Arbuckle himself. I advised and almost entreated him to write to you yesterday & I hope he may do so; but lest he should not I will lay before you a calculation he made & shewed me on Wednesday night last.For his outfit passage journey & expenses in Canada until a purchase can be made suppose – £100 Expenses of personal establishment for a year including servant – say £100Interest on £1000 at 5 percent – 50  £250. The suppose £2000 invested so as to produce immediately 15 percent for one year = £300 one share of which = £150; which subtracted from expenses of first year leaves £100 debt; and every subsequent year proceeds of investment only = personal expenses. From this it results that either I must ascertain that probable return of £2000 invested in land or otherwise in Upper Canada will be more than 15 percent before Matthew Arbuckle can prudently leave Scotland; or some other arrangement must be made. Mr Arbuckle spoke to me about it himself yesterday morning the last thing before taking leave of me & I only replied that he must know as well as I that you would never expect Matthew to do any thing from which he should not have a fair return and that as Mr Arbuckle himself had told me that he always had hitherto found you disposed to be liberal so he might reckon upon finding you so still. Having stated this to you I hope I may take leave of the subject altogether for it is entirely a matter between you and the Arbuckles & I do not wish to be a go-between in a case where direct communication between partied is so easy. I have received a newspaper article with an article on Canada marked. I thank my mother for her letter but do not want any thing that I can think from Dublin. I suppose from what you say that Beaumaris has met your approbation. Your very affte.  Edward Stewart. Dr Wm delivers his respects. From the foregoing letter it appears that Edward Stewart was going into partnership with Matthew Arbuckle with £1000 each in land in Upper Canada: Arbuckle hoped to borrow at 5% and reinvest in Canada and return 15% or more to cover his living expenses. He is supposed to have gone to Canada about 1832 this letter may have been written on his way via Liverpool.This letter is part of a collection “Stewart of Tyrcallen” Stranorlar Donegal papers: PRONI ref D3319/11. D/3319/10: transcripts in note form of letters received by Henry & Elizabeth Stewart. 12/1831: letter about the price of wheat and storms: Arbuckle’s farm. 2/1832: ref W Ferguson’s of Woodhill book about journey to USA 7/1832: “he EMS? had not been living long at Baldoon before he began to be aware that farming in Scotland would never do for him – such farms not profitable and large ones requiring more skill experience and capital to render? than so that he is master of the competition for the land is such that men offer what they know is above the value …. suggests “going to see for myself what sort of place is UC via New York with the intention of returning to report unless we agree that it would be advisable for me to remain longer in Canada & whether it may not be proper to tell Mr Arbuckle that it is not probable I shall stay another quarter at Baldoon. 2/1832: mentions Capt Roxboro who had been 17 years in UC and had land in Niagara: taking his family out. 31/3/1832: sailing Scotland to Bushmills – preparation for Edward & Matthew going. 3/4/1832: “Matthew and I have been looking over Emigrant tracts. 9/5/1832: From Baldoon to Garlieston by steamer to Liverpool and then by railroad to Beaumaris. 22/5/1832: sorry not to see parents before departure across the Atlantic. note “Eagle” sailed 27/5/1832. Ref Liverpool Mercury about 20 May 1832: Advertisement: “To be despatched punctually on 26th inst For New York The regular trading first class American ship EAGLE H.Lyon Master Burthen 510 tons coppered and copper fastened and sails fast. This ship is now on her second voyage and is equal in every respect to the best of the packets: she has elegant accommodation for ten passengers and space between decks where a limited number of steerage passengers will be taken. For terms apply to Captain Lyon on board Princes Dock or to Wm & Jas Brown & Co. Notice in the Mercury the following week showing Eagle sailed on the 27th. 10/1833: reference of Henry writing to Mrs Jeffrey. Letter from “Caroline”: I heartily rejoice at your Edwd’s happy prospect I delight in his having met with a lass meet for him they have my hearty prayers for time and Eternity. 23/10/1833: other congratulations on Edwards marriage.  EMS seems to have been in Britain for 1834. 1816: interesting letter describing grandmother’s death D3319/9/30. 2/1835: “Edwad says they had a prosperous journey Jane Henry-Wlm and their made Patten. They are accommodated at the house of Mr Forde MD. They have a good sitting room and 2 bedrooms off it. We have got 2 tables a bed a chest of drawers a large Basin stand all of Black Walnut a Frankl  stove a carpet and 6 chairs. Mr Forde furnishes a bedstead for Eliza and a lot of pegs to hang things on We eat with Mr Forde he is Cardner??  and Jane housekeeper?. Mrs Griffiths is here today Jane and baby having paid them a visit by invitation and were much pleased indeed with the whole family and their new home.  It is a great ?? for them to have a doctor so near them in that forlorn Country but her appears happy and nobody can be more than that. 1853: extract from piece about house research in Guelph Ontario using as example a house built by Rev Arthur Palmer see below …… This indicates that Palmer was the fourth owner of that property after the Canada Company John McDonald a Canada Company surveyor and George Tiffany another Canada Company surveyor. Palmer purchased some 23 acres from Tiffany the B & S or Bill of Sale and Tiffany gave Palmer a mortgage for at least part of it. This does not tell us much about any house on this large property. However Palmer took out another mortgage for 1800 pounds in September of 1853 from Rev. E.M. Stewart who happened to be his assistant minister at St. George’s. This mortgage was renewed in 1856 and repaid in 1859. Presumably this money was used to build what Palmer called Tyrcathlen and which was renamed Ker Cavan in 1928. see end of this section for more about Arthur Palmer. The name of the house “Tyrcathlen” must be a bastardisation of the  Stewart family home in Ireland. Issue of Edward Michael & Jane Renwick Stewart SLP refers to 7 children.  IGI has births in Ireland Donegal EAC: FAPC had Uncle Augustus & Aunt Caroline with sons Gussie & Vaux 1/1. Henry William Stewart: GPS467 Details Born: 24/9/1834 in either: Cayuga SLP 35m W of Niagara ako as Haldimand IGI has birth Ballymenagh Donegal. SLP prob correct. Family letters imply he was Irish born.  Died: 5/11/1910 Knockbreda bur also. SLP. Listed under Chancellors of Down: TCD BA 1857 Ord D & P 1858 Toronto. 1858-60 Guelph. 1860-61 Oak Ridge. 1861-63 Head Master Guelph Grammar School. 1863: Curate Kilberry Kildare. 1867: @ Knockbreda installed as Chancellor of Down Sept 20. Married GPS 10/4/1860 St George’s Church Guelph: Frances 2nd Daughter of Ven Arthur Palmer Archdeacon of Toronto and his wife Hester Madeline Crawford. Born 3/5/1836-26/1/1911 died Belfast bur Knockbreda. 1876 Landowners Donegal: Rev Henry William Stewart address Rathowen owned 303 acres Checkemian History: …..In reporting this Henry William Stewart Rector & Rural Dean of Knockbreda in the Church of Ireland’s Diocese of Down affirmed “I have seen the document and the seal but of course cannot read them.” In 1889 he is reported to have been preaching in the Presbyterian Churches of Belfast notably Berry Street Church and St. Enoch’s Church Belfast and it was noted that “He enjoys the confidence of and is warmly recommended by the most eminent men in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.” In 1890 he was still preaching and lecturing in Belfast as Stewart noted “He can now speak English fairly well and he hopes to become a naturalized English subject before he goes back to the East.” It was at this time that he was taken up by Archbishop Plunket Anglican Archbishop of Dublin as Stewart notes that Checkemian was still in Belfast on 5 September 1890 and had visited the Archbishop. Stewart had a high opinion of him “I believe him to be a sincere man – and to be a man capable of exercising a powerful influence over others … It is no doubt an ambitious undertaking but he is evidently a man of great energy and perseverance.” Issue: 2/1. Edward Michael Stewart GPS473 B. 24/3/1864 D. Knockbreda 22/7/1931 married 19/12/1918 Helen Margaret Imray Daughter of George Imray of Culdean Granton-on-Spey. 3/1. Francis Marion Eugenie m Michael Farrar-Bell 2/2. Arthur Henry Stewart GPS478 born 1869 M. @ Runnymede Kansas Alice Daughter of Arthur W. Mosse of Castletown Kilkenny. 3/2005: http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/records/1876land.htm Arthur Wellesley Mosse address Ballyconra Ballyragget owned 1350 acres Landowners Co Kilkenny 1878 holdings over 1 acre 3/1. Frances Constance Stewart MD. born 1891. 2/3. Pakenham Thomas Stewart born 1871 died 1938 M. 1901 Mary Dupre Fennell Daughter of John George Fennell of Melbourne. 3/1. Mary Fennell Stewart born 1904. 3/2. Gerald Pakenham Stewart born 1906 the author of “GPS” he died 1998 New Zealand.  His family continues on Stewart 2 restricted access 2/4. Rev William Stewart GPS482 b 1896 Rector of Rillingston. Married: Estelle Atkinson 3/1. Katherine Estelle Stewart  married Avu Cesare Colliva an Italian 2 Daughter. 3/2. Esme Mary Stewart b.1913  Noel P. Woodgate-Jones MP.  5 children. 2/5. James Robert Stewart GPS484 b 1878 3/1. James Robert Stewart born 1878 M. Kate Payne Dickson 4/1. Joseph Ainslie Stewart born 1917 2/6. John Alexander Stewart GPS486 born 1881 M. 5/4/1904 Lydia Christine d of Duncan Malcolm of Belfast She was my maternal great Aunt by the name of Lydia Christine Malcolm.  She appears to have married John Alexander Stewart 5/4/1904 possibly Belfast?  and they seem to have had a son Henry William Basil. I have always thought there was a connection between Lydia’s Stewart marriage and her brother’s emigration to New Zealand. He was James Black Malcolm and emigrated from Belfast in 1878 on the Lady Jocelyn as part of an Ulster Plantation emigration scheme set up by George Vesy Stewart. George was of the Stewart of Athenree family which I understand has connections to the family you have put up on your site. James Malcolm I believe belonged to the Enniskillen Dragoons at one stage I understand a Stewart regiment. I am in regular contact with the archivist in Kati Kati NZ I was B in NZ where the Athenree Stewarts settled. One of my Malcolm relatives is buried next to Adela Stewart who was the wife of Capt Hugh Stewart. I am in touch with some of the descendants of this family in NZ.  I see on your web site that Pakenham Thomas Stewart brother in law to our Lydia also spent some time in NZ so he may be the family connection to the Ulster settlement scheme I have been looking for. My great grandfather was Duncan Malcolm of Belfast Lydia Stewart’s father. I have spent a number of years hunting for a maternal blood relative whom I knew only as Lydia Christina Stewart. I was told she was the sole executrix of my great great grandfather Duncan Malcolm’s of Belfast Will poss dated early/mid 1900s. I was told by family years ago that Lydia had married well and I assumed she was Duncan Malcolm’s daughter the more so because I think her mother was Christina Black/Malcolm. I believe it is she named as Lydia Christine Malcolm Daughter of Duncan Malcolm of Belfast that I have found in your web site. You show that Lydia married John Alexander Stewart b 1881 to Henry Wm Stewart and Frances Palmer in 1904. Duncan Malcolm was a room paper merchant in Victoria Street Belfast from the early 1860s until the early 1900s so far as I can find. I understand he was quite well off. For some reason Duncan had cast his son James Black Malcolm my great grandfather from his estate. We had been told that James had been a ‘naughty boy’ but as happens in families a veil seems to have been drawn. One story was that he might have been drummed from the army another that his father purchased his release due to rising tensions in Europe at the time. James apparently trained as an accountant. He went to Kimberley S Africa and the  to New York from where his father brought him home. In 1878 his father sent him to NZ as  ‘cadet’ as part of the Stewart of Athenree’s Ulster Plantation private settlement scheme in Kati Kati Bay of Plenty North island. I have always strongly felt there was some relationship between the Malcolms and the Stewarts but could never establish it. It seems the Athenree and Killymoon Stewarts are related in some way. There might also be a link thru the Inniskillen Dragoons which James allegedly belonged to for a bit and which I understand was a Stewart regiment. Christina’s sister Jessy ?Cameron Malcolm  married John Bain a JP in Belfast; their daughter also Jessy married into the Lord/Earl of Essex’s family the Cecils. So the Malcolm clearly had friends in high places the girls were supposedly very beautiful – Jessy Bain had been known as the Belle of Belfast. 4/1. Denzil John Reginald Stewart born 1935 5/1. Tamzin Stewart. 5/2. Rowan Stewart. 2/7. Frances Mary Stewart 1861-1937 unmarried SLP & GPS470 2/8. Jane Charlotte Stewart GPS471 born 1862 married 1884 James Jonas – GPS Sealy Poole MD 3/1. Madge Poole born 1891 2/9. Hester Madeline Stewart GPS475 Following from Frederick Pike 2/2008. Born 1867 died 1943 Milnthorpe. Married believed in Alexandria 27/9/1894 Lt Octavius Harold Daniel Cmdr RN who was the 8th child of the Rev Robert Daniel who at the time was the vicar of Osbaldwick and headmaster of Archbishop Holgate school which still exists as a well-run comprehensive. He was born 19th March 1869 in St Giles Yorkshire and died in October 1960 in Milnthorpe Westmorland now Cumbria. 3/1. Kathleen Lilla Daniel b Knockbreda 20/9/1897 d 20/5/1989 M. Geoffrey Owen Pike b 20/1/1897-18/1/1959. 10/4/1929 St Mary’s Alverstoke Hants. 4/1. Kathleen Ann Pike b 21/11/1930 d. 18/9/2005. 4/2. Frederick Owen Pike b 10/3/1933 supplied this line 2/2008. 4/1. Madeline Pike b 10/8/1935 2/10. Kathleen Elizabeth Martha Stewart GPS477 b 1867  died @ Knockbreda 24/8/1892 2/11. Elizabeth Margaret Stewart GPS480  m 24/7/1818! William son of Victor C. Taylor of Belfast 1/2. Charlotte Jane Stewart born 26/11/1836   Became nun in S.A.GPS530. Died 29/10/1921. 1/3.  John Alexander Stewart GPS531 Born: 24/7/1838 Cayuza Canada W. Educated @ Guelph Grammar School entered TCD July 2 1856 aged 18 BA 1860 MA 1867 ordained 1862 P 1863 Curate Maghera 1863-1872 1872- 1861: Stewart Rev. Alexander 97 Donegall Street Belfast Directory 1880 Clooney Perpetual Curate & Incumbent. Died of Consumption: 21/12/1880 Glandore Cottage Cork age 42. Window to him and father at All Saints Clooney. Married 1869: Eliza Charlotte Gough GPS532. B 1840 died 1894 Daughter of Benjamin Bloomfield Gough19 GPS460 2/1. Edward Pakenham Stewart GPS575 18/4/1870-1966 M. Amy Postill 1866-1958 3/1. Hugh Percy Stewart 9/11/1899-1992 M 6/9/1925 Helen Ayres 6/6/1897-1993 4/1. Barbara Mary Stewart married Geoffrey Lloyd 11/6/1928-1989. 5/1. Nicholas Lloyd who supplies this line. 4/2. Dau 2 M. Oliver Atkinson 1927-1978 2/2. Hugh Gough Stewart GPS577 2/3. Percy Bloomfield Stewart GPS578 2/4. Elinor Mary Nora Stewart GPS580 1/4. Elisabeth Stewart b. 13/10/1839. KO05/06 Married Frederick Jasper Chadwick G Grandfather of Alice Kirk-Owen Maitland. 1/5. Pakenham Edward Stewart b. 9/3/1841 d. 11/11/1861. GPS535 Bur Woodlawn Cemetary Guelph: 3rd son of Rev E.M. Stewart: plot purchased by him. PRONI D3319/9/76 contains a letter and a small drawing supposed to be a good likeness of “Pakenham” aged 5. 1/6. Katherine Caroline Stewart 11/7/1842-11/1/1866 GPS536 1/7. William McConnell Stewart 30/3/1844-20/3/1865 GPS537. Palmer Family sons of Ven Arthur Palmer who came to Canada from  Ireland 1832. Founded St George’s Church Guelph and presided there for 40 years 1832-74 ref internet Retired to Ireland 1873: Henry Stewart 1749 KO07/21 EMC: of Tyrcallen co …. Ireland. Parents: William Stewart of Killymoon Co. Tyrone and his w. Eleanor  Daughter of Sir Henry King Bart. Born: 1/5/1749  Died: Dublin 10/9/1840 Bur Derryloran. of Tyrcallen & Corcam Donegal. BA TCD 1768 Middle Temple 1766 Irish bar 1773.  MP for Longford Borough. D3319: “.. Land Agent – perhaps accountant – who managed the estate affairs of a number of families from an office in Leinster St Dublin with a  partner G.C. Swan. He bought the Tyrcallan estate Starnorlar Donagel from the Rev Oliver McCausland in 1789 with a partner George Whitlocke  of Wokingham Berks. MS103 p113 Nat Library Dublin: Certificate of Arms of Henry Stewart of Starnorlar Donegal 2nd surviving son of the later William Stewart of Killymoon. 20/2/1799. A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland Subscribers: Stewart Henry Esq. J.P. Tyrcallen Stranorlar Co. Donegal Stewart W. Esq. J.P. Killymoon Co. Tyrone Dublin Directory 1797 & 8: Henry Stewart agent 6 Chatham St. Directory 1800: 6 Leinster Square. Dublin Directory 1835: Henry Stewart esq 6 Leinster Square. Agents: Stewart and Kincaid also at 6 Leinster Square D3319/9/54: Letter to Hon Elizabeth Stewart from B Fitzgerald 3 Jan 1837 declining to invest in Cayuga Upper Canada EMS was there by then. D3319/7/7: Letter re right arm amputation was this EM Pakenham.  Also included were letters from General EM Pakenham to Henry Stewart. D3319/9/..: Letters to Elizabeth Stewart nee Pakenham from brothers in particular Henry addressed her as “Bess”. He seemed the closest brother. Letters from Henry S to Elizabeth were frequent when he was travelling and seemed affectionate. Many letters from son Thomas Stewart – Kelso in 10/5/1826 Broom Hall 4/1821. William Stewart at Churchfield in 1834 a house belonging to the Casement family of Ballymena. He then moved to Ballycastle. His wife Ann had not been well at this time. A letter from her brother Longford described the death of Kitty Pakenham Wellesley 24/4/1831. She had been ill but seemed to recover but then relapsed and died peacefully in her sleep. Elizabeth Stewart was godmother to B. Fitzgerald. Issue of Henry & Elizabeth Pakenham Stewart: 1/1. Edward Michael Stewart 1797-1883 EMC & GPS        KO06/11 1/2. Henry Stewart re D3319 – GPS727 1799-1872 There are death registrations for Henry Stewart aged 63 in Stranorlar in 1864 V2P333 & V17P247. DC Killygordon Stranorlar Donegal: Died 19/2/1864 Corcam married 63 Esquire & Landed Proprietor Gout in the Stomach during five days Isabella A Stewart widow of the deceased Corcam. from Charles Addington.Married 1st: Lucy Elizabeth Norris GPS728 Died: 14.7.1854 Corca Bur: Stranorlar.  Father: John Norris Ref Charles Addington[iii]. Henry Stewart was a trustee of the marriage settlement of John Style Norris 1812-1902 Lucy’s brother and Elizabeth Anne Tonge 1814-85They were children of John Francis Norris d 1854 & Henrietta Style. JFN a GG Grandson of Admiral John Norris 6th G Grandfather of Charles Addington. Henry married 2nd 1856: Frances Isabella Anne Style GPS729 Father: William Style Captain – 2969 Of Maidstone Kent The Times 12 Aug 1868 Unpaid dividend in the names of Capt Wm Style RN John Style Norris Henry Charles Norris & Thomas Stewart “of Fitzwilliam Place Dublin Esquire.” Capt Style d. 24 Feb 1868 ref O’Bryne’s A Naval Biographical Dictionary Issue of Henry & Lucy Stewart: 2/1. William Norris Stewart GPS900 b 1836 died young. 1/3. Catherine StewartGPS2970 8.7.1800-26.12.1808 Died Summerhill Co Meath Buried in Summerhill Mausoleum 1/3. Thomas Blakeney Lyon Stewart born 1802 GPS4597.7.1802-1874 Married 29/3/1857: Anne Penrose GPS735 Born: 1807 Father: James Penrose 1/4. William Stewart Rev no issue. GPS528 Born: 14.4.1794 Died: 4.5.1858 Buried: Mt Jerome Dublin of Tyrcallen Co Donegal59 Married 18/12/1816: Anne Eliza Williams 1798-1873 GPS529 1/5. James Robert Stewart born 1805. GPS736 29.10.1805-10.12.1889 JP and DC or DL for Dublin MA. Dublin Dir 1845: 11 Longford Terrace Monkstown and 6 Leinster Sq. Married 27/10/1835: Martha Eleanor Warren  born 1814-5/5/1865 Daughter of Richard B. Warren QC. 2/1. Rev Henry Stewart GPS 42 10.8.1836-189644 Married 21/8/1861: Martha Matty Angelina Hamilton – 364 Born: 1834 Drumconrath  Meath Ireland died 1908 Parents: Edward Michael & Martha Anne Fortescue Hamilton 3/1. Edward Hamilton Stewart GPS 800 3/2. James Robert Stewart GPS 802 3/3. Martha Louise Stewart GPS 803 3/4. Emily Gertrude Stewart GPS 804 2/2. Col. Richard Warren RE Stewart GPS 377 Born: 6.11.1837 Died: 1910 Married 20/9/1864: Mary Jane Chisholm GPS378 3/1. Elizabeth Martha Stewart GPS 805 3/2. James Robert Stewart GPS 807 3/3. Florence Mary Stewart GPS 808 3/4. Dudley Warren Stewart GPS 809 3/5. Eleanore Lucy Stewart GPS 810 3/6. Edyth Blanche Stewart GPS 812 3/7. George Blakeney Stewart GPS 813 3/8. Mabelle Stewart GPS 814 3/9. Eileen Stewart GPS 815 2/3. James Robert Stewart GPS 379 JP. Born 9.8.1839 Died 1890 Married 1871: Gertrude Trench – 435 Daughter of Frederick William le Poer Trench – 2177 3/1. Florence Emily Stewart GPS 816 3/2. Kathleen Stewart GPS 817 3/3. Henry Pakenham Stewart GPS 818 3/4. Helen Stewart GPS 819 3/5. Charles Trench Stewart GPS 821 in the South Irish Horse in the First World War lived in Dun Laoghaire.[iv] Page 6982 3rd Sep 1914

Special Reserve of Officers Cavalry South Irish Horse

The undermentioned to be Second Lieutenants on probation:- Dated 4th Sept 1914 Charles Trench Stewart 4/1. Thelma Stewart She was in the WRNS and was killed aged 23 on 23 July 1944 while on torpedo dive bombing training with her husband Sub-Lieut Arthur Jackson  and another officer. 2/4. Edward Pakenham Stewart GPS 457 Birth 27.2.1841 Death 1864? Summerhill  Married 2/11/1869: Charlotte Henrietta Pim – 495 Died 1907 3/1. Charlotte Eva Stewart GPS 822 3/2. Ada Mary Stewart GPS 823 3/3. George Pakenham Stewart GPS 825 2/5. Augustus Phillip Stewart GPS 496 5/10/1842-1864. 2/6. William Thomas Stewart GPS 497 10/2/1844-27/10/1926. 2/7. Elizabeth Martha Stewart GPS498 12/11/1845-1870 Malaga. 2/8. Emily Lucy Stewart GPS 500 b. 27/4/1848. 2/9. Rev Robert Warren Stewart MA GPS501 born 9/3/1850 Married 1876: Louisa Katherine Smyly of Dublin.  He was a missionary in China & was murdered by Boxers with wife in 1895 some children escaped. From 8/2004: Dr Ian Welch PO Box 7034 Farrer ACT 2607 Australia. See his paper: “Nellie. Topsy and Annie” for a description of this event.  Robert and Louisa were not killed by Boxers. They were killed by a sect known as Vegetarians. The Boxer movement was not active in Fukien  Province in 1895. The three boys at the top of your list were in England at school at the time. 3/1. Arthur Dudley Stewart GPS 827 3/2. Philip Smyly Stewart GPS 828 3/3. James Robert Stewart GPS 829 3/4. Mildred Eleanor Stewart GPS 830 3/5. Kathleen Louisa Stewart GPS 831 3/6. Herbert Norman Stewart GPS 832 killed. 3/7. Evan George Stewart GPS 833 3/8. Hilda Sylvia Stewart GPS 834 killed. 2/10. George Francis Stewart GPS 734 Birth 1.11.1851 Death 1928. Married 28/6/1881 Georgiana Lavinia Quin – 781 Dau of Richard Robert Quin. 3/1. Clements George Stewart GPS 835 3/2. Robert Henry Rynn Stewart GPS 836 3/3. Mary Selina Stewart GPS 837 3/4. Ethel Georgiana Stewart GPS 838 2/11. Arthur Blakeney Fitzgerald Stewart GPS 2965 5/8/1853-1855. 2/12. Caroline Hamilton Stewart GPS 2770 19/8/1855-1855. 2/13. Mary Florence Stewart GPS 782 Birth 19.2.1858 Married 27/4/1889: Robert William NORMAN GPS783 3/1. Luke Gardiner Norman GPS839 3/2. Conolly George Norman GPS840 3/3. Robert Warren Norman GPS2764 3/4. Georgiana Eleanor Norman GPS2763 3/5. Dudley Stewart Norman GPS2765 3/6. Patrick Elwyn Norman GPS2766 2/14. Arthur Blakeney Stewart GPS784 12/9/1860-1879. 1/6. Thomas Stewart. 1/7. Margaret Stewart married William Reid of Randolphfield Stirling ref administration above. William Stewart 2 1710 KO08/41  GPS538: Born: 1710 Buried: 14.5.1797 Derryloran now known as Cookstown Tyrone MP Co Tyrone 1747 – 176819; High Sheriff 1738 Rebuilt Cookstown.  Elder for the Presbyterians of Ulster and by 1750 the largest landowner in Tyrone. He also built an aqueduct to bring water to Cookstown from springs high up on his estate and a weir across Ballinderry River to provide power for his linen mills. Colonel in Militia raised  corps of artillery volunteers. Killymoon Castle ” a superb and beautiful seat with ample and cultivated domains. The old house was burnt down late 18th or early 19th C.66 Nat Library of Dublin has a collection of papers MS 8734 containing rents rolls for mid 18thC: a Undated income:  Freehold Rent: £2287-5-5 Church lands:  £2424-9-11  £4711-15-4 b 1772:  Freehold Rent: £2287-5-5 Church Lands:  £2359-5-4 c 1764:  Recd Arrears of Nov 1763: £709-12-10 Recd Rent for Nov 1764:  £1168-13-5 Arrears at Nov 1764:     £3676-3-11-3/4 £5547-10-2-3/4 Also Arrears at Nov 1763:     £2176-15-3.5 May & Nov 1764 rents:    £3370-14-11.25   £5547-10-2.75 Married 11/3/1741: Eleanor King 1722 KO08/42  GPS539. Born 9/1722 Parents: Henry King & Isabella Wingfield Died 3/1810. Eldest Daughter of Rt Hon Sir Henry King of Rockingham Bt MP co Roscommon. Issue of William & Eleanor Stewart: Details 1/1. James Stewart GPS 766 1742-1821 Lawyer. Married Hon Elizabeth Molesworth 6th Daughter of 3rd Viscount Molesworth. Ref Nat Library of Dublin: Cost £26-19-11 to register pedigree and Arms 31/3/1809. Also in collection are a number of letters about support for his election to Parliament 1775. Also letters from AH Trench. 2/1. Mary Eleanor Stewart 5/9/1775-1866 GPS856 2/2. Louisa Stewart 1778-1850 married HJ Clements GPS857 3/1. Elizabeth Catherine Henrietta Clements 1813-27 GPS890 3/2. Selina Clements 1814-92 GPS2159 Married Cousin Rev Henry GJ Clements. 3/3. Louisa Clements 1816-79 GPS2161 3/4. Mary Isabella Clements 1816-90 GPS2162 3/5. Henry Theophilus Clements 1820-1904 GPS2163 Married Gertrude Markham. Issue: 4/1. Henry John  Beresford Clements GPS2166 4/2. Alfred William Clements GPS2167 4/3. Robert Markham Clements GPS2168 4/4. Marcus Louis Stewart Clements GPS2169 4/5. Gertrude Mary Catharine Clements GPS2170 4/6. Selina Margaret Maud Clements GPS2171 3/6. Catherine Clements 1822-1830 GPS2172 2/3. William Stewart 1780-1850 GPS859 never married & lost estate. 2/4. James Charles Stewart 1784-1869 GPS860 2/5. Richard Stewart GPS861. 1/2. Henry Stewart 1744- Young  GPS768. 1/3. Isabella Stewart 1745-1833 GPS769 married John Hamilton 10/10/1735-16/5/1811 son of James Hamilton of Brown Hall Donegal & Dorothy Green 1/4. William Stewart 1746-60 GPS771 1/5. Robert Stewart 1747-94 GPS772 Lt Col    died unm. Martinique. 1/6. Henry Stewart 1749-1840. GPS525. 1/7. Edward Stewart GPS773 Birth 28.6.1750 Death 1.2.1833 Married 31/7/1777: Amelia Anne Marlar – 774 17.1.1758-10.3.1816 Daughter of John Marlar merchant. London 2/1. Anne Stewart GPS841 b1779. 2/2. Eleanor Stewart GPS842 b. 1780. 2/3. Emily Stewart GPS843 b.1781. 2/4. William Stewart GPS844 b.1782. 2/5. Isabella Stewart GPS845 b. 1783. 2/6. Edward Stewart GPS 846 b.1784. 2/7. John Stewart GPS 847 b. 1785. 2/8. James Stewart GPS 848 b.1786. 2/9. Charlotte Stewart GPS 849 b. 1787. 2/10. Frances Vere Stewart GPS 850 Birth Date: 1788 Married: Chambre Townshend 2/11. Eliza Stewart GPS 852 b. 1789. 2/12. Susan Stewart GPS 853 b. 1791. 2/13. Henry Stewart GPS 854 1791-1872. Married: Frances Maria Atkinson17 – 855 1798-1873. Issue: 3/1. Edward Henry Stewart GPS 862 1838-1914. 3/2. Joseph Atkinson Stewart GPS 863 1839-1913. 1/8. Rev. Thomas Stewart GPS775 5/1751-27/11/1788. 1/9. John StewartGPS776 5/12/1753-143/1839. 1/10. Helen StewartGPS777 b abt 1764. 1/11. Frances Ann Stewart. Birth: 1764 Death: 1.1806 Married 1764  George Stuart not rel GPS779 1760-1806 2/1. Rev. John Stuart GPS892 2/2. Eleanor Stuart GPS893 Married Robert Evans. 2/3. Anne Stuart GPS895 1798-1814. 2/4. Frances Stuart GPS896 Married: James Robert Whyte – 897 3/1. James Whyte GPS760 9/9/1832-16/3/60. 3/2. George Stewart Whyte GPS761 Birth: 6.7.1835 V.C. K.C.B. K.C.S.I. K.C.M.G. Notes:  Defender of Ladysmith Married 31/10/1874: Amelia Maria Bailey – 2681 daughter of Archdeacon Bishop? Bailey 4/1. James Robert Whyte GPS2682 4/2. Rose Frances Whyte GPS2683 4/3 May Constance24 Whyte GPS 2684 4/4. Amy Gladys Stewart Whyte GPS 2685 3/3. John MA Whyte GPS864 b. 16/7/1839. 3/4. Frances Anne Whyte GPS 2190 3/5. Jane Eleanor Whyte GPS 2191 3/6. Victoria Isabella Whyte GPS2192 Married 2/11/1854 John Marcus Clements GPS2193 Of Glenboy Leitrim. 4/1. John Marcus Clements GPS2194 4/2. James Robert Clements GPS2195 4/3. George Stuart Clements GPS2196 4/4. Charles Henry Clements GPS2202 4/5. Henry Victor Clements GPS2207 4/6. Katherine Frances Clements GPS2208 4/7. Selina Mary Louise Clements GPS2209 3/7. Elizabeth Whyte GPS2212 Death: 30.8.1893 Married 28/1/1864: Robert James Montgomery GPS2213. Death Date: 13.5.1893 4/1. John Alexander Montgomery GPS2214 4/2. Francis James Montgomery GPS2215 4/3. Janet Maud Montgomery GPS2216 4/4. Elizabeth Barbara Isabel Montgomery GPS2217 2/5. Rev. George Stuart GPS898 Married Katherine King. 2/6. Jane Stuart GPS2981 died young. A listing of duels in California illegal after 1861: James R. Smedberg and F. W. Gardner fought at Sausalito with duelling pistols in Aug. 1869; S. was wounded in the hand at the second fire. His second was Col. Stuart M. Taylor; while Howard Crittenden attended Gardener. In this one of the latest if not the very latest duel in California  both parties displayed great nerve. James Stewart 2 1665 KO09/81  GPS540 Born: 1665 Died & Buried: Derryloran 1726 ..was a very waywood boy in his youth and after an adventurous career in his native land and in Paris received a commission in the  Austrian  Artillery 1/1/1703. He took part in Central European wars and in Balkan campaign friend of Emperor Joseph 1. T559: Captain will dated 23/5/1726 proved 21/7/1726. Married 1709: HELEN AGNEW KO09/82 Daughter of Patrick Agnew of Killwaughter Antrim. Issue: 1/1. William Stewart GPS538 1/2. Patrick Stewart b. 1711 GPS762 a wine merchant Dublin also T559 Married: Mary Daughter of Ben Arthur Heywood of Drogheda 1735 no issue; T559: will dated 9/4/1741 proved 26/5/1744. 2/1. Anne Ellinor Stewart aged 3 in 1741 GPS881. Married: Michael Frederick Trench GPS882 1/3. Margaret Stewart B.1712 GPS764 Married:  William Agnew of Killwaughter her cousin. William Stewart 1 1625 KO10/161  GPS462: Born: 1625 Parents: James & Margaret Lindsay Stewart. Died: Derryloran 1706 T559: will dated 2/11/1727 proved 5/12/1727 Of Killymoon 1690 MP for Charlmont. Married: 6/1664 Margaret Shaw KO10/162 Parents: John Shaw Daughyrt  of a County Antrim Gent.  JS of Glenarm Antrim. T559: her cousin was Robert Lindsay Died: 1727. Issue: 1/1. James Stewart born 1665 GPS540 1/2. Alexander Stewart d young bef 1705? GPS753 1/3. John Stewart Drowned in river  at Killymoon GPS755 1/4. Henry Stewart 3rd son Sheriff of Co Tyrone 1711 d. 7/3/1717 GPS754. T559: of Killymoon will dated 14/12/1714 proved 3/8/1721. 1/5. Margaret Stewart GPS756 Married: 1706 Clotworthy Upton esq. of Castle Upton as 2nd wife – no issue d 1707. Clotworthy’s Daughter Elizabeth by 3rd wife created Viscountess Langford … Details  Elizabeth’s daughter Catherine Rowley married Edward Michael Pakenham father of Elizabeth Pakenham who married Henry Stewart. Dublin Nat Library has a rent roll for “Mr Upton’s estates and debts thereon chargeable at the intermarriage with the daughter of Wm Stewart of Killymoon”. Rent payable: £205-3-4       Freehold:     £377-11-11 Interest:     £348-0-0       Ld Dungannon: £463-1-0 £553-3-4       Other lands:  £364-0-0   £1204-12-11 Less                £553-3-4      Net:          £651-9-7 1/6. Mary Stewart no details d. 4/11/1701 Killymoon. GPS759 1/7. Catherine Stewart married James Moores of Co. Tyrone. 2/1. Catherine Moores GPS2679 married James Moore. James Stewart 1 KO11/321  GPS 731 Died & Buried 1679 Derryloran Notes: Of Ballymenagh Ref GPS monograph PRONI. A Presbyterian who migrated from Scotland Edinburgh ref Ont early in the reign of James I abt 1616. Took up residence in Ballymenagh Castle in  1619 bought Killymoon in 1634 from Shane Roe O’Neil acquired lease of Cookstown in 1666 and built first castle at Killymoon in 1671.  Probably  from Edinburgh about 1616 Generally supposed to be the younger brother of Capt Andrew Stewart who came to Ulster with Lord Ochiltree about 1620. Capt Andrew listed by J Montgomery Seaver as “Stewarts of Athenry”. The first list of Scottish applicants for Ulster allotments completed by September 14 1609. given in volume VIII of the official edition of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland: Stewart Harry of Barskimming: surety Lord Ochiltree: 2000 acres. Stewart James of Rossyth: surety William Stewart of Dunduff: 2000 acres. Stewart Robert uncle of Lord Ochiltree: surety said Lord Ochiltree: 2000 acres. Stewart Robert of Robertoun: surety William Stewart of Dunduff: 2000 acres. Stewart Robert in Edinburgh: surety William Stewart of Dunduff: 2000 acres. Stewart William of Dunduff: surety Lord Ochiltree: 2000 acres. 2nd List awarded: 1500 acres: William Stewart brother of Lord Garlies in County Donegal. 1000 acres: John Stewart in County Donegal. Robert Stewart of Haltoun in County Tyrone. Robert Stewart of Robertoun in County Tyrone. Sir Walter Stewart of Minto in County Donegal. William Stewart of Dunduff in County Donegal. Married 1624: Barbara Lindsay 1608 KO11/322  GPS732 Baptised: South Leith 1/11/1608 Dau of Robert Lindesay of Leith small settler 1000 acres at Loughray Tyrone. From: The first list of Scottish applicants for Ulster allotments completed by September 14 1609. given in volume VIII of the official edition of the Register  of the Privy Council of Scotland: Mr Robert Lindsay in Leith: surety George Smailholm in Leith: 2000 acres Awarded in 1610: Robert Lindsay in County Tyrone 1000 acres. Issue: 1/1. William Stewart GPS462 & T559 1/2. Robert Stewart T559 2/1. James Stewart married Catherine.  T559  + 5 Daughter. 1/3. Catherine Stewart GPS744 1/5. Mary Stewart GPS746 married James Richardson. 1/6. Jane Stewart GPS748 married Thomas Goodlett. 1/7. Sarah Stewart GPS750 Married Mr Birkby. 1/8. Anne Stewart GPS752 T/700: Capt James Stewart of Killymoon Marriage articles before made with Elizabeth Stewart Daughter of George Stewart of Orater co Tyrone date 4/1693 did grant release to confirm to Walter  Dawson and Wm Stewart Currigan townland of Newtown different ink and all? in Co Tyrone also the townland of Ardenchon in the Parish of Dalsay Steventon in Kirkudbrightshire. Robert Stewart my fathers other lands in Scotland forced in remainder for debts of father for life of Elizabeth wife long since dead.  Issue living Jane 1st Daughter = James Stewart als Foster who has taken the name of Stewart Daughter Margt = John Scott. Henry Stewart of Caragan grandfather & William Stewart his son & Henry Stewart son of said Wm Stewart & Agnes Stewart als Lane. Exec. James Stewart als Foster Date 3/12/1721 died 1721 may be 1724. 14     Stewart Background papers 14.1 The  Stewart of  Killymoon  Papers D/3167 and  D/2966/92/B Summary: The Stewart of Killymoon papers comprise c.850 letters and papers 1761-1845 of the Stewart family of Killymoon Castle Cookstown Co. Tyrone principally of James Stewart of Killymoon MP for Co.  Tyrone 1768-1812 and his wife the Hon. Mrs Elizabeth Stewart Molesworth. Background:James Stewart was the eldest son of William Stewart of Killymoon and Eleanor King of Rockingham Co. Roscommon.  Shortly before embarking on his long parliamentary career the young James Stewart did the Grand Tour in Europe.  A splendid portrait of him now in the Ulster Museum was painted in Italy some time in 1767 by Pompeo Batoni the highly fashionable painter of foreign visitors to Italy and then at the height of his considerable powers.  Early the following year Stewart was reported to have left Turin on his way home.  The future 2nd Duke of Leinster eldest brother of Lord Edward FitzGerald wrote to his mother in March 1768 describing him as ‘a gentlemanlike young man and also very amiable. I know no gentleman better liked than he has been in every town he has passed through. Stewart succeeded his father as one of the MPs for Co. Tyrone in 1768 retaining the seat continuously and without a contest for the next thirty-two years in Dublin and a further twelve after 1800 at Westminster.  It was said of him that ‘without place or pension one shilling of public money has never found its way into his pocket … during a period of 44 years’.  Most county seats in the Irish Parliament like most of the boroughs were dominated by great landowning families.  Tyrone was unusual at this period in having a large number of independently minded Presbyterian voters and its great landowners happened to be a loggerheads.  Only when faced by a combination in 1812 was Stewart obliged to retire. Though he himself was a member of the Protestant Ascendancy as it came to be called his father was and remained a Presbyterian.  This was ironic in view of the fact that Killymoon and over half the Stewart estate was churchland held on 21-year leases under the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh.  Stewart became one of the leading spokesmen in the Irish Parliament for the northern Presbyterians and was instrumental in promoting legislation to mitigate or remove the penal laws which affected them.  In particular he supported the Act 19 & 20 Geo. III c.6 that repealed the Test Act for Protestant Dissenters proposed the Act 21 & 22 Geo. III c.25 declaring marriages by Presbyterian ministers valid and helped to secure an increase in the “regium donum” the annual grant to approved Presbyterian clergy.  The Presbyterians’ regard for him was shown not only by electoral support but also in the usual fashion of the time by numerous presentations of silver plate. Stewart was prominent in the Volunteer movement from its foundation in the late 1770s to its suppression in 1793.  He was the close ally of the Volunteer commander-in-chief James Caulfeild 1st Earl of Charlemont was active at Volunteer meetings and parades and in September 1783 took the chair at the second great convention of northern Volunteer companies in Dungannon in preparation for the national meeting in Dublin.  After Lord Charlemont’s celebrated but still mysterious breach with Grattan in 1783 Stewart became Charlemont’s principal spokesman in the House of Commons thanks to the general inarticulacy of those whom Charlemont returned after Grattan for the family borough of Charlemont Co. Armagh.  Like Charlemont and unlike Grattan Stewart opposed all political concessions to the Roman Catholics; not until the Union had transferred the Irish representation to Westminster did he come round to support of Catholic Emancipation. By a curious confusion Charlemont’s letters to Stewart almost all passed into the possession of Stewart’s younger brother Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen Co.  Donegal and passed down that branch of the family see PRONI D/3319; the rest of Stewart’s papers passed down the female line through Stewart’s daughter Louisa who in 1811 married into the Clements family of Ashfield Co. Cavan later of Lough Rynn Co. Leitrim.  The papers which passed down the collateral male line have been re-united with those which passed down the direct female line to constitute D/3167/1. In 1772 Stewart married Elizabeth Molesworth daughter of the 3rd Viscount Molesworth. She was one of the survivors of a tragic fire in London in 1763 where she was living with her widowed mother. Lady Molesworth two of her daughters and six of the servants were killed. Two other daughters were badly injured when they jumped from upper windows – one had to have a leg cut off after landing on the railings below – and a third was severely burned.  Elizabeth Stewart became in 1794 a co-heiress of her late brother the 4th Viscount Molesworth and inherited a share of the Molesworth estates in Dublin City near Swords Co. Dublin and in and around Philipstown King’s County. Another sister Louisa was married to William Brabazon Ponsonby 1st Baron Ponsonby the leader of the celebrated political ‘cousinhood’ of that name – a connection which strengthened Stewart’s links with the Whig opposition both before and after the Union. After the Union Stewart also formed a friendship with the Prince of Wales which has been much exaggerated in family mythology although the Prince did at least trouble to condole with Stewart’s son and successor William on Stewart’s death in 1821. Stewart is also popularly reputed to have lost Killymoon to the Prince in an unsuccessful bet. This almost certainly apocryphal incident is not documented in the papers which do however contain some documentation 1803-1804 about the early 19th century re-building of Killymoon by John Nash and about the furnishing of it by Thomas Tatham of London 1809-1810; there are also earlier letters of architectural interest from Frederick Trench 1795 and Robert Woodgate 1801.

A visit to Killymoon In 1824 when Stewart’s widow and the Stewarts’ unmarried son Colonel William Stewart were living in Killymoon they invited their Tyrone neighbour John Burges ‘… to pass a few days at this romantic and most beautiful place [as Burges recorded in his diary PRONI T/1282/1 pp.10-13]. It may be well termed so for I suppose its equal is not to be found in any country for the most perfect combination of wood water mountain and undulation of ground.My brother and I rode there. … We arrived at the bridge which spans the widest part of the river famed for its enormous sycamores.  At one side is a long glade richly wooded at its furthest end.  On the other you see the castle at that time nearly shut out by elms of picturesque forms.  We passed the bridge and through fine specimens of the old Irish pines fir now no more.  We gained the park and soon found ourselves in the apartments allotted for us. ..[When the dinner gong sounded they descended] ‘…  the grand staircase for grand it is … .  Colonel Stewart took the head of the table and his venerable mother the foot a lady of the old school so clever so agreeable such a one is not to be seen now so kind so anxious to please so dignified with the greatest good nature. William Stewart was the Sir Charles Grandison of the day what some would call fine but fineness was natural to him and it did not sit unseemly on him.  He had the softest voice and the gentlest manner and with all the courage and prowess of a hero.  His gallantries as a man of fashion are well known the only portion of his character I wish to veil over… The following morning we lionised this magnificent place. Every walk and drive brought us into new features.  The extensive gardens celebrated for an enormous pear tree caught our attention. The length of said tree is something immense.  Also I must not forget the huge Portugal laurel and the larch…;.  The silver firs are equal to the most luxuriant [?piceas] in the pinetums of the present day. It would be difficult to find such specimens now. The dark green of the foliage and the thickness of the stems seem as if they belonged to some distant hemisphere.  The spruce firs too are very fine. The grandeur of the timber particularly the oaks and sycamore quite give you the idea of a scene of Claude Lorraine’s and that dark clear river always running rapidly along [?creates] a scene that perhaps might border without its cheerful and its darling sound upon the gloomy.’ Killymoon Castle and the estate were sold on Colonel Stewart’s death in 1850.

The Killymoon papers

14.2 The  Stewart of Tyrcallen  Papers D/3319 The Stewart Papers comprise c.2250 documents including some volumes and c.25 outsize maps.  They derive from the Tyrcallen branch of the Stewarts of Killymoon Cookstown Co. Tyrone: in particular to Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen Stranorlar Co.  Donegal 1743-1840 younger brother of James Stewart of Killymoon M.P.  for Co. Tyrone 1768-1812. For further information about the family see the calendar of the Stewart of Killymoon papers D/3167 one section of which was also deposited by Mr H.W.B. and Mr G.P. Stewart.  For another related collection see T/3007. Henry Stewart’s wife Elizabeth was a daughter of the 2nd Lord Longford and a sister of the Duchess of Wellington.  For this reason some sections of these papers consist of letters to as well as from members of the Longford/Pakenham family 1755-1846.  The letters from the Duchess of Wellington run from 1813 to 1831 and there are earlier ‘Grand Tour’ letters from Mrs Stewart’s and her brother the 2nd Earl of Longford 1793-1795.  Henry Stewart himself was a land agent – perhaps ‘accountant’ would be a better word – who managed the estate affairs of a number of families on a basis which was professional by the standards of the day from an office in Clare Street and then at 6 Leinster Street Dublin.  The bulk of the archive relates to his clients’ and his own estate and business affairs.

The Tyrcallen papers

Probably Rev Frederick William Stewart died 4/1/1884 admon. 22/2/1884 of Farnham House Finglas Co Dublin batchelor granted to Margaret Reid wf of William Reid of Randlophfield Stirling the sister and one of the next of kin. Hamilton descent is from the the 1st Duke of Hamilton.  The Hamilton seat of Brownhall in Co. Donegal was founded by John Hamilton a grandson of the 1st Duke. He came from the Scottish family whose seat at the time was Broomhill Lanarkshire. Land in north western Ireland was granted to him and he took possession of lands at Murvagh – just out of Donegal town and near to the coast. The original Brownhall house was built there around 1550 and in 1690 his descendant James Hamilton moved the family seat to nearby Ballintra where the present Brownhall house still stands today – and still occupied by the present John Hamilton. The family maintained the old tradition of naming the eldest son after the grandfather so since then the line has gone John – James – John – James etc down to John today. His eldest son is James. Fortunately the family has maintained an unbroken line of ownership of the estate down through the centuries. The estate is not as extensive as it had been back in the 1800′s due to debts left by my 4th Great Grandfather John H but it stands as one of the few estates still remaining in the original family’s hands. The debts were not down to bad management. That particular John H inherited Brownhall just before the Famine and spent a good deal of the family finances on his tenants. He built several churches instigated Sunday schools built a workhouse and mills to create employment at the time. As a result his tenants did not suffer the same fate suffered by so many others. His daughter Mary married Frederick Courbarron a farmer from Jersey in the Channel Islands. Her son Augustus James eventually settled in Australia in 1888 and I descend from him – my GG Grandfather. This Hamilton family married with several Stewart families namely the Killymoon Stewarts. Isabella Stewart daughter of Col. William Stewart b.1710 of Killymoon married John Hamilton and their eldest son James married Helen Pakenham. Changes: 22/10/2000: Added Burnett family. 13/11/2000: added detail to Perrott family. 6/6/2001: resaved from/to HTML/Word 28/10/2001: edited GPS family out Index added. 1/5/2002: Misc notes. 8/2/2003: Isabella Wingfield Link 16/6/2003: Jeffrey family from Linda Hill 5/8/2003: More Jeffrey & split off appendices 28/3/2004: Renwick/Kemp Will & Links 27/8/2004: Rev Robert Stewart 6/3/2005: Mosse. 26/4/2005: Andrew Jaffrey descendants 25/5/2006: duel by James R Smedberg 12/2/2007: reformatting 23/6/2007: Wingfield line & reformatted + small changes. 10/8/2008: Added Debretts. 19/9/2011: Charles Trench Stewart issue. [i]  jencon@ozemail.com.au May 2008 [ii] Liz Carnell: “Bullying UK” help@bullying.Co.uk [iii] London Ont. N6A 4VB 11/06 [iv] etainmurphy@msn.com 9/2011. [v] Ref riod@intergate.ca 1/2009. Richard J Westwood [vi] aofl@agnew.sol.Co.uk [vii] Wendy Reid: wendyreid@musician.org Clements of Killadoon Co. Kildare by Turtle Bunbury. Colonel Hal Clements died on 26th October 1795 and was succeeded by his 14-year-old son Henry John Clements. Rebels struck at Killadoon during the 1798 Rebellion but the house survived the looting. A committed Tory Henry represented Counties Leitrim 1804 – 1818 and Cavan 1840 – 1843 in the House of Commons. He was also a Colonel in the Leitrim Militia. In December 1811 he married Louisa Stewart d. 27 April 1850 and settled at Ashfield Lodge Cootehill Co. Cavan. Louisa’s father was James Stewart MP of Killymoon Co. Tyrone. Stewart was a leading advocate for the abolition of penal laws against the northern Presbyterians. In 1772 he married Lady Elizabeth Molesworth one of the heiresses of the substantial Molesworth estates. In 1763 Lady Elizabeth was badly injured in a fire at the family’s London townhouse thatkilled her widowed mother two sisters and six servants and sent her only surviving brother insane. By 1840 however the Stewart family were in such terrible financial difficulty that Louisa’s siblings were obliged to seek refuge from their creditors in Boulogne. Following the death without issueof her only brother Colonel William Stewart in 1850 the Molesworth rents passed to her. Louisa’s husband Colonel HJ Clements had died seven years earlier at the age of 62 and thus on her death in the winter of 1850 the Molesworth estate passed directly to her eldest son Henry Theophilus Clements. Co Tyrone 1a Rosemary Elinor Dorothy; b 20 Sep 1902; m 24 April 1929  Hugh Charlie Godfray Stewart 6th Bart. Stewart of Athenree Co. Tyrone and had issue she d 4 Jan 1986. 2a David 7th Bart Stewart of Athenree; b 19 June 1935; m 7 Nov  959 Bridget Anne Sim and has issue three Daughter Charles ECCLES of Ecclesville Fintona High Sheriff Co Tyrone 1709; m Rebecca Anne Stewart of Bailieborough Castle and by her who d 26 April 1790 had issue1a DANIEL his heir. 2a John; dsp 3a Charles Rev drowned at Bath.

Doneraile Papers – National Library of IrelandI.iii. The Conyngham Family and Estate in Ulster
The Conyngham family of Ulster became related to the St. Legers through the marriage
of a daughter of George Lenox Conyngham to Hayes St. Leger, 4th Viscount, during the
nineteenth century.
MS 48328/11 1630
A copy of a lease agreement [conveyance] between Sir Andrew Stewart,
Bart., of Castlestewart, Co. Tyrone, and Anna Boyer, late wife of John
Boyer of Tyrone, for various small properties in their locality. 6 Nov.
1630. 3pp. These pages are A3 size and frail.
MS 48328/12 1659
Lease made from Andrew Stuart of Tirarly (Tirearly), Co. Armagh, to
William Conyngham of Armagh for the townlands of Mullaghnehoagh
[Co. Tyrone] for three years at five [shillings] a year (17 Sep. 1659).
Also, a deed of release from Andrew Stuart to William Conyngham for
the same property at a price of £40 (31 Oct. 1659). 2 items

Title Stewarts of Londonderry

1st Marquess Baron Londonderry and Viscount Castlereagh Robert Stewart 1739-1821 of Mount Stewart Co. Down became Earl of Londonderry in 1796 and Marquess of Londonderry in 1816. 2nd Marquess Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh was born in Dublin in 1769 and became 2nd Marquess of Londonderry in 1821 just one year before his death. After a Cambridge education he became an Irish MP given the title Lord Castlereagh by Pitt and took on the role of Irish chief secretary in 1797. He became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland when the Act of Union 1801 was going through – a difficult time in Ireland. He was made Secretary of State forWar in 1805 and championed Sir Arthur Wellesley’s rise to power ultimately to become Duke of Wellington. In 1809 he got into hot water with the then Foreign Secretary George Canning and their disagreement resulted in a duel which led to both men resigning. Three years later he became Secretary for Foreign Affairs and then Leader of the House of Commons. He was deeply involved in the aftermath of Napoleon’s defeat and in the setting up of the Treaty of Paris. He rose to the position of Foreign Secretary in 1812 in Lord Liverpool’s government and some say that he was one of the most distinguished Foreign Secretaries in British history albeit “cold in personality and lacking ability as an orator”. As leader of the House of Commons he got himself a bad name over a series of bills and measures and was the target of much public dislike being targetted especially by such public figures as Byron Moore and Shelley. After someone attempted to assassinate the Cabinet in 1820 he took to carrying pistols in self-defence and at one stage moved in to live at the Foreign Office for greater safety. By 1822 he was showing growing signs of paranoia and that same year he committed suicide by cutting his throat with a penknife. He had no children and so his estate and titles passed to his half-brother. 3rd Marquess The then Baron Stewart Charles William Stewart 1778-1854 became the 3rd Marquess and later the 1st Earl Vane. His second wife was Lady Frances Anne Vane-Tempest a fabulously wealthy 19 year old coal heiress from Seaham County Durham daughter of Sir Harry Vane-Tempest – and Charles rapidly dropped the name Stewart in favour of Vane. He led a distinguished life serving as adjutant-general to Wellington ambassador at Vienna and later at St. Petersburg and was a pall-bearer at Wellington’s funeral. He received the Order of the Garter. He was Lord Lieutenant of County Durham and there’s a statue to him in Durham market place. However he was seen as an absentee landlord by his Northern Ireland tenants who were unimpressed by his perceived lack of sympathy during the famine of the 1840s. His building of a £15000 extension to Mount Stewart at this time might seem to some from this distant perspective to be rather insensitive but the world was different then. 4th Marquess I can find little on the 4th Marquess other than that his name was Frederick William Robert Stewart 1805-1872 and that he married Lady Elizabeth Frances Charlotte JOCELYN of Roden in 1846. He is buried in Newtownards Priory graveyard Northern Ireland and his wife died in 1884. They were childless and his title and estates passed to his half-brother the 2nd Earl Vane. 5th Marquess Sir George Henry Robert Charles William Vane-Tempest Viscount Seaham was born in Austria in 1821 became 2nd Earl Vane in 1854 and 5th Marquess of Londonderry in 1872. He was great-uncle to Winston Churchill. As a young Coldstream Guards officer he took a great interest in Mary Cornelia Edwards during her coming out season in London in 1846 and they were married the same year on 3 Aug. She was the daughter of Sir John Edwards Bart MP and Lady Edwards of Greenfields later Plas Machynlleth. They settled into married life at the Plas and over the fullness of time produced 6 children: Frances Cornelia Harriet 1851-1872. Charles 1852-1915. Later became 6th Marquess. Henry John 1855-1905. Averina Mary 1857-1873. Named after Mary Cornelia’s half-sister. Herbert Lionel Henry 1862-1921 The last of his line to live in the Plas and killed in the Abermule train crash. Aline Alexandrina Louisa Maud 1863-1945. Named Alexandrina after Tsar Alexander a friend of her father. Married Wentworth Blackett Beaumont MP for Tyneside in 1889 who later became Lord Allendale. The 5th Marquess and his wife were to become great local benefactors. It was through them that the railway came to Machynlleth and alms houses an infants’ school and a hospital were constructed Londonderry Terrace built considerable restoration work carried out on St. Peter’s church and the horseshoe frontage fixed to the old smithy in 1896. In 1874 Mach’s totem the 78 ft Castlereagh Memorial Clock was erected to commemorate the coming of age of their son Charles.The 5th Marquess died at Plas Machynlleth in 1884 and Mary Cornelia at Plas Machynlleth on 19 Sep 1906. There’s a bust of Mary Cornelia in Y Plas Rose Garden and her tomb is in St.Peter’s churchyard. Londonderry Graves   The tombs in the graveyard of St. Peter’s Church Machynlleth of: Avarina Vane-Tempest d. 1873 Frances Vane-Tempest d. 1872 Harriet widow of John Edwards d. 1882 mother of Mary Cornelia George Henry Vane-Tempest 5th Marquess d. 1884 Henry John Vane-Tempest d. 1905 Mary Cornelia Vane-Tempest d. 1906 Herbet Lionel Henry Vane-Tempest d. 1921 6th Marquess The eldest son of the 5th Marquess Charles Viscount Castlereagh became the 6th Marquess on his death and assumed the name Vane-Tempest-Stewart. He married Lady Theresa Talbot daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1875 but elected to live in the NE of England. 7th Marquess Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart 1878-1949 was educated at Eton and Sandhurst and was later Chancellor of the University of Durham and The Queen’s University of Belfast Lord Lieutenant of Co. Durham and H.M.L. of Co. Down. He became an MP in 1906 where he held various postsincluding Under-Secretary of State for Air Minister of Education for Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1926 and Secretary of State for Air until 1935. For a short time he was Lord Privy Seal. He was said to be “one of the richest men in the kingdom at the dazzling centre of London society” but sounds to have been a bit of a pompous character: “he apes his ancestor the great Lord Castlereagh wears a high black stock over his collar and a very tightly fitting frock coat and doesn’t look as if he belongs to this century at all”. It was also said that he addressed his civil servants like domestics and emphasized points by striking his desk with his riding crop! Mind you he had principles and stated in a Northern Ireland Education Bill context: “Religious instruction in a denominational sense during the hours of compulsory attendance there will not be” and he looked forward to the day when children of different faiths might study and play together. He worked hard before the Second World War trying to bring about Anglo-German reconciliation befriending Goering and von Ribbentrop – even entertaining von Ribbentrop at Mount Stewart – and leaving himself open to inevitable accusations that he was pro-German. He married Edith Helen Chaplin the daughter of Henry 1st Viscount Chaplin. She was active in many areas including various wartime and peacetime charities and was an enthusiasticpolitical entertainer for the Conservative Party at Londonderry House in Park Lane. She also found the time and energy in the 1920s to plant the gardensat Mount Stewart which is now owned by the National Trust although Lady Mairi Bury her daughter still lives there. The 7th Marquess presented the Plas to Machynlleth in 1948. *** The National Portrait Gallery has any number of paintings and sketches of the Londonderrys. All you need to do to view many of them on-line is to go to http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/ and then type Londonderry or Vane-Tempest in the Search Box.

Passenger Lists of McCorkell Line Ships Londonderry Ireland 1865

Source: PRONI Ref T2713/2B/3: Passenger Book of J & J Cooke Giving a list of Passengers to Sail from Londonderry & Engaged at Philadelphia. The Public Record Office Belfast Northern Ireland The Ships: Stadacona ……. 1800 Tons ….. .Captain Stewart. Date  No   No  Names     Age    $   Ship    Date  Address Feb   87  342 Annie  Stewart of Rathmullen a 25   Stadacona Apr Agharennan Feb  156  414 James  Stewart a 25    25  near  Bushmills  Co Antrim   40 Mohongo   Mar Ballynauris Apr  420  683 Mary   Stewart  Peel 12  Ballymoney  36 Lady E.   May Ballybullion 45  865 Rebecca   Stewart   Kilmacrennan         40               Tanmyard 46  866 William     Stewart  Kilmacrennan        40               Tanmyard 47  867 Samuel    Stewart  Kilmacrennan     11  30               Tanmyard + 4 children unnamed Jul  778 1128 Ellen J.  Stewart   Gilmour  Lismoyle Swatragh      30               Care John Jul  779 1129 Nancy  Stewart Gilmour Lismoyle  Swatragh           30               Care John

Sir William Stewart  Male Abt 1582 – 1646

Wigtownshire Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [1]

Education 1613 Knighted Find all individuals with events at this location  [2]  FA2 2 May 1623 Erected a Baronet of Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location  [2] Died 1646    Ireland Will  28 Jul 1647 Will proven Find all individuals with events at this location

The Stewart In Ireland

“Amongst the many branches of the Stewart family that have been transplanted out of Scotland there have been few that have attained to the degree of wealth and influence which this line of Ulster Stewarts reached in the 17th and 18th centuries. The principal seat was formerly at Newtown-Stewart County Tyrone which takes its name from Sir William Stewart 1st Baronet who was its founder and the ruins of the castle of his descendants the Lords Mountjoy in the Elizabethan style though not dating back earlier than the middle of the 17th century are still a picturesque feature of this beautifully situated little Ulster town. Sir William first went to Ireland as Captain Stewart in the year 1608 as evidenced by the following entry in the register of the Privy Council of Scotland:Edinburgh June 21 1608. Letter from the Council to the Governor of Knockfergus: Having ressavit directioun from our most sacred Soveraigne the Mngis Majestie to send over tua hundreth men of warr for assisting and furthering his Majisteis service “in that Kingdome . . . we have accordingly sent thame unto you under the charge of thir two gentilmen Capitane Patrik Craufurde and Capitane Williame Stewart”. “In the following year Captain Stewart was strongly recommended by the King to the Lord Deputy of Ireland for special favour in the distribution of lands at the Plantation of Ulster. A despatch to the Lord Deputy in State Papers Irish Series bearing date 19th June 1609 conveys the message that His Majesty desires ” extraordinary respect to be shown to him Captain Stewart when the distribution shall come It so that . . . he may therein be regarded before another”. Captain Stewart’s name was accordingly included in the list of ” Servitors ” i.e. persons in the Government service recommended for grants of land at the Plantation and on 30th November 1610 he was vested by Letters Patent with a it proportion” of 1000 acres along the western shore of the upper part of Lough Swilly Co. Donegal. This property was erected into the Manor of Stewart’s Fort and on it Captain Stewart constructed a fortified dwelling known by the name of Fort-Stewart” which became the residence of his youngest son Thomas Stewart and the latter’s descendants till about the year 1780 when Sir Annesley Stewart 6th Baronet who had become head of the family in 1769 acquired a more commodious and modern type of residence known as Brookehill within a mile or two of the old fortified house. He changed the name of “Brookehill” to ” Fort-Stewart” and this house remains the residence of his successor in the fourth generation Sir H. J. U. Stewart present and Ilth Baronet. Captain Nicholas Pynnar’s Survey 1618 of the Land Grants in the year 1608 in the Barony of Raphoe list William Stewart brother of Lord Garlies as receiving 1500 acres in the Precint of Boilage and Banagh. County Donegal on the Net list William Stewart Esq. as receiving a land grant in the year 1608 in the Barony of Boylagh County Donegal. I am unable to explain the descrepancy in dates locations and acreage. Note to File – JPRhein A further letter from the King recommending Captain Stewart to the special attention of the Lord Deputy is in State Papers Irish Series under date of 26th January 1612-13 and this led to his being granted an additional proportion of 1500 acres in the Barony of Strabane Co. Tyrone which had been surrendered by the original grantee. He subsequently acquired either by grant or purchase further lands of large extent in the counties of Tyrone and Donegal. To his lands in the Barony of Strabane Co. Tyrone he gave the name of Newtown-Stewart estate; those in the Barony of Clogher in the same county became the Mount-Stewart estate; and those in the Barony of Kilmacrenan Co. Donegal were designated the Ramelton Fanad and Fort-Stewart estates. On the Mount-Stewart property he built the great castle of Aughentaine which was destroyed during the disturbances which broke out in 1641. Mount-Stewart was officially renamed Fivemiletown about the beginning of the 19th century and it figures under the latter name on present day maps. The ruins of Aughentaine Castle are shown a short distance to the north. Captain Stewart was knighted at Royston in 1613 and was created a Baronet of Ireland in 1623. He played a large part in civil and military affairs in Ireland till his death late in 1646 and was a member of the Privy Council and a General in the army. He was succeeded as 2nd Baronet by his eldest son Sir Alexander Stewart. The latter besides being a military commander of considerable repute wa’s a zealous Covenanter and is described in Patrick Adair’s True Narrative of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland 1623-1670 as ” a gentleman of great integrity and fervent in propagating the gospel interest in the districts around Derry.” Sir Alexander is chiefly known to history for having conducted the First Siege of Derry in the year 1649 when the city was held for the English Parliament by Sir Charles Coote.” Source – The Stewarts Volume VI The Stewarts In Ireland Walter A. Stewart London S.W. 3 September 1 1933 The Right Honorable Sir William Stewart 1st Baronet of Newtownstewart County Tyrone and Ramelton County Donegal went over to Ireland in 1608 as Captain commanding a company of Scottish troops sent to serve in that country.  See Register of the Privy Council of Scotland June 21 1608 He is stated by Douglas of Glenbervied in his “Historical and Genealogical Tree of Royal Family of Scotland and name of Stewart” 1750 to have been a son of Archibald Stewart 3rd laird of Fintalloch who died around 1506 On review this date may have been incorrectly copied by J.P. Rhein or it is incorrect. This will have to be checked further. and whose family descended from Sir William Stewart 2nd of Garlies see Galloway Earl. Source – Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage Sir William Stewart was in great favor with King James VI who in 1610 granted him 1000 acres in the barony of Kilmacrean in County Donegal Ireland for the plantation of escheated lands in Ulster. William was a member of the privy council of King James VI and of King Charles I. He was a very prominent man in northern Ireland. He led the Ulster forces during the Irish rebellion of 1641 and decisively defeated Sir Phelim O’Neill on June 16 1642. Sir William resided at Aughentean and Newtown-Stewart County Tyrone. Among his many possessions was a demesne of 300 acres in County Donegal upon which he built in 1618 a four story castle called Ramelton and a town consisting of 45 houses. Source – Stewart Clan Magazine Volume XI-XV 1933-1938 page 141 Sir William Stewart in 1613 bought 1500 acres granted in 1610 to James Haig gentleman in the precinct of Strabane County Tyrone. Source – Stewart Clan Magazine Volume XI-XV 1933-1938 page 118 “William Stewart 1st Baronet Ramelton started out as Captain William Stewart of Whithorn. He was granted lands under the Plantation scheme as a Servitor rather than an Undertaker in reward for his military service in Ireland under King James I of England. He was granted ‘Gortavagie’ by James and also he received ‘Ramelton’ which had originally been granted to Sir Richard Hansard. Shortly thereafter he also took over the lands in County Tyrone of James Haig which eventually became known as Newtownstewart and later still land in Clogher Barony; also in County Tyrone which he renamed Mount Stewart and which is now known as Fivemiletown. He married Frances Newcomen and was knighted in 1623. He was made a Baronet of Ramelton in 1623 and died in 1646″ Source – Mary Stewart Kyritsis “Sir William Stewart emigrated to Ireland during the planation of Ulster in the time of King James VI of Scotland who inherited the English throne as James I of England. Sir William married Frances Newcomer daughter of Sir Robert Newcomer of Mosstown County Longford. He sat in the Irish parliament for County Donegal in 1613-1615 and was created a baronet on May 2 1623. He served with distinction against the Irish rebels in 1641 and 1642. He had at least two sons.” Source – Letter from Mary Hazeltine Cole “James I of England 1566-1625 king of England 1603-1625 and as James VI king of Scotland 1567-1625. Born in Edinburgh Castle Scotland James was the only son of Mary Queen of Scots. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567 he was proclaimed king of Scotland. He assumed actual rule in 1581. Scotland was at that time divided by conflict between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. James tried unsuccessfully to advance the cause of religious peace in Europe but he repressed both Catholics and Protestants at various times. In 1586 James formed an alliance with his cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England. He replaced the feudal power of the nobility with a strong central government and maintaining the divine right of kings he enforced the superiority of the state over the church. In 1603 James succeeded Queen Elizabeth as James I the first Stuart king of England. His belief in divine right led to prolonged conflict with Parliament. James authorized a new translation of the Bible generally called the King James Version. James I was succeeded to the throne by his son Charles I.” Source – The Encarta 99 Desk Encyclopedia Copyright 1998 Microsoft Corporation “After the first shock of the rebellion and the initial frantic defence measures the Protestants began to hit back. For example volunteers from the Laggan district County Donegal near Londonderry launched a counter-attack in early summer 1642 organized by two brothers and professional soldiers Sir William and Sir Robert Stewart. The Laggin men swiftly recaptured Strabane; relieved Lemavady destroyed rebel bands in the Magilligan Peninsula swept through Roe Valley and at the Gelvin Burn near Dungiven finally relieving Colerain .” Source – Ulster’s Defence Tradition by Robert K. Campbell “The plantation of Ulster was fully planned by the English and Scottish Privy Councils in 1610. Land was assigned to British undertakers during April and May. Undertakers had to be in residence by September 1610 and to have fulfilled their conditions of settlement by Easter 1613. The enterprise attracted those pressed hard by the cost of living in Scotland as well as England.” Source – Modern Ireland 1600-1972 by R. F. Foster “In 1600 Ulster was synonymous with wildness and untamed Gaelicism: separate by nature and geography least inhabited least developed economically least urbanized. Less than two percent of the population of Ireland was of Scots or English descent; but by the early 1700s the proportion had soared to 27 percent.” Source – Modern Ireland 1600-1972 by R. F.Foster See Links Section on this site for “An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster at the Commencement of the Seventeeth Century 1608 -1620″ by the Reverend George Hill. There is a specific reference to Sir William Stewart on pages 322323522533544 and 545. Note to File -JP Rhein “The following excerpts are taken from The Adair Manuscript section: In May 1642 about 10000 troops from the Scottish army were sent to Ireland by the Parliament of England. The Irish were rebelling and reportedly encouraged by “the Popish clergy and the Bishop of Raphoe”. The King committed the managing of the war to the Parliament of England. The Presbyterian ministers were attempting to administer the “solemn League and Covenant to the army” but the Mayor of Derry sent a Captain Hepburn to the ministers to invite them to a conference in his chambers. “There he showed them a letter from the Parliament of England recommending to them the taking of the covenant when it should come to the Scotch army and withal a proclamation by those who then ruled in Dublin prohibiting the taking of it and declared his great straits what to choose.” It appears that no decision was made and the ministers left him’ They soon “received another discouraging letter from Sir Robert Stewart sent by Major Galbraith. It appears that the Presbyterian ministers continued to preach and administer the covenant to the people which included many soldiers in the army. Mr. Phillips about Ballycastle near Newtownlimabady set himself against it and did endeavor to dissuade the garrison thereabout from it. And Sir Robert Stewart with Mr. Humphrey Galbraith was using the same endeavours about Derry having heard that the ministers were coming there. Afterwards the ministers went towards Enniskillen ‘without sight of the enemy. For the Irish who were protected hearing the covenant was coming that way fled because they heard that the covenant was to extirpate all Papists and was against protecting them.” They next went to Ramelton where they received the rest of Sir William Stewart’s regiment and many of Colonel Mervyn’s contrary to his threatenings. also one of those who opposed the covenant at Raphoe entered into it with apparent ingenuousness. From this place they returned to Derry where Sir Robert Stewart Colonel Mervyn and Major James Galbraith came now to hear the ministers preach and explain the covenant. A document dated on 14 December 1642 in the records of Fermanagh Ireland: ‘The last true Intelligence from Ireland; Being a true Relation of the great Victory lately obtained against the Rebels by Sir William Stewart Colonel Sanderson Colonel Mervyn and Sergeant Major Galbraith against the great O’Neales and MacGwires Forces wherein they slew great numbers of the Rebels took 900 cows 500 sheep and 300 horses from the Rebels in the County of Fermanagh. Sir William Stewart understanding that a party of Oneales in the Kirrilrs Woodes sent out Captain Balfoure a deserving soldier with a hundred men who skirmished with them killing fifty rebels and lost but four of his own men and took away four hundred cows from the Rebels. Some four days after Sir William Stewart desired Lieutenant Colonel Sanderson Lieutenant Colonel Audley Mervin and Sergeant-Major James Galbraith to march from Newtowne to relieve Ageer and Aghatyan with five hundred foot and a hundred horse.” Source – The Redtower Clan Galbraith Association International Volume XX No. 3 March 1999 A copy of “The Stewarts” by Walter A. Stewart 10 Durham Place Chelsea London September 1 1933 is filed in the research files of J. P. Rhein Volume 4 Packet D. This is a 49 page detailed document dealing with these Stewarts in Ireland. It also contains several dissenting views as true line of descent of these Stewarts. Note to file JP Rhein “George Crawfurd or Crawford a Scottish historian with a bent for genealogy whose works were published at Edinburgh in 1710 and around then gave his opinion of the origin of the Mountjoy Stewarts in Ireland several generations after those Stewarts were settled there. Apparently he got his information from conversations with fourth or fifth cousins of the Mountjoy branch-not from signed documents nor of course contemporary witnesses. Crawford named Archibald Stewart of Fintalloch in Kirkcudbrightshire but did niot trace his ancestry because the descendants with whom he talked did not know it themselves. They dimly knew that they were cadets of the Stewarts of Garlies because the earls of Galloway who presented the eldest branch of that strain were their super chiefs. In the reigns of William & Mary and Queen Anne when Crawford worked the fame of the Lords Mountjoy grandson and great-grandson of the first Sir William Stewart was widespread. Anybody who could claim relationship to them was proud to do so. The Stewarts of Fintalloch whom Crawford talked with included particularly William Stewart of Culgruff probably in Kirkcudbrightshire secretary to the dukes of Queensberry for it was he who first rook an interest in the Fintalloch ancestry and hired a genealogist Rev. Andrew Symson to look it up. This Willam Stewart of Culgruff was the eldest son of Archibald Stewart of Culgruff second son of John Stewart of Shambellie in Dumfriesshire. John was a son of John Stewart of Allans son of John and Bessie Newell Stewart of Auchinleck. John was a younger son of Archibald Stewart jr. of Fintalloch second son of Archibald and Elizabeth Kennedy Stewart of Fintalloch. Archibald and Elizabeth’s elder son was William called Black William: he inherited the lease of Fintalloch married Janet Gordon but left no issue and died July 24 1595 at the court of Queen Elizabeth. His brother Archibald succeeded to Fintalloch: he married a daughter of McLellan of Bombie and had these children as listed by Crawford – Richard who succeeded to Fintalloch ; John of “Allans” James “ancestor of Archibald Stewart the great Whig with the whiskers who lives in the Cowgate Edinburgh”; Robert “ancestor of the Lords Mountjoy in Ireland”; and Archibald “of Heisilside. Crawford overlooked a son William and supposed that Robert whose name was quite as distinguished as William’s in the early settlement of Ulster was the great-grandfather of the Lord Mountjoy of his Crawford’s time. He took a stab at it and came as close as anybody could who depended on what he had heard.” Source – Stewart Clan Magazine Tome H Volume 37 Number 6 December 1959

The Plantation and Settlement of Ireland

The following excerpts were taken from Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research Volume 1 Repositories and Records by Margaret Dickson Falley B.S. published by Genealogical Publishing Col Inc. 1981. “On the whole the Plantation and Settlement of Ireland carried out the principal object of the Crown and the English Government including that of the Commonwealth over a period of one hundred and fifty years to eventually subjugate Ireland by confiscation and plant the realm with new land-lords loyal to the State who would supply revenue to the Government maintain English law administered by representatives from England and furnish protection by locally supported military forces. Thus the forfeitures of individual estates by “enemies of the State” are a part of the series of Plantation and Settlement records which set forth the changes in ownership and tenure of Irish lands. The Presbyterians in Ireland were largely Ulster Scots. During two and a half centuries after the first plantation of Scottish Presbyterian colonies in Ulster ca. 1606 they maintained a close connection with their homeland while they remained a race apart from their Irish and English neighbors. They were hated by the Roman Catholics of Ulster whose land they had usurped. They were despised by the English whose Government and Established Church inflicted persecution upon them due to religious non-conformity. The Ulster Scots kept their racial strain pure in matters of intermarriage. They sent their sons to Scotland to be educated for the ministry etc. Many of them married there before they returned to Ulster. Thus they remained under the influence of Scottish religion philosophy and family ties to their early and some later generations. While the Presbyterians who settled in Ulster were almost solidly Scottish there were many English Puritans of Calvinistic doctrine who settled in Dublin and the South of Ireland. The English type of Presbyterianism lacked the more severe theology and discipline of the Scottish Church. Their congreations in Leinster and Munster were the outgrowth of the English Puritans and Independents of the Commonwealth period left there without organization after the Restoration. These two sects united in 1696 and developed the Southern Association of the Presbyterian Church. This became the Presbytery of Munster and a part of the General Synod. Historians of Church and local off airs and the genealogists have preserved a wealth of published and manuscript records regarding Presbyterian families and individuals. A few points which may puzzle genealogists will be clarified by a brief review of the history of the Presbyterians and their problems due to the laws of the realm regarding dissenters from the Established Church of Ireland. This will show that less than half of the Presbyterian families were permanently settled in Ireland before 1650. The Penal Laws and other Acts of Parliament depriving Presbyterians of religious and civil liberty were during some periods more rigorously imposed in Scotland than in Ireland thus resulting in a large emigration to Ulster. At other times the Ulster Presbyterians were more severely penalized causing several ministers and many Church members to return to Scotland. At all times until well into the eighteenth century the religious laws and practices resulted in the entries of many records of baptism marriage and burial in the Parish Registers of the Established Church. The first wave of Presbyterian settlers come to Ulster as leasers of the numerous Scottish proprietors who were granted estates by James I 1605-1625. By patent of 16 April 1605 the northeast quarter of County Down was granted to Hugh Montgomery and the northwest quarter was granted to James Hamilton. This represented two-thirds of the estates forfeited by Con O’Neill who later was forced to sell his remaining lands to the benefit of Hamilton and Montgomery. The southern part of County Down remained in Roman Catholic hands. The new proprietors were required by the Crown to live on their estates build houses churches and bring English or Scottish settlers as tenants able to bear arms for the King build houses and develop their land. Hamilton and Montgomery brought emigrants from the Scottish counties of Ayre Renfrew Wigtown Dumfries and Kirkcudbright. They began coming in May 1606. By 1610 Montgomery could muster 1000 men for the King and in 1614 the two proprietors mustered 2000 men representing about 10000 Scots settled in County Down.

Hugh_The_Great_O'Neill)_(c._1550_–_20_July_1616)

Hugh O’Neill Sir Arthur Chicester received a large portion in the southern part of County Antrim. In 1603 he was granted the “Castle of Belfast” and surrounding property. He soon afterward acquired land along Carrickfergus Bay and to the north almost as far as Lough Larne. He at first settled an English colony around Belfast but before long the Scottish settlers predominated throughout the lower half of County Antrim. The upper half had been in the hands of the Macdonnell clan since about 1580. Soon after 1607 the area was granted to Randall Macdonnell who in 1620 became the Earl of Antrim. Scottish tenants also spread through his estates being required to bear arms for the King and develop the land. The flight of the Ulster Earls of Tyrone and Tyrcommel with their Chiefs who were confederates on 14 September 1607 gave James I the opportunity to confiscate their lands for past and present treason. The six counties of Armagh Cavan Donegal Fermanagh Londonderry and Tyrone were escheated to the Crown. This great confiscation of some 3800000 acres lead to the carefully planned “Plantation of Ulster” between 1608 and 1620. Of this land about 1500000 acres were only partly fertile and largely bog forest and mountain country. This was restored to the Irish Roman Catholic natives. Extensive grants were reserved for the bishops and their incumbents of the Established Church. Trinity College Dublin and other Royal Schools received about 20000 acres. Land was also set aside for the corporate towns forts etc. The remaining half million acres of the most fertile land was reserved for colonization by English and Scottish settlers. King James at first chose fifty-nine Scotsmen of high social standing and influence and nearly as many Englishmen together with fifty-six military officers or “servitors” and eight-six natives as undertakers who were to receive estates of 2000 acres of less in all counties but Londonderry which was reserved for the Corporation of the City of London. Eventually by 1630 some undertakers acquired as much as 3000 acres and estates in County Londonderry came into private hands. Through the influence of John Knox the foundations of the Presbyterian Church were laid in Scotland and the first General Assembly was called in 1560. James VI of Scotland who succeeded to the English throne as James I in 1603 was determined to strengthen the Established Church in Scotland. Melville the leading Presbyterian of the time was imprisoned in the Tower of London and the General Assembly was forbidden to function. Presbyterian ministers and their adherents alike were severely persecuted by the bishops to bring them under Church control. At the same time King James was anxious for a large settlement of English and Scots in Ireland. The latter came to Ulster for new land but also for religious liberty attracted by the tolerant attitude maintained there by the bishops. The new Confession of Faith sanctioned by Parliament for the Plantation Settlements reconciled the differences between Anglicans and Presbyterians. It was Calvinistic in doctrine and allowed Presbyterian ministers to serve as clergy in the parish churches according to their own practices and beliefs. This encouraged the Scottish ministers to follow their countrymen to Ulster. The easy cooperation of the bishops in Ulster changed after 1625 and the ministers preached under increasing restrictions. This came about through the influence of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury over Charles I. They were determined to tighten the control of the Established Church and this was reflected in Ireland to make matters worse Wentworth Earl of Strafford was appointed to the Irish Vice-royalty and arrived in Dublin in 1633. He and his government began a reign of terror for Roman Catholics and Presbyterians alike. He followed Laud’s policy to the letter. The earlier “Articles of Religion” were set aside and the ministers were required to adopt a Confession of Faith embodying the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. He further ordered the Act of Uniformity to be enforced against the ministers. This declared that every clergyman or minister celebrating any religious service other than that of the Established Church every layman assisting at such a service and every person who opposed the liturgy of the Church was liable on the third offense to confiscation of goods and imprisonment for life. John M’Clelland of Newtownards was deposed but continued to preach and was therefore excommunicated. In 1636 Robert Blair Robert Hamilton John M’Clelland and John Livingstone organized a group of 140 Scottish settlers to emigrate to New England. They set sail in September 1636 and when half way across were driven back by storms. The ministers to escape arrest fled to Scotland accompanied by many of their adherents. At this time Scotland had become a safe refuge. The crowning blow to Ulster came in 1639 when the “Black Oath” was imposed. The clergy were required to read it from their pulpits and the people were forced to swear on their knees if over age sixteen to obey the King’s commands and to abjure and renounce the Covenant. The clergy were ordered to report on every Presbyterian in each parish. Some conformed. Landed proprietors such as the Hamiltons and the Montgomerys betrayed their faith and joined the persecutors. Great numbers who could re-establish themselves in Scotland returned there. As many as 500 at a time returned to Scotland for the Communion season. This persecution and departure of many Scots from Ulster saved hundreds of lives during the Rebellion which broke out in 1641. The Roman Catholics determined to exterminate the English also hated the Presbyterians for settling on their forfeited land. They tortured and murdered thousands and drove others out of their homes to die of privation. Reprisals by the settlers and a Scottish army sent to Ulster were equally devastating. Following the Rebellion after 1652 the Presbyterians came from Scotland to Ulster in great numbers owing to the unsettled conditions while Cromwell was attacking the Scottish Royalists. Some who had fled Ulster during the early years of the Rebellion returned after Scottish forces made their safety more assured. When peace was established Cromwell at first held the Presbyterians suspect for having supported the Royalist cause. After a little time they were allowed to flourish and many of their ministers were permitted to preach under ecclesiastical control of the new State Church. By 1658 there were eighty congregations and seventy Presbyterian ministers organized into five Presbyteries and a General Synod. The Presbyterians who were in Ulster in 1659 if settled in one of the counties of Antrim Armagh Donegal Down Fermanagh Londonderry or Monaghan are listed in A Census of Ireland circa 1659 edited by Seamus Pender Dublin 1939. Records for the counties of Cavan and Tyrone are omitted due to the fact that the original documents were not preserved. Following the restoration of Charles II in 1660 he who had pledged his loyalty to the Presbyterian Church when Scotland crowned him king soon after his father’s execution in 1649 now betrayed his word. He and his Parliament returned the Established Church to power. Its lands and churches taken by the Commonwealth Government were restored to the extent they were owned in 1641 and the bishops with their clergy regained their positions.” Father Archibald Stewart of Barclyee Wigtownshire   b. Abt 1550 Family            Frances Newcomen Married Abt 1610  [1] Children          1. Catherine Stewart 2. Sir Alexander Stewart   b. Abt 1616   d. 3 Sep 1650 Killed at the battle of Dunbar fighting on the royalist side against Cromwell. Find all individuals with events at this location 3. John Stewart   b. Abt 1618   d. Oct 1649 Put to death after trying to escape from the defenders of Londonderry Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 4. Robert Stewart   b. Abt 1622 5. William Stewart   b. Abt 1626 6. Thomas Stewart   b. Abt 1630 Fort Stewart County Donegal Aughentaine Castle in Aghintain Townland was built in 1618 by Sir William Stewart. In 1622 it is was described as a large Castle of Lyme & Stone strong & defencible…about it is a Bawne of lyme & stone 211foot long 112 foot broad & 10 foot high with Flanckers”. Only fragments of this 17th century fortified house remain. It was destroyed in 1641 and never rebuilt. The west wall stands to full height and there are some fireplaces at the higher levels. The building was three storeys high plus attic. The main block is aligned E-W and is about 17m by 10m externally. A wing about 6m square projects from the middle of the north wall. In the angle between this wing and the W portion of the main building there is a fine Scottish-type corbel with 12 courses of corbels. This carries the remains of a circular stairwell which rises from first floor level. On the Mount-Stewart property Sir William Stewart built the great castle of Aughentaine which was destroyed during the disturbances which broke out in 1641. On the Mount-Stewart property Sir William Stewart built the great castle of Aughentaine which was destroyed during the disturbances which broke out in 1641. In 1611 Sir William Stewart built Fort Stewart as a defence along the shores of Lough Swilly. When another planter Sir Richard Hansard moved to Lifford Stewart acquired Hansard’s Ramelton estates. In 1623 he was made a baronet and granted the castle of Ramelton becoming the biggest landowner in the town. He also gained valuable fishing rights on Lough Swilly. Donegal had become a county in 1585 and Sir William Stewart was one of the county’s three members of parliament during the period 1613-15 and again in 1634. He is also credited with building part of Letterkenny town and with the formation of the “Lagganeers” or Laggan army: this force were victorious at the battle of Glenmaquin defeating Sir Phelim O?Neill in 1641. The Stewarts of Ramelton are buried in their family vault at Killydonnell Franciscan Friary between Letterkenny and Ramelton. The following article comes from the files of Heber Rankin:  “Photostatic Copy of ‘The Weekly Irish Times’ of Saturday November 10 1940 given to Heber I. Rankin by Sir Jocelyn H. Stewart at his home ‘Carick Brack House’ Convoy County Donegal Eire on June 10 1965. Kildonnelly Abbey Fortstewart Historic Irish Mansions by James Fleming No. 237: Fort Stewart County Donegal Ireland.

Stewarts at War County Longford and the Irish Revolution 1910-1923 by Marie Coleman. During March of 1921 in County Longford, there was a considerable reduction in the level of IRA activity, but the nature of the conflict saw a major increase in the levels of brutality. The IRA’s attitute to the Police and informers became more hardline. Anyone suspected of spying was executed and police casualities resulted in twelve policemen being killed. Copnstables Stewart & Booth were both shot as they returned to Ballinalee County Longford after a period of leave.  (page 132.)

The Williamite Wars in Ireland 1688-1691 by John Childs

This book is an interesting account of many of the battles which took place on Irish soil during 1688-1691. These included the famous one of The Seige of Londonderry-Derry, The Battle of the Boyne, Aughrim Co. Galway and the Siege of Limerick to name but a few. The Stewarts were involved in the military and are listed as follows: Captain Alexander Stewart Brigadier William Stewart Captain William Stewart Colonel William Stewart First Viscount Mountjoy William Stewart William Stewart John Stuart On the 5th April 1691 from Belturbet County Cavan, Brigadier William Stewart sent out a detachment of 50 flintlock-armed infantry and 20 Dragoons under Captain Alexander Stewart of the Wynne’s Enniskillen Dragoons towards Mohill Cointy Leitrim , to clear the area of raparees. By daybreak on the 6th April Stewart was withinh 2km of Mohill when he discovered two troops   of Jacobite dragoons and 50 foot guarding a herd of creaghts and cattle. Without any reconnance or hesitation he charged. The Jacobites fired one volley before abandoning the livestock and fleeing for the shelter of the nearby woods and bogs. Stewart persued and, killing 30 and taking five prisoners. Havin suffered no casualties he returned to Belturbet with 100 black cattle and around 70 horses. (The spoils of war). P 320 During May 1691 Brigadier William Stewart is reported to have had a Captain Duffe, his lieutenant, 21 raparees hung at Belturbet as well as a spy in Cavan. P 306 During June at the siege of Athlone and Ballymore Brigadier William Stewart assists Lt. General Hugh Mackay and infantry as they sought to clear the town of the Jacobite rebels. During the siege Brigadier William Stewart was wounded shot in the arm and neck. p 319-320 After the relief of Derry General Kirk arrived in Dundalk County Louth on the 8th of September with his own batallion of foot and those of Sir John Hanmer and Brigadier William Stewart with three-quarters of the Derry relief force. P 158 The garrison in Newry County Down was in Jacobite hands but following an attack in late November Brigadier William Stewart  having received information that the Earl of Antrim’s regiment, who were billeted in Dundalk intended to renew the pressure on Newry,  Stewart taking 250 cavalry and infantry and advanced and encountered Antrim’s forces throught he Moryr Pass and turned them back killing 30 and taking 17 prisoners plus 100 cattle and a number of horses. P 180-1 Brigadier William Stewart  whilst travelling through the Moryr Pass on route to Rostrevor and Newry burned all the Irish cabins which were encountered on the way as well as seizing a considerabel amount of livestock. P 189 By August 1691 Stewart is to be found preparing for the siege of Limerick (the 1st), on the moring of the 12th August he commanded a mixed detachment of  four field guns and attacked Castleconnell just north of Limerick City. Castleconnell waved the white flag and surrendered. P 251 Captain William Stewart  is reported in February 1689 as leading a company along with Lt Colonel Robert Lundy into and securing the City of Derry. P 8 O’Neills forces were being harassed by the Protestant Association forces in County Antrim. The Protestant Association forces built a small fort at Toome for 60 men. As the local Irish gathered around to see what was going on scuffels broke out. Stewart arrived with 24 cavalry and infantry and followin the scuffels arrested a number but 13 were killed in the action. P 43 Colonel William Stewart  is reported as going to Inch Strand on Lough Swilly with a detachment of troops to see if an overland threat to the rear of the Irish army might be developed. They developed the site into a firm base. P 126, 129 By the end of July Colonel William Stewart  was ordered to embark all of his men and guns to Derry but he delayed because of the need to defend the many Protestant refugees from the fury of the Jacobite army. He did however move on the 2nd of August back to the City of Derry. First Viscount Mountjoy William Stewart is first mentioned as having to move from the Curragh Barracks back to Ulster to winter quarters. P2 In 1688 he is recorded as bringing in between 200 and 300 horsemen into Derry on the 10th December. John Stuart is listed  as an apothecary from Downpatrick who recieved a letter from Sir Robert Maxwell requesting a billet for soldiers as the Hunterian virus had spread beyond the Ards Peninsula across Strangford Lough into the mainland.

The Battle of Benburb 1646 by Clive Hollick

On the 5th June 1646 near the village of Benburb County Tyrone, Owen Roe O’Neill, leader of the Confederate Ulster native Irish army, defeated the combined Scottish-British forces of Robert Monro. This battle and O’Neills victory threatened the very existance of the Ulster Plantation. What Stewarts were involved ? Copied from ‘An Account of the Forces in Ulster and Some Proposicions’. Probably written about 1645 July. The Foot Sir William Stewart’s regiment Sir Robert Stewart’s regiment (two of eleven regiments) was in command of the Laggan Army which was made up of some 2,000 soldiers. The Horse Sir William Stewart’s troops Sir Robert Stewart’s troops (two of  thirteen troops) Of the Ten Foot regiments Sir Wm Stuart’s Sir R Stuart’s The seventeen troops were Sir Wm Stuart’s Sir R Stuart’s Sir Robert Stewart’s was in command of the Laggan Army which was made up of some 2,000 soldiers and in June 1643 he suffered a defeate in a battle near Clones County Monaghan. In June 1642 Sir Philim O’Neill suffere a defeat in a battle with Sir Robert Steward force near Strabane Co Tyrone

The majority of the New Scots regiments at Benburb were raised in 1642 with volunteers rather than by impressment. The Rev. Andrew Stewart a Presbyterian Minister at Donaghadee 1645-1671, the son of a settler, describes the soldiers as ‘the scum of both nations (England and Scotland) who, for debt, breaking and fleeing from justice or seeking shelter, came hither (Ulster (What comments from a church minister).

Cork Malitia 1794 Lieut Michael Stewart Burials in British Military Graveyard Ballincollig, County Cork Stewart, Charles, d. 16 Mar 1820, Royal Artillery Stewart, Mary Anne, d. 3 Jan 1815, age: Child, parents, Jos. & Catherine Stewart, Royal Artillery Drivers, Driver

Recount OF THE IEISH KEBELLION 1798. FROM “MAXWELL’S HISTORY,” &c, &c. CHAPTER III. Irish Rebellion, 1798.

Prosperous_1798

“1798, 24th Mat/. — Captain Swayne was at Prosperous in the County Kildare, with a detachment consisting of sixty men of the North Cork Militia and twenty- three of Wynn’s Ancient Britons Dragoons. Among the officers of the Clane Yeomanry — a party of which corps was stationed at the village from whence it took its name, about two miles from Prosperous — was a gentle- man named Esmonde, who affected loyalty for the better service of his country and her cause. He had seduced the majority of his corps; he was in accurate correspondence with the insurgent leaders in the neigh-bourhood. It was arranged that, on the preconcerted signal — the non- arrival of the mail from Dublin on the night of the 23rd — Naas, Clane, aud Prosperous were to be attacked at the same moment. Esmonde and the disaffected yeomen were to assist, and the officers and the loyal part of the soldiers were to be destroyed. Surprise was an essential part of the scheme. At the latter place many of the soldiers were billeted in private houses. If off their guard, they might be found divided, and then could be easily dealt with. Swayne had been directed to collect the arms of the people at Prosperous. On Sunday, the 20th of Ma} r , he took his company of the North Cork to the Roman Catholic Chapel. Father Higgins, the priest, addressed his congregation on the duty of submission to the authorities; and Esmonde, who had ridden over from Clane in the morning to support his brother officer, spoke to them as a Catholic in the same tone. A number of peasants, in apparent obedience, surrendered their pikes. In the priest’s presence they expressed regret for having been betrayed into the conspiracy, and promised to have no more to do with it. “To avoid recognition by his comrades, Esmonde undertook to lead the attack at Prosperous, leaving his own captain deserted, to be destroyed by others. On the afternoon of the 23rd, when the hour was drawing: near, he paid Swayne a visit, and dined with him at a hotel in the town. Father Higgins was present, and he and Esmonde told Captain Swayne that the people were really penitent. Very many of them wished to give up their arms, but they dare not bring them in the day for fear of being recognised by their con- federates ; they would have brought them at night, and have laid them down in the street, but they were afraid of the sentinels. Swayne, credulous and good-natured, suspected nothing. He ordered the sentinels, if they saw men moving in the street after dark, to take no notice of them. The mails left Dublin that night as usual. They were all stopped on the roads by the country people, according to instructions, and the call to arms went out. At two in the morning, when sleep was deepest, before the streaks of dawn had begun to show, Esmonde, with his Clane yeomen, a multitude of ruffians, armed chiefly with pikes, came into Prosperous. The sentinels gave no alarm, and were killed; and then, at once, before a note of warning had been raised, the rebel band flung themselves, with a wild yell, upon the barracks; the door went down. Swayne’s room was on the ground floor; they plunged in and stabbed him as he was springing from his bed. The soldiers, startled out of their sleep, snatched their muskets and rushed out. The mob swung back into the street, barricaded the doors to keep them secure, and then flung fire into the cellars, which were filled with straw and faggots. Beset on all sides, the miserable men were driven from the lower rooms up the stairs; as the flames pursued them, they sprung out of the windows, the mob below catching them as they fell on their pikes, and, as each victim writhed upon the point, received him with a fierce ‘Hurrah!’ The North Cork were Irishmen and Catholics, but received no mercy. All who were in the barracks were killed or desperately wounded. “ The Ancient Britons — the remainder of poor Swayne’s force — were quartered in a private house ; they, too, were hated equally, for they had made themselves notorious in the disarming of Ulster. Eight of the twenty-three leaped out of a back window and escaped across the country in the darkness, the rest were killed, their horses, arms, and uniforms taken by the rebels. “Retribution was, however, close at hand. At Clane there were no barracks; the troops were billetted about the place in twos and threes, and were thus more dangerously exposed than at Prosperous. The attack, however had been delayed till dawn. Captain Griffiths, who was in command of a party of the Armagh Militia and a corps of local yeomanry, felt for some reason uneasy and sleepless. Looking from his window he saw files of armed ‘men coming in along the roads. He gave the alarm in time to enable the Armagh to dress and snatch their muskets. The street was full as they came out, but the men fought their way towards one another, formed into line, and charged. Having failed in their surprise, the rebels showed their usual inability to encounter disciplined men. Though fifty to one, they turned and ran out of the town. Outside they were joined by parties coming up from Prosperous. Cheered by the news their friends brought, they formed again, and returned to the attack. They were received with a steady fire, which they were unable to face. Falling fast they wavered and broke. Esmonde had carried with him all the yeomanry but seventeen — these few charged and completed the route, and the wretches, masquerading as Ancient Britons were every one cut down. It was now six o’clock, p.m. Details had come in of the frightful disaster at Prosperous. Pursuit with so small a force was impossible. Griffiths recalled his men, and reviewed his losses, and, unable to account for the shortness of numbers in the yeomanry, ordered them to parade. Those who had been concerned in the night’s work had come back expecting to find as complete a sweep of their comrades as they had made themselves of Swayne and the “North Cork.” Finding the day gone against them, they either dispersed or stole into their quarters unperceived. Esmonde especially contrived to reach his room to wash, dress, and powder himself, as a dog would do after a midnight orgie among sheep, and presented himself in his place in the ranks as if he had never been absent from quarters. “There was no time for inquiry. A messenger galloped up at the moment with the news that Lord Gosport was at Naas, and required instant help. The men swallowed a hasty breakfast. Griffiths was in the saddle ready to start, when a note was slipped into his hand telling him that Esmonde had led the rebels at Prosperous. He thrust it into his pocket, and said nothing till he reached Naas, when the treacherous officer was placed in arrest, sent to Dublin, tried by Court Martial, and was promptly hanged. At Naas it was found that the attack had failed as at Clane, but not until after a sharper struggle. Gosport, more fortunate than Swayne or Griffiths, had received notice to be prepared on the evening preceding. The alarm was sounded at half past two in the morning. The rebel columns were entering on four sides. They forced their way into the gaol, where they were received with grape from some field pieces, and with a heavy musketry fire. They bore three volleys before they gave way. Thirty of them were found dead in the streets, and as many more in the fields and lanes outside the town. The troops in turn had suffered severely. The rebels had fought with dangerous courage, and their evidently enormous numbers created just and serious misgivings, for, in fact, they were everywhere, and all day long the smoke of burning homesteads was seen rising from every point of the horizon.” 23 May 1798: The Battle of Prosperous and the outbreak of the Rising of 1798. The Rising was fixed for the night of 23rd May 1798. The signal was to be the simultaneous stopping of the mail coaches that left Dublin General Post Office daily for Belfast, Cork, Athlone and Limerick. On the 23rd of May the mail coaches were to be seized and burnt at Santry, Naas, Lucan and the Curragh, and the rising began. In the City itself attempts to trigger an outbreak were thwarted as the British Army moved to seize strategic assembly points and thus nip things in the bud. Small crowds of men had set out from the poor districts of the city of Dublin to seize the Castle and other key public buildings. Agents of the Crown had infiltrated their revolutionary organization, the United Irishmen, and had already arrested several of their key leaders, Lord Edward FitzGerald being the most important of them.

The Militia mobilized before the revolutionaries could assemble in large groups and what their leaders had hoped would be an almost bloodless coup turned into a debacle. Outside the City though the insurgents fared better and many gathered in rural areas of County Dublin as well as southern County Meath, northern County Kildare and northern and western County Wicklow. These groups attacked towns and villages in their respective localities and stopped and destroyed some of the mail coaches that were making their way out to the provinces. From 24 May there was fighting at Prosperous, Clane, Kilcock, Maynooth, Rathangan, Timahoe, Monasterevan, and other places. But it was at Prosperous, Co Kildare that the first military engagement began at 2 a.m on 24 May 1798 by a United Irishmen force about 600+ strong which targeted the British garrison consisting of Cork militia and a detachment of a Welsh regiment, the “Ancient Britons”. The garrison consisted of 35 of the City of Cork militia and 22 ancient Britons who were housed separately near the barracks. Captain Richard Longford Swayne, commander of the militia, had terrorised the area at free-quarters, since his arrival on the 20th May. Throughout Wednesday the 23rd, the locals gathered in the woods. At 2 o’ clock the following morning, around 500 of them under Dr. John Esmond and Andrew Farrell. Their entry into the town was preceded by the infiltration of a small vanguard who, possibly aided by female sympathisers within, scaled the walls of the Militia barracks, killed the sentries and opened the gate. At the barracks, they forced their way into Swayne’s quarters where he was piked and shot before the troops could secure the building. Lighted faggots and furze were thrown through the windows of the underground office and the barracks was engulfed. Many of those who tried to escape were piked to death in the streets. Of the 57 soldiers in the garrison, nearly 40 were killed. Swayne’s body was burnt in a tar barrel. Thus was gained the first victory over the hated forces of the British Government. But the next day, other members of the Ancient Britons, hearing of the death of their fellow soldiers, participated in the retaliatory massacre of 34 Irish prisoners at Dunlavin Green, Co. Wicklow. Prosperous remained under United Irishmen control until 19 June when it was retaken by troops under the command of Colonel Stewart who boasted of destroying “this receptacle of rebellion”. By the end of the Summer of 1798 some 25,000 – 30,000 people lay dead across 11 counties of Ireland and the Rising was Crushed.

Sir Harry Jocelyn Urquart Stewart’s Residence ‘It is always difficult’ says Hill ‘ to identify a particular Stewart amidst such a crowd of servitors bearing the surname who appear in the State papers of the Plantation period” but among the multiplicity of that name in Ulster that of William Stewart whose Scottish forebears came originally from the Parish of Whithorn in Wigtownshire stands out conspicuously in those tragic days as one of the most favored and most successful of his countrymen in the scramble for a share of the confiscated lands of the Chieftans of Ulster. William Stewart came over in 1608 as Captain of a Company of Scottish troops sent to serve in Ireland and being in great favor with James I he received large grants of the confiscated* lands from the Crown at first in the County of Donegal and later as will be seen in Tyrone.  He commenced the work of a Planter so vigorously that Sir George Carew who was sent in 1611 to inspect and report on the progress of the Plantation gave the King a very favorable account of Stewart’s operation. Whilst many other undertakers in Donegal land at that time done nothing Captain Stewart’s bawn of lime and stone was already built containing an apartment suitable either for a munition house or a prison just as circumstances required.  This fact impressed the King with the conviction that his favorite could manage more than one small proportion of the escheated land and that he deserved to be put into the possession of more at the earliest opportunity. *This word should be ‘escheated’.” “Vast Possessions of Ulster”.  In pursuance of this Royal conviction the King soon afterwards required deputy Sir Arthur Chichester to accept a surrender from James Haig of a middle proportion of 1500 acres called Tirenemuriertagh in the barony of Strabane County of Tyrone and to grant it to Captain Stewart ‘with all concealments belonging thereto.’ By patent dated 7th of July 1613 Stewart was made ‘a free denizen and liege subject of Ireland empowered to enjoy the priveleges of a native and true born subject thereof’; which patent granted and confirmed to him the said proportions of lands in Tyrone and Donegal.  In the latter County he had received 1000 acres erected into the Manor of Stewart’s Fort with a demesne of 300 acres upon which in 1618 he had built ‘a fair strong castle called Ramelton three stories and a half high and had made a town consisting of forty-five houses in which were fifty-seven families all British.’ The possessions of this progenitor of the distinguished line which for nearly three and a half centuries has been closely associated with Donegal and Tyrone were further extended in December 1631 when he and Sir Henry Tichburne had a grant of all the rents profits and forfeitures of sundry lands in Ulster which had been forfeited for being set to the Irish contrary to the provisoes in the renewed patents to the undertakers. Stewart’s castle at Ramelton and two other of his chief houses were burned in the war of 1641 according to his deposition on oath in October 1643.  He alleged that ‘one new built church two market towns and certain villages-all of which including his three houses were burned by the Irish at the outbreak of the rebellion.’  He was also he stated despoiled of the possession rents and profits of his lands worth near £2000 a year and of 800 sheep 60 cows 40 horses and mares with corn goods and chatels of great value. How Black Hugh escaped from Prison: Ramelton the site of the principal of William Stewart’s Ulster residences is one of the most charmingly situated towns in North-West Donegal and was a favorite spot of the O’Donnells up to the beginning of the reign of James I.  Here as Pynnar’s Survey records Hugh M’Hugh Duffe O’Donnell resided in his castle and had a grant of the lands of Breahey Nahard Derriemonaghan Carne Cloone Glenmore and Glengeg – in all 1000 acres. This Hugh O’Donnell is believed to have been the same person yet vividly remembered traditionally as ‘Aodh Dhu Na Nach Shang’ – i.e. ‘Black Hugh of the lean swift steeds’ – who commanded O’Donnell’s cavalry at the battle of Fearsat More and who was the most famous angler archer and horseman of his time. Tradition says that he chose his horses in a peculiar manner.  A number of them were driven into the river Leanan and the animal that rushed into the stream most recklessly going the greatest distance before stopping to drink was the one which he would most assiduously train as a war steed. Another story has it that on one occasion when Black Hugh was in prison a number of English Officers had assembled to witness his dexterity in horsemanship.  He had been provided with one of his famous chargers for the exebition.  After careening around the inside of the courtyard for several minutes he stated that owing to his long absence the animal had forgotten him but that if he had his son behind him he could manage better. Accordingly the youth who had arrived with the steed from Ramelton mounted behind his father and immediately the charger bounded over the prison wall.  O’Donnell and his son escaped to the vastnesses of their native mountains after a stern chase in which they completely baffled their pursuers. Not a vestige of Ramelton Castle now remains.  About half a mile from its site at a place called Bel-atha-Daire – i.e. ‘The mouth of the ford of the Oak Wood’ – now anglicised Belladerry a great battle was fought on the 19th October 1495 after as the Four Masters record Henry Oge O’Neill son of Henry son of Owen marched with a great army into Tyrconnell and committed great destruction in Fanad.  The young O’Donnell – i.e. Con – met this army on the river Leanan but was defeated.  He was killed there with 160 of his men. There are few more romantic and historic spots in all Tyrconnell than Ramelton and its vicinity and few more picturesquely situated seats than Fort Stewart which stands nearby in a well-wooded demesne in the beautiful Vale of Leanan eight miles north-east of Letterkenny.  The immediate environs of Fort Stewart are as rich in scenes of beauty as many of the better known and more favoured by tourists districts in Ulster; while the mansion itself with its splendidly proportioned apartments its grand old furniture and the numerous relics of Ulster’s history that adorn its walls may well claim to be one of the most interesting residences in the northern province.

Advanced to the Peerage of Ireland: Captain Stewart was knighted in 1613 and erected a Baronet of Ireland on the 2nd May 1623.  He married Frances daughter of Sir Robert Newcomen Bart. of Mosstown Co. Longford by Catherine his wife daughter of Sir Thomas Molyneux Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland and had among other issue two sons and a daughter – viz : Alexander Thomas of Fort Stewart and Catherine who married in 1631 Sir James Montgomery of Rosemount. Having served as a military officer in the wars in Ireland Sir William received in satisfaction for the arrears of pay due to 5th June 1649 one debenture of £4329 while his son Sir Alexander Stewart was allotted for his services one debenture of £2599. Sir Alexander who succeeded as second Baronet married about 1648 his cousin Catherine daughter of Sir Robert Newcomen Bart. and was killed at the battle of Dunbar 3rd September 1650 fighting on the King’s side.  His only son Sir William Stewart third Baronet was advanced to the Peerage 19th March 1682 by the titles of Baron Stewart of Ramelton Co. Donegal and Viscount Mountjoy Co. Tyrone. The Viscount served in Hungary in 1686 and on his return to Ireland was raised to the rank of Brigadier- General with the pay of £497 10s a year.  He undertook with Sir Stephen Rice in 1688 a mission from Lord Deputy Tyrconnell to James II then at Paris and was immediately on his arrival in that city thrown into the Bastille and there confined until the year 1692.  Upon his release he waited upon William III in Flanders and was killed at the battle of Steinkirk in August of the same year. His Lordship married Mary daughter of Richard first Baron Coote of Colooney and had by her the following issue:  1. William;  2. Alexander who married Mary daughter of William Tighe of Dublin and died in 1701 leaving an only daughter and heiress Anne who married in 1711 the Right Honorable Luke Gardiner ancestor of the Earl of Blessington and Viscount Mountjoy;  3. Charles Vice-Admiral of the White M.P. Co. Tyrone who commanded a naval expedition against the Sallee pirates in 1720 and signed the treaty with the Emperor of Morocco;  4. Mary married first John Preston of Ardsallagh and secondly George third Earl of Granard; 5. Catherine who married Arthur Davis of Carrickfergus; their daughter Mary married in 1736 George fourth Earl of Granard. Lord Mountjoy was succeeded by his eldest son Sir William Stewart fourth Bart. and second Viscount Lieutenant-General in the army who married 23rd November 1696 the Hon. Anne Boyle daughter and eventual heiress of Murrough Viscount Blessenton.  This Lady brought into the Stewart family the Boyle estates in Wicklow and Kildare as well as the Manor of Silchester in Hampshire. His Lordship died on the 10th January 1727 and was succeeded by his only surviving son Sir William Stewart fifth Bart. and third Viscount.  He was created Earl of Blesinton on the 7th December 1745; and married 10th January 1733 Eleanor daughter and heiress of Robert Fitzgerald of Castle Dod County Cork by whom he had two sons viz – William Viscount Mountjoy who died on the 2nd February 1754; and Lionel Robert who died young.

Peerage Expires His Lordship died without surviving issue 14th August 1769 when the Peerage expired but the Baronetcy devolved upon his heir-at-law Annesley Stewart of Fort Stewart whose claim to the title is derived by descent from Thomas born 1630 second surviving son of Sir William Stewart first Baronet. This Thomas married a daughter of John Montgomery of Croghan County Donegal and had by her with four daughters an only son William Stewart of Fort Stewart High Sheriff Co. Donegal 1697 who married 1693 Mary Anne daughter of the right Reverend Ezekiel Hopkins Bishop of Derry and had by her one daughter two sons viz: Ezekiel and Robert Rev. he died in 1713. The oldest son Ezekiel Stewart of Fort Stewart married Anne daughter of Charles Ward and died in October 1734 leaving an only son the above mentioned Sir Annesley Stewart sixth Bart. M.P. for the Borough of Charlemont 1763-97. Sir Annesley married in September 1755 Mary daughter of John Moore of Drumbanagher by whom he had with a daughter two sons viz. James and William; Colonel of the 89th Regiment who married Anne daughter of John Hyde of Castle Hyde Co. Cork and died without issue in 1842. Sir Annesley died in March 1801 and was succeeded by his elder son Sir James Stewart seventh Bart. M.P. for Enniskillen 1783-90 and for County Donegal 1802-18.  He married 19th December 1778 Mary Susanna daughter of Richard Chapell-Whaley of Whaley Abbey Co. Wicklow by whom he had issue as follows: James Annesley; William Henry who served at Waterloo as Lieutenant 11th Light Dragoons and died unmarried in 1820; Anne who married first in 1797 William Conolly Staples and secondly Richard Napier; Elizabeth Susanna married 24th June 1820 the Hon. Charles Abel Moysey D.D. Archdeacon of Bath; and Sophia Frances who married Andrew Rutherford Solicitor-General for Scotland 1837.

buck whaley

Buck Whaley It is of interest to recall that Sir James Stewart’s wife was a sister of the notorious Thomas Whaley that remarkable figure of Dublin Society in the last quarter of the eighteenth century whose eccentricities and exploits formed the theme of many a ballad and broadside at the time.  Buck Whaley as he was called earned the additional appellation of ‘Jerusalem’ Whaley by winning a wager said to have been for the sum of £20000 that he would walk except where the sea passage was unavoidable to Jerusalem play ball against the walls of the ancient city and return to Dublin within twelve months.  He started on the 22nd of September 1788 and returned in the following June.  ‘His arrival at his house at Stephen’s Green’ says the ‘Dublin Evening Post’ of July 1789 ‘being joyfully greeted in bonfires by the populace.’ The Whaleys resided in that famous mansion No. 86 St. Stephens Green which the great Newman opened on 3rd November 1854 as the Catholic University and which in 1909 became absorbed in a new and more extensive institution as a constituent part of the National University of Ireland.  No. 86 St. Stephen’s Green was built by the ‘Buck’s’ father Richard Chappell Whaley who resided in No. 85 until his death in 1769 before his new mansion was completed and who devised it to his third son John who occupied it until his death in 1847.  It was never the ‘Buck’s’ residence; he stayed there from time to time as a guest of his brother and some of his exploits are chronicled as having taken place during these temporary occupations.

Founder of the Stewart Institutions Sir James Stewart died on 20th May 1827 and was succeeded by his son Sir James Annesley Stewart eighth Baronet who married in 1830 Jane daughter of Francis Mansfield of Castle Wray Co. Donegal and died without issue on the 13th April 1879.  He was succeeded by his kinsman Sir Augustus Abraham James Stewart whose claim to the Baronetcy derives as follows. The Rev. Robert Stewart second son of William Stewart of Fort Stewart married Rachel daughter of Abraham Hickson of Coollattin Co. Wicklow and died in 1772.  His only son Captain Abraham Stewart married 4th May 1761 his first cousin Hester daughter of Abraham Nickson of Munny Co. Wicklow by whom he had three sons.  The eldest son Rev. Abraham Augustus Stewart D.D. Rector of Donabate Co. Dublin married 24th January 1793 Frances daughter of William O’Conner of Mongavlin Co. Donegal and died 1812 having had by her the following issue: 1. William Augustus; 2. Henry Hutchinson M.D. founder of the Stewart Institution at Palmerston near Dublin; 3. Lorenzo Moore married Emily daughter of Richard Quinton; 4. Rev. Annesley; 5. Robert M.D.; 6. Charles Lennox; 7. Hester; 8. Alicia; and 9. Emily Frances. The eldest son Captain William Augustus Stewart married in 1830 Anna daughter of William Molloy of Blackport Co. Tipperary and died in 1876 having had the following issue: Sir Augustus Abraham James ninth Baronet; William Molloy; James Augustus; Robert John Jocelyn; Harry Hutchinson Augustus; Anna Blanche; Matilda Charlotte; and Frances. Captain Stewart’s second son William Molloy Stewart married in 1864 Ellen widow of Francis Berkeley Drummond and daughter of W. H. Urquhart by whom he had with three daughters two sons viz. – William Augustus Annesley and Harry Jocelyn Urquhart who succeeded as tenth and eleventh Baronets respectively. Sir Augustus Abraham James Stewart ninth Baronet died unmarried on 26th August 1889 and was succeeded by his nephew Sir William Augustus Annesley Stewart tenth Baronet who also died unmarried 4th January 1894 and was succeeded by his brother Sir Harry Jocelyn Uruquhart Stewart eleventh and present Baronet of Fort Stewart High Sheriff Donegal 1905. Sir Harry married 12th August 1896 Isabel Mary daughter of Colonel F. S. Mansfield of Castle Wray and has had the following issue: 1. William Francis who married 21st December 1923 Lucy Dorothy daughter of Archibald Metcalfe-Smith of London; 2. Jocelyn Harry married Constance Shillaber and has had a son Alan D’Arcy born 29th November 1932; 3. Walter Annesley married in July 1929 Dora Longridge; 4. Malcolm Geoffrey; 5. Allen Robert died 10th February 1916; 6. Isabel; 7. Kathleen Mary who married 24th February 1925 Geoffrey Watt of Claragh Ramelton Co. Donegal; 8. Hester Anna Lillian; 9. Violet May married 14th April 1926 Major Allister Colville Baillie M.C. R.E.; and 10. Evelyn Frances. The Arms of the Stewarts of Fort Stewart from Burke’s ‘Peerage’ are: Or a fess chequy azure and argent surmounted of a bend engrailed and in chief a rose gules all within a bordure of the third charged with three lions rampant of the fourth.  Above the shield is placed a helmet befitting his degree with a mantling azure doubled or and on a wreath of his liveries is set for crest: A dexter arm erect couped at the elbow the hand holding a heart all proper and in an escrol over the same this morro: Nil Desperandum ” Heber Rankin continues: “This photo-static copy of a page from ‘Weekly Irish Times’ for Saturday November 10 1940 was copied by Heber I. Rankin in November 1965. The picture of ‘Fort Stewart’ which was shown at the top of the page I could not reproduce.  This old mansion was sold by the present June 1965 Baronet Sir Jocelyn Harry Stewart – the twelfth Baronet of the Fort Stewart line of Stewarts – to some Lord and the present owner in June 1965 has not kept the mansion & grounds in good condition. The Lieutenant William Stewart line of descent of these Stewarts stems from the fourth son of William Stewart who married Mary Anne Hopkins.  This son was named Alexander Stewart and he married Rebecca Galbraith and they became the parents of six children: Alexander Jr. eldest son & heir; Charles; Robert; William; and the daughters Margaret & Frances.  Rebecca a widow in 1745 took her five children to America in 1745 leaving the eldest son on the Estate in Co. Donegal Ireland. Heber I. Rankin Dec. 1 1965.” The Stewart Genealogy reproduced from “A Family of Millers and Stewarts” by Robert Miller 1909Alan Dapifer Seneschal or Steward mentioned 1040 witness 1080 at Dol Brittany father of Alan Dapifer Crusader 1097 of Dol Brittany; Rhiwallon a monk; Flaald portrayed as “Fleance Son of Banquo” in Shakespeare’s “Macbeth.”  Flaald who appears as “Float fillus Alani Dapiferi:” at dedication Monmouth Priory 1101 was the father of Alan Fitz Flaald.  Alan Fitz Flaald who died 1114 married Aveline Daughter. Ernuif De Hasdin and had Walter Fitz Alan.  Walter Fitz Alan 1st HIgh Steward of Scotland who died 1177 married Eschyna De Molle widow of Robert De Croe and Daughter of Thomas De Londoniis and had Alan.  Alan 2nd High Steward who died 1204 married Eva and Alestra daughters of Morgand Earl of Mar.  His son Walter 3rd High Steward who died in 1241 married Beatrice daughter of Gilchrist Earl of Angus.  Walter changing the “d” to a “t” adopted his title as a surname the first “Stewart.”  Walter was the father of John; Walter Earl of Monteith; and Alexander.Alexander Stewart 4th High Steward born 1214 died 1283. married Jean daughter of Someried King of the Isles. Sir Wm. Augustus Annesley Stewart Sir Harry Jocelyn Urquhart Stewart 11th Baronet 10th Baronet of Fort Stewart b. 1865. of Fort Stewart b. 1871 m. Aug. 12 1896 Isabel d. without issue in 1894.  Succeeded  Mary Daughter. F. S. Mansfield D.L. of Castle Wray by his brother the present Baronet.      Co. Donegal and has issue: Wm. Francis born Oct 10 1901; Jocelyn Harry  born Jan 1903; Walter Annesley born April 1907;and four daughters. The family live at “Fort Stewart” on the Estate near Letterkenny Co. Donegal Ireland. Green Hill is just outside the gate of the estate. Elizabeth White’s father was James Robert White 25/6/1787-9/1/1872. His parents were James White 1757-1804 and Jane Stewart 1761-1804 second cousins who married 4/1/1782. James White was the son of John White b. c. 1720 who was the son of James White b. c. 1690 and Frances Stewart b. c. 1690. James White was the son of Rev. Fulke White 1662-24/8/1716. That the White family of Whitehall Broughshane were of eminent lineage is shown by their close association with the Stewart family who were of royal descent: Frances Stewart was the daughter of George Stewart Surgeon-General of the army in Ireland who was the son ofAlexander Stewart and Jane Wallace. He married his close kinswoman Frances Stewart daughter of William Stewart of Killymoon Ireland. Alexander Stewart was the son of George Stewart and Margaret Saunderson. George Stewart was the son of Colonel Hon. Robert Stewart and Jane Richardson daughter of James Richardson of Castle Hill Tyrone Ireland. Colonel Hon. Robert Stewart was the son of Andrew Stewart 3rd. Lord Stewart of Ochiltree c. 1565-1628 and Margaret Kennedy daughter of Sir John Kennedy of Blairquhan. Andrew Stewart was First Gentleman of the Bedchamber to his kinsman King James VI – I. He was General of Edinburgh Castle. In 1611 he was granted 3000 acres in County Tyrone and later was awarded other large tracts of land in Northern Ireland. He was created 1st. Baron Castle Stuart in 1619. He was the son of Andrew Stewart Master of Ochiltree c. 1542-1578 and Margaret Stewart c.1550-1627 daughter of Henry Stewart 2nd Lord Methven. Andrew Stewart Master of Ochiltree was the son of Andrew Stewart c. 1522-1601 2nd Lord Stewart of Ochiltree and Agnes Cunningham b. c. 1526 daughter of John Cunningham 5th. of Capringtoun. Andrew Stewart 2nd Lord Stewart of Ochiltree was the son of Andrew Stewart c. 1500-1548 1st. Lord Stewart of Ochiltree and Margaret Hamilton daughter of James Hamilton 1st. Earl of Arran and Beatrix Drummond daughter of John Drummond 1st. Lord Drummond and Lady Elizabeth Lindsay. Andrew Stewart 1st. Lord Stewart of Ochiltree was the son of Andrew Stewart 1st. Lord Avandale c. 1470-1513 who died at Flodden Field and Margaret Kennedy c. 1480-1542 daughter of John Kennedy 2nd Lord Kennedy c. 1445-1509 and Lady Elizabeth Seton c. 1448-1500 daughter of Alexander Gordon 1st. Earl of Huntly and Elizabeth Crichton. Andrew Stewart 1st. Lord Avandale was the son of Alexander Stewart c. 1445-1489 who was the son of Walter Stewart c. 1422-1480 Feudal Baron of Morphie and Elizabeth Arnot. Walter Stewart Feudal Baron of Morphie was the son of Sir Walter Stewart c. 1395-1425 and Janet Erskine daughter of Sir Robert Erskine 1st. Lord Erskine and Elizabeth Lindsay. Sir Walter Stewart was the son of Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke of Albany 1362-1425 and Isabel of Lennox Countess of Lennox c.1370-1458 daughter of Duncan 8t. Earl of Lennox and Helen Campbell. Murdoch Stewart 2nd. Duke of Albany was the son of Robert Stewart 1st. Duke of Albany c. 1340-1420 andMargaret Graham Countess of Monteith. Robert Stewart 1st. Duke of Albany was the son of Robert Stewart II King of Scotland 1316-1390 and Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan. Robert Stewart II. King of Scotland was the son of Walter Stewart 6th. High Steward of Scotland 1292-1327 and Margorie Bruce c.1295-1316 Princess of Scotland daughter of Robert Bruce I. King of Scotland 1274-1329 and Isabella Lady of Mar. [See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage 107th. edition vol. I. p. 713 2003.]

Dictionary of Irish Biography

Stewart [afterwards Vane] Charles William 1778–1854 3rd marquess of Londonderry soldier and diplomat was born … Stewart David 1868–1961 presbyterian minister was born 10 July 1868 in Saintfield Co. Down son … Stewart George Francis 1851–1928 land agent unionist and governor of the Bank of Ireland was … Stewart Henry Hutchinson 1798–1879 doctor hospital governor and philanthropist was born 23 June 1798 Stewart Herbert Ray 1890–1989 agriculturalist was born 10 July 1890 only son of Hugh Stewart … Stewart John c.1758–1825 1st baronet attorney general for Ireland was born in Co. Tyrone … Stewart Joseph Francis 1889–1964 politician was born 9 January 1889 in Irish St. Dungannon Co. … Stewart Kenneth Donald 1911–2006 surgeon and evangelist was born 9 October 1911 at 26 Mountshannon .. Stewart Maj. Charles 1764–1837 soldier and oriental scholar was born in Lisburn Co. Antrim eldest … Stewart Stuart Robert d. 1662 army officer was appointed governor of the fort of Culmore … Stewart Robert 1769–1822 Viscount Castlereagh and 2nd marquess of Londonderry chief secretary for Ireland politician … Stewart Robert 1739–1821 1st marquess of Londonderry politician was born 27 September 1739 in Dublin Stewart Robert Prescott 1825–94 organist conductor composer teacher and academic was born 16 December 1825 Stewart Stuart William d. 1647 1st baronet army officer was a Scot and may have … Stewart William 1650–1692 1st Viscount Mountjoy army officer was born six weeks after the death … Stewart Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest 1852–1915 6th marquis of Londonderry politician was born 16 July 1852 .. Stewart Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest 1878–1949 7th marquess of Londonderry politician was born 13 May … Stewart Edith Helen Vane-Tempest 1879–1959 marchioness of Londonderry public servant and hostess was born 3 … Stuart James 1764–1840 newspaper editor and historian was born in Armagh city son of Benjamin … Stuart William 1755–1822 Church of Ireland archbishop of Armagh was born in February or March … https://www.google.ie/url theroyalhouseofstewart. a Mathew Stewart of Dunduff Ayreshire Scotland. Married Barbara had issue. I.b William Stewart of MountStewart married Jean Stewart d.1637 had Issue. I.c Major John Stewart of MountStewart married Jean Stewart Daughter of Archibald Stewart of Ballintoy on October 17 1650. MS 38613/32 Wicklow papers Will made August 8 1665 MS 38615/152 Wicklow papers. Had issue also May have had several illegitimate Children?? I.d Archibald Stewart Esq. of Ballintoy had issue. I.e Charles Stewart of Ballintoy Co. Antrim married Sarah Poyntz Daughter of Charles Poyntz. had issue. I.f Rev. Archibald Stewart married Leonora Vesey Daughter of Sir Thomas Vesey Marriage license dated July 19 1714 Source Burke’s he is also mentioned in the will of Isabella Stafford. In 1724 he paid his aunt Christine Hall Alias Poyntz £ 2000 for her interest in the estate of Action Manor and became rector and landlord of Ballintoy. He was a Chaplin to a Regt. which was sent with the Army under the command of the Earl of Peterboro to Spain in the Rain of Queen Anne. He was married 20 years before conceiving a child a son who died in infancy. Was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander who d. 1742. Had issue I.g Died in infancy. II.f Alexander Stewart d. 1742 had issue I.h Alexander Thomas Stewart married sister of Sir Hugh Hill of Derry. He was still a minor when he inherited the family estates in Ballintoy and Action. He attempted todevelop a colliery and quay at Ballintoy 1757- 1759. This bankrupted him and soon afterwards sold the estate of Ballintoy for £20000 and went to reside at Action. Has issue. I.j Alexander Thomas Stewart Jr He moved in a fast circle of a fast living set in Dublin. In 1790’s he became sympathetic to the cause of the United Irishmen. By 1798 he was arrested and charged with high treason. He was released due to insignificant evidence and pressure from Parliament. He returned to Ireland and died of typhus fever in the early 1800’s. Information taken from Action Parish Church Poyntzpass by Barbra Best. II.h Anne Stewart died Feb 19 1765 married Conway Richard Dobbs Esq. of Castle Dobbs M.P. for Carrickfergus and High Sheriff of Antrim in 1752. Had Issue.Information taken from Burke’s I.l Richard Dobbs III.h Jane Stewart married July 17 1773 Francis Dobbs Esq. Barrister at Law M.P. in the Irish Parliament for Charlemont. Information taken from Burke’s IV.h  Archibald Stewart b. 1737 Ballintoy Antrim. Went to America with his brothers William and James according to the encyclopedia of Biography. He took a leading part inthe events which hastened the Revolutionary War and was a member from Sussex County in the Provincial congress and filled out and expired term in the continental congress. He died aged 59 in Springdale Sussex County. VI.h William Stewart b. 1739 Ballintoy Antrim. Settler in Hackettstown Warren County New Jersey. Married 1st Frances Sherrod mother of his children married 2nd Bethany—-? He died Feb 17 1810. Had issue. I.o Jane Stewart married —–?—– Chitester. II.o Samuel Stewart b. Dec 28 1768 married .1 Rachel 2 Sarah III.o John Stewart b. Apr 14 1770 married Sarah Bird. Died Aug 1 1836. IV.o James Stewart 1772 married Elizabeth Culver. V.o Sarha Stewart married ——— Helms VI.o Frances Stewart b. Feb 20 1780 married John Bird and Died Aug 18 1849. II.e Frances Stewart married George Vesey of Hollymount Co Mayo III.e Mary Stewart married Richard Dobbs Esq. of Castletown b. 1660. Had issue. I.m Jane married Edward Brice of Killroot Information taken from Burke’s genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry Vol I by John Burke II.m Elizabeth died unm. II.d Daughter Lady Dunduff Laird of Dunduff Jane Stewart listed? in Wicklow papers as Jane Stewart of Mounstewart MS 3855713 Feb 1694 had issue. I.n Capt. John Stewart of Dunduff. Will made 1695. II.n Isabella Stewart. III.n Alice Stewart married firstly Mr. Willeking. Married secondly William Stewart of Dunduff her first cousin. Mentioned in the will of James Stewart 1670-1707 as his cousin german. III.d Capt. William Stewart of Balleaghan Co. Donegal. Mentioned as brother in Law in the will of Capt. Robert Hamilton of Clady Co Tyrone see below. Mentioned in the Presbytery records in 1668 as brother to the Laird of Dunduff Lady Dunduff. He married Giles Cunningham had issue I.s James Stewart of Manor Cunningham Co Donegal. b.1670 d. 1707 married Louise Hamilton had issue. I.r James Stewart b.1706 d.1788 was born near Augher in Clogher Co Tyrone. The lands of Clogher were Part of the Ballintoy Estate and held by Dr. Rev. Archibald & Alexander Stewart see below in 1740-41 part of the original grant of 1624. James was at the battle of Culloden in 1746 Had issue. II.r Samuel Stewart b.1707 d.1773 had issue. II.s ?? Possible son John Stewart of Manor Cunningham listed in the Wicklow papers as John Stewart of ManorCunningham MS 38557 III.s Mary Stewart mentioned by John O’Hart. Married IV.d Capt. James Stewart Married Anne daughter of Lieut. Col. Robert Galbraith of Dowish Co. Donegal and had issue Archibald William and Rebecca are mentioned in the will of Jean Galbraith alias Cunningham widow of Lieut. Col. Robert Galbraith as her daughter Anne’s and Capt. James Stewarts children Proni record T808/IJ687. I.t William Stewart of Dunduff married his first cousin Alice Willeking Stewart daughter of Lady Dunduffe had Issue. I.u Isabella Stewart Married firstly to Mr. Stafford Married Secondly William Forward of Castle Forward. She is ancestor to the Countess of Wicklow. Mentioned in the will of James Stewart 1670-1707 as daughter of Alice Stewart his cousin german. had issue Alice Forward Created Countess of Wicklow Dec 201793. Died Mar 7 1807. II.t Archibald III.t Rebecca Stewart married Mr. Shilthomas Mentioned in the will of James Stewart 1670-1707 as his cousin german. Also mentioned in the will of Isabella Stafford as her Aunt Rebecca Shilthomas. had issue. I.w Anne Shilthomas. V.d Lieut. Col. Charles Stewart of Ballintoy. Attained by the Dublin Parliament of King James II in 1689 mentioned in 1695 in the will of Capt. John Stewart of Dunduff as his Uncle see above. VI.d Daughter? Married Capt. Robert Hamilton of Clady CO. Tyrone mentions Capt. William Stewart of Balleaghan as his brother in-law. Robert is mentioned in the will of Major John Stewart. Had issue. I.v Capt. James Hamilton II.v Capt. William Hamilton Had issue. Mentioned in the will of James Stewart 1670-1707 as his Cousin german. I.x Richard Hamilton. II.x ? Louise Hamilton married her 2nd cousin James Stewart 1670-1707 see above. II.c William Stewart. III.c James Stewart. IV.c Robert Stewart. VI.c Margaret Stewart marries Anthony Kennedy son of David Kennedy 1643. VII.c Anna Stewart. VIII.c Agnes Stewart. II.b John Stewart declared and outlaw and put to the horn. III.b George Stewart IV.b Anthony Stewart had Issue I.y John Stewart of Dromoghill had issue. I.z Francis Stewart of Dromoghill. II.a George Stewart. Murdered in 1601 III.a Thomas Stewart IV.a ?Agnes Stewart Sir Edward Crofton 3rd Bart. Birth: 23 October 1778: Mote Park Co. Roscommon Death: 6 January 1816 – Aged 37 Mote Park Co. Roscommon Father: Sir Edward Crofton 2nd Bart. (1746-1797) Mother: Anne Croker (1751-1817) Spouse(s): Charlotte Stewart Date of Marriage: 12 September 1801 Place or Registered Place of Marriage: St. James’ Church Westminster London Middlesex The New Annual Register – 1801 Marriages September 12 Hon. Sir Edward Crofton to lady Charlotte Stuart. The Annual Register – 1801 Marriages August 20th Hon. sir Edward Crofton bart. eldest son of the baroness Crofton to the lady Charlotte Stewart fifth daughter of the earl of Galloway and sister to the marchioness of Blandford. The Gentleman’s Magazine Volume 86 – 1816 Obituaries Jan. 6 At Mote Park Co. Roscommon in his thirty-eighth year the Hon. Sir Edward Crofton Bart eldest son and heir apparent of Anne Baroness Crofton in her own right. Sir Edward was born Oct. 23 1778; succeeded his father Sir Edward M. P. for the county of Roscommon in the Baronetcy Sept. 30 1797; married Sept. 12. 1801 the Lady Charlotte Stewart sixth daughter of John eighth Earl of Galloway K. T; by whom h« had issue five daughters and a son the present Sir Edward Crofton Bart now in his tenth year and heir apparent to the peerage of Crofton.-The late Sir Edward received his early education at Eton College and was a descendant in the male line from a collateral branch of the ancient house of Lowther of Lowther in Cumberland whose elder branch enjoys the peerage of Lonsdale. Sir Marcus Lowther (grandfather of Sir Edward) was the second son of George Lowther of Kilrue Co. Meath by Jane Beresford sister of Marcus Earl of Tyrone ; he assumed the name and arms of -Crofton in right of his wife Catherine Crofton sister and heiress of Sir Edward Crofton fifth bart. of Mote whose ancestor was created a baronet by Charles II. by patent dated July 1 1661 which title became extinct in 1780 in Sir Oliver Crofton fifth and last baronet of the male line of the Croftons of Mote. -Sir Marcus was created a baronet June 12 1758 as Sir Marcus Lowther Crofton bart. of Mote. Ancient and honourable as was the family from which Sir Edward Crofton drew his descent he must himself have been considered as its best ornament if elevation of mind rectitude of intention and purity of heart could dignify and adorn the human character. In public life an active zealous and uncompromising magistrate; the enemy of turbulence but the friend of the poor and unprotected: in private the affectionate husband the tender father and the warm but unprofessing friend. In him his tenants have lost an indulgent landlord – his dependants and the poor a kind and judicious benefactor. His life was spent in exertions to better the condition of the peasantry of the county in which be lived by setting on foot and promoting with his purse and interest those public works which could best afford them employment by contributing to their instruction and above all by upholding by his influence and example and without regard to personal inconvenience the impartial administration of justice. – Some unfortunately concurring circumstances of a domestic nature are said to have unsettled a mind naturally ardent and susceptible and led to an act the only one of his life to which his friends may not look with pride and approbation which has agonized a most amiable and interesting family and will long be deplored with more than the garb of woe by the many elevated characters with whom he was connected.

Famine evictions 4famine Famine Evictions 1-1-thestewartsinireland.ie Famine Evictions-thestewartsinireland.ie

Evictions (Ireland) Co Tyrone. HC DeC 23 February 1886 vol 302 cc1029-30 1029 Mr Matthew Kenny asked the Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland If application has been made to the Irish Government for a force of constabulary to aid in the eviction of seventy families on the property of Sir John Stewart near Carrick-more in county Tyrone; if he is aware that the landlord notwithstanding the great agricultural depression has refused any abatement of rent to these tenants; and if the Government will be prepared to institute inquiry into the justice of Sir John Stewart’s proceedings before allowing the police to be used in carrying them into execution?

1030 The Chief Secretary (Mr. John Morley) Eviction decrees against 26—not 70—families on this estate have been placed in the hands of the Sheriff who has applied for and has been granted police protection when serving them. I understand the landlord has declined to give a reduction on the ground that the tenants have judicial leases and that he believes them to be able to pay. The reduction which the tenants asked was 50 per cent.

Stewart and Kincaid Irish land agents in the 1840s Working Paper Series UCD Centre for Economic Research No. 02/08 Provided in Cooperation with: UCD School of Economics University College Dublin (UCD) Suggested Citation: Norton Desmond A. G. (2002): Stewart and Kincaid Irish land agents in the 1840s Working Paper Series UCD Centre for Economic Research No. 02/08 http:// hdl.handle.net/10197/1286 This Version is available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/72403 by Desmond Norton University College Dublin February 2002 Stewart and Kincaid Irish land agents in the 1840s* by Desmond Norton

Abstract Drawing on a recently-discovered correspondence archive of the 1840s this article describes activities of the then most important land agency in Ireland Messrs Stewart and Kincaid. Several of the firm’s clients resided in England. The partners supervised major agricultural improvements. They also implemented programmes of assisted emigration during the great Irish famine. The correspondence yields new insights into economic and social conditions in Ireland during the forties. It undermines popularly-held views of such conditions and suggests need for revision of findings of modern historians. In the late 1980s and early 1990s the author acquired about 30000 letters written mainly in the 1840s. These pertained to estates throughout Ireland managed by J.R. Stewart and Joseph Kincaid. Their firm hereafter denoted SK was then the most important land agency in Ireland. Until the letters became the author’s property they had not been read since the 1840s. Addressed mainly to the firm’s Dublin office they were written by landlords tenants local agents clergymen civil servants financiers etc. The author has been researching them since 1994. It is intended to publish details on individual estates in book form. The title proposed is Landlords tenants famine: business of an Irish land agency in the 1840s. The first part of the present background article describes the evolution of the Dublin agency over a period of two hundred years. Part II indicates how the firm used family connections membership of societies and ‘influence’ to generate business. Subsequent discussion is restricted to the famine decade of the 1840s. The third part examines the firm’s administrative structure. Part IV indicates that SK was not only a manager of land. The fifth section outlines aspects of what was happening in the 1840s on some of the estates not considered in detail in the book under preparation. The final section provides a summary of overall conclusions from the larger project from which the present article is drawn The evolution of the land agency known from the 1830s to the 1880s as Stewart and Kincaid (SK) can be traced from Dublin directories over a period of two centuries. Those of the late eighteenth century indicate that Henry Stewart was called to the Bar in 1773. That for 1788 describes him as ‘army agent’1. In June 1788 Edward Pakenham second Baron Longford wrote to the second Viscount Palmerston recommending his ‘friend’ Henry Stewart ‘as a proper person to be employed as an agent’. Although the SK archive contains papers referring to rents on the Powerscourt estates in the west of Ireland from 1746 onwards the first to mention Henry Stewart as Dublin agent for those lands is dated 17912. Stewart held the accounts of the Palmerston estates in Ireland (in both Sligo in the northwest and in Dublin) from circa 1790 onwards. From 1799 the business was located at 6 Leinster St Dublin. Until 1808 the listing in directories was ‘Henry Stewart Agent’. The directory for 1809 listed the firm as ‘Stewart and Swan Agents’. Stewart’s business partner was then G.C. Swan a barrister. Stewart had entered partnership with him in 1805 when he wrote to the third Viscount Palmerston then a student at Cambridge that ‘we are desirous of extending our businesses. Directories for 1809 to 1829 indicate that Swan was also treasurer to the Irish Post Office which was then rife with abuse. Swan died in 18297. Joseph Kincaid commenced employment at 6 Leinster St circa 1827 and in 1829 the name of the firm was changed to Stewart and Kincaid. The Dublin directory for 1831 was the first to list the firm as ‘[Henry] Stewart and [Joseph] Kincaide’; also in the same year the listing was changed from ‘Agents’ to ‘Land Agents’. Until the 1880s directories referred to ‘Stewart [or Stewarts] and Kincaid’. Henry Stewart died in 1840. By the early 1840s the firm involved his son J.R. Stewart who had been born in 1805 and Joseph Kincaid. The directory for 1883 lists ‘Stewarts and Kincaid Land Agents’9. However the partner named Kincaid (Joseph’s son James Stewart Kincaid) had left the firm at the end of 1882 to set up a rival business next door. The directory for 1885 lists him as land agent at 7 Leinster St. His firm subsequently evolved into Kincaid and Matthews which closed down in 1919. Following the departure of J.S. Kincaid from the SK partnership the firm at 6 Leinster St was known as J.R. Stewart & Sons land agents. It remained at the same address until circa 1968. However the directory for 1969 lists the offices of the Pakenham Estate at 6 Leinster St and J.R. Stewart & Son elsewhere in Dublin. The location of the Pakenham offices in Leinster St is interesting: the Pakenhams had been important clients of SK in the 1840s and the J.R. Stewart of that era was related to them by blood. Directories continued to list J.R. Stewart & Son land agents until 1984; however the omission of any listing for the firm in Thom’s Directory for 1986 indicates that it had ceased operations. The foregoing has focused on the evolution of the firm in which Stewarts were principal partners for about 200 years. Much of the firm’s correspondence of the 1840s refers to the potato crop. Some observations on the importance of that vegetable in early nineteenth century Ireland is appropriate. The Irish peasant became more dependent on the potato in the early 1800s. A letter to London written on HMS Sapphs gives details of a voyage along the west coast in 1821. It indicates that by the early 1820s it was not inappropriate to refer to the southwest of Ireland as ‘the land of the potatoes’. It informed: ‘We are running along the Land of the Potatoes …. We arrived at a small harbour three miles from Dingle…. I went on shore and was much surprised to see the lower orders … in … wretched condition both sexes almost in a state of Nudity more to be seen issuing from an aperture in a mud cabin that served … for a chimney and a door’. The great famine of the late 1840s was due to failures of the potato upon which most of the population survived. In 1845 the country-wide failure was only partial. In 1846 it was complete. Production of edible potatoes in the autumn of 1847 was not much below that of years before the great famine. The potato partially failed in 1848. But 1845 and 1846 were not the first years in which the potato generally failed in Ireland12. There were in fact several cases of localised failure in the first half of the 1840s. Thus it was presumably following a poor potato harvest in 1841 that Charles Gayer a Church of Ireland clergyman at Dingle wrote to SK in March 1842 confirming receipt of a gift of £50 [probably about £5000 in present purchasing power] from Miss Coleman one of SK’s clients. Gayer again wrote to SK in May 1842 referring to ‘the receipt of your favour containing nineteen pounds ten shillings from Miss Jane Coleman …. If you can collect anything for our Starving people pray do…. The people are really dying from want of food’. Finally in August 1842 Gayer wrote to Kincaid ‘to acknowledge the safe arrival of your note with the £20 from Miss Coleman …. The [localized] famine is nearly over’. Other examples of localized failures of the potato in the early 1840s could be cited from the SK correspondence In the late 1840s Priscella Nugent resided in France and in England. Poor performance by her agent in Ireland induced her to seek a replacement. In September 1847 a clergyman congratulated her ‘on the selection you have made …. Stewart & Kincaid is … of … the highest character & I anticipate for you great satisfaction in their management of y’r affairs’. Some of SK’s accounts originated from the firm’s reputation. Others were obtained through family connections. Friendship and marriage links with the Pakenham family had far-reaching effects. In 1793 Henry Stewart married a daughter of his friend Lord Longford whose family name was Pakenham. Such links may have been relevant to the fact that Henry Stewart was MP for the Borough of Longford from 1784 to 1799 which must have promoted his agency activities. It was presumably the same links which led to assignment of the Longford account to the firm which in the 1840s was known as Stewart and Kincaid. James Hamilton an important landowner in Donegal in the northwest also married a daughter of the same Lord Longford. In 1821 Hamilton’s eldest son John who through the Pakenham link was a cousin to J.R. Stewart inherited about 20000 acres in Donegal. The firm of Stewart and Swan was agent to Hamilton in the 1820s13. SK represented him in the 1840s and beyond. In the early 1840s Thomas another of Henry Stewart’s sons was friendly with Mrs Fitzgerald of Whitegate House in Co Cork who owned lands in Co Limerick in the southwest. It seems that this brought to SK the Mount Blakeney Co Limerick agency. J.R. Stewart married a daughter of R.B. Warren in 1835. A few years later SK obtained the account of Warren’s estate in Co Limerick. Furthermore it seems that a sister of Joseph Kincaid married a Church of Ireland clergyman named Edward Batty who was a brother of the owner of the Batty estate in Co Westmeath in the midlands and that it was this link which enabled SK to acquire the Batty account. Kincaid had great influence in the commercial life of Ireland. He was a director of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway which operated Ireland’s first passenger line opened in 1834. His presence on the board of directors meant that he could use influence to secure favours. For example in 1841 Robert Corbet of the Royal Exchange Insurance Office in Dublin wrote to him ‘recommending the bearer … to be appointed as one of the servants or attendants on your railway’. Similarly in 1843 John Vincent a solicitor in Dublin and brother of SK’s agent in Co Limerick sent a note to Kincaid stating that ‘the bearer … is … out of employment …. Use your influence to get him employed on the Railway’. Note that if Kincaid did agree to these requests he was probably acting in SK’s own interests: his co-operation may have brought business to SK. A letter of June 1842 to Kincaid provides curious details. The writer a widow named Smith at Harold’s Cross near Dublin City explained that her father-in-law had arrived from Limerick (about 120 miles away) seeking financial aid which she could not provide.

Old Steam Trains 2Steam Trains 1Kngstown dublin RailwayMilltown Railway Bridge

Kingstown & Dublin railway

She requested of Kincaid ‘as chairman & through your Interest with the Kingstown & Dublin railway company that you would get him the smallest relief to help him to return Home to Limerick as he is not able to Walk it Back as he walked coming up to Dublin’. It was not only with the Dublin and Kingstown Railway that Kincaid swayed influence. For example in September 1842 Henry Disney of Portobello in Dublin wrote to him stating that ‘as it was by your means I obtained my present situation I am induced to hope you will again grant me your influence with the Directors of the Grand Canal Co. in order that I may be promoted to the rank of full Boatman’. Kincaid was a director of the Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland incorporated in 1845 to connect Dublin to the midlands. He was asked to use his influence to secure appointments with this company also. For example in 1846 a landlord named Harman in the midlands wrote to him seeking an appointment with that company for ‘a Mr Evans’. Harman pointed out that ‘Evans is very well connected’. In 1848 W. Woods of the Board of Works wrote to Kincaid on behalf of another job-seeker: ‘The Bearer … is a candidate for the Office of Station Keeper on the Midland Gr Western Railway. Any assistance you can render him in obtaining the appointment I shall esteem a personal favour’. Kincaid himself sought favours at the Board of Works during the famine years. (In the 1840s the Board of Works was responsible for public sector schemes giving employment and for administration of loans to landlords for works of improvement.) SK had influence within the Post Office administration. At the time of her death in 1846 Catherine Ellis was post mistress at Philipstown in the midlands. In September 1846 her daughter Martha wrote to SK that her mother was about to be buried. Martha begged SK to ‘use your interest to have the Post Office continued to her children’. Three days later Robert Cornwall who seems to have been a landlord wrote to SK: ‘I … apply to you on behalf of a young man named Ellis at present seeking the situation of Postmaster in … Philipstown…. If you can in any way influence the powers that be with respect to the situation … you will never … regret it’.

S

Old Irish Post Office in the village of Prosperous Co. Kildare A listing prepared in 1849 indicates that Thomas Ellis who was a tenant on the local Ponsonby estate which was managed by SK was then the postmaster at Philipstown. It was above all during the famine that SK was asked to use influence to secure jobs. In 1846 the firm received many requests to use influence at the Board of Works in order to obtain employment on public works. On a few occasions SK were asked to provide employment directly. In September 1847 a Thus in 1843 a barrister named Brooke wrote to Stewart: ‘Is there any likelihood of an opening in your office for a … good boy of 16…? He is a son of Edward Willson who was Assistant Secretary to the Bible Society … who left a … family in great want’. Edward Wingfield whose estates were managed by SK sought a similar favour. In 1848 he requested of SK: ‘You will know what a sincere regard I had for my lost … friend Robert Sandys & having been applied to get a situation for his son Henry in your House [i.e. firm] … I do not hesitate at once to ask this favourur’. Robert Sandys had acted on behalf of the Viscounts Powerscourt in the Enniskerry district of Co Wicklow near Dublin. SK managed some of the Powerscourt finances. The family name of the Powerscourts was Wingfield. The amount of business which the firm obtained through the Wingfield family suggests that it was in SK’s interests to accede to Edward Wingfield’s request. Kincaid was a member of many societies. Some of them were charitable; others sought to promote agricultural knowledge. Indirectly links with several of these bodies were good for business at Leinster St; however it is hard to see how SK could have made commercial gains through links with some of the organisations with which Kincaid was connected. In 1841 the owner of a coach factory in Dublin sent Kincaid money for the ‘Special Coal Fund’. He wrote that he ‘considers Mr Kincade and the other Gentlemen composing the committee of the “Special Coal Fund” are entitled to the thanks of the public … for their exertions in establishing so laudable … an institution which has relieved such a large number of destitute individuals’. Another letter containing money to Kincaid in 1843 indicated that Kincaid was treasurer of the Fund. The Nourishment and Clothing Society of which Kincaid was a committee member was similar. In 1842 it was stated that its objective was ‘to relieve the wants of the Poor …. The number of family’s relieved last winter … was 5116. The food dispensed was … 920 quartern loaves 7301 quarts of soup 21 tons of potatoes 20 cwt. of oatmeal…. Also various articles of clothing 18 tons of coal and 202 bundles of straw’15. There is no presumption that Kincaid’s associations with the aforementioned charities brought business to SK: they probably reflected genuine concern for humanity? Although the SK correspondence suggests that neither Kincaid nor Stewart had strong religious zeal both were associated with bodies which sought to promote Protestantism the Established Church in particular. Kincaid was a committee member of the Hibernian District of the Church Missionary Society. Viscount Lorton one of SK’s clients was president of this society while two other SK clients the Earl of Erne and Viscount De Vesci were vice-presidents.

Arthur Guinness, founder of a brewing dynastyGuinness Brewery Dublin

The brewer Arthur Guinness with whom SK sometimes engaged in financial intermediation (borrowing or lending funds on behalf of third parties) was also listed as a vice-president. Stewart provided service to the Meath Street Savings Bank in Dublin which encouraged thrift among the poor. It had two branch offices and ‘at each Office deposits are received from one shilling upwards which may yearly amount to £30 until the whole shall amount to £150 which is the highest the law allows’21. The maximum on individual deposits reflected a view that people whose liquid assets exceeded that sum were not poor. A letter of 1841 from the cashier of the bank informed Stewart that it was his ‘turn to attend as Manager’ at Abbey St on ‘Thursday morn’g the 4th Feby at Nine O’ck’. The trustees of the bank included Arthur Guinness and other leading businessmen. Involvement of the SK partners in benevolent institutions may explain why some Dubliners who seem to have had no links with SK’s clients applied to SK for assistance. The appeal from the widow Smith of Harold’s Cross has been noted. Other examples could be cited from the SK correspondence. Kincaid also sought improvements in farming.

RDS

RDS Ballsbridge Dublin Apart from being a member of the Agricultural and Husbandry Committee of the Royal Dublin Society he was active in the Royal Agricultural Improvement Society. Letters from the latter’s secretary indicate that Kincaid was expected to assign a significant amount of time in service to the society the objectives of which included ‘improvement of Husbandry among the Farming Classes holding under twenty-five acres Irish’ and ‘distribution of … knowledge … upon Agricultural … subjects’22. A genuine desire to develop agriculture was probably one of Kincaid’s motives in contributing to the society. But there were also issues of business. A list of the members included several important landowners. A glance at this list indicates that a rival land agent John Ross Mahon was active in the society. The details outlined above suggest although they were in part motivated by concern for fellow humans that both Stewart and Kincaid participated in several bodies in order to attract business. They had contact with many of the most important people in the administrative and commercial life of Ireland who could be helpful in SK’s business affairs. But SK did not merely want clients: it wanted its dealings to be profitable. In SK’s view the personality of clients was not important. This practical approach is revealed in remarks by Stewart in regard to Viscount Frankfort who he described as in some respects ‘insane’. Thus in 1841 Stewart wrote to Kincaid: ‘You were quite right to accept Lord Frankfort [as a client]. I would far rather be agent to a Particular man or even an odd man than a distressed one’. Especially in the late years of the famine when much of the land under the firm’s management lay idle; SK’s attitude towards tenants was similar: conacre (the letting of land for the season until harvest) and other short-term agreements aside SK did not merely want tenants; rather the firm sought tenants who had good prospects of being viable over many years. On matters of estate management SK looked to the long term rather than the immediate future. Consistent with maximization of the firm’s expected present value SK regarded its day-to-day decision-making as part of a strategy over a lengthy horizon. Investment of time in nurture of personal connections and in enhancing the reputation of its partners for honest dealing as well as in its selectivity in accepting new agencies and tenants help explain why the firm perpetuated its operations until late in the twentieth century. By then (following the Land Acts of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) most of the land of Ireland belonged to descendants of former tenants and the days of traditional land agencies had ended. A few further remarks on religion and business are appropriate. All or most of the religious organisations to which Stewart and Kincaid were attached promoted the Established Church. This did not reflect any obvious bigotry or grudges against Catholics by the partners in SK. Rather it reflected the fact that most of the largest landowners in Ireland belonged to the Established Church. III The manner in which SK managed estates was broadly as follows: The firm acted under contract to clients and these contracts usually involved the landlord giving Powers of Attorney to SK. In some cases SK operated under detailed instructions from the landlord; in others the firm had a great deal of discretion. The SK correspondence contains only one reference to management fees. The context was that of a potential client who owned land producing an annual income of about £900. In this regard Stewart wrote to Kincaid in 1848: ‘He wishes to know whether … we would undertake the Agency at the Usual 5 pr. Ct.’. It seems that the structure of fees remained substantively unchanged for many years: a document in the Palmerston archive at Southampton headed ‘Mr [Henry] Stewarts Terms of Transacting Agency Business 1791’23 indicates that Stewart proposed to charge 5 present on receipt of rent 6 per cent on all loans and further charges on other services. Thus SK usually took 5 per cent of rental income. But in addition to this the landlord paid the firm for outlays on improvements on hiring agricultural advisers etc. The 1840s were years of improvement on most of the estates managed by SK. In some cases detailed directions came from the landlord and SK were merely responsible for implementation. However the SK correspondence clearly indicates that the firm’s partners favoured rationalisation in the structure of land tenure in Ireland improvements in husbandry and projects such as drainage. Commitment to spend monies on improvements was probably stipulated in SK’s contracts with clients. This may have reflected humane feelings on the part of SK towards the tenantry; to a greater extent however it probably reflected a long-term view on estate management. SK appointed local agents for collection of rents and for supervision of improvements. In some cases a local agent received a fixed annual salary; in at least one instance his remuneration was a specific percentage of the rent which he collected. The receipts of local agents were usually remitted to SK in Dublin through the post in the form of cash bill of exchange (akin to a post-dated cheque) or letter of credit (a mechanism for transfer from one bank account to another). Use of financial instruments in payment of rent was the norm on the SK client estates. Thus the financial system was more sophisticated than has often been assumed by writers in the twentieth century. When cash was sent through the post it was as half notes. This was to secure against loss or theft: the local agent would initially send first halves; then following acknowledgement of receipt at Leinster St the local agent would send second halves. Hence transfer of rents to Dublin involved intensive use of the newly-reformed postal system. The rent-collection role of local agents notwithstanding it seems that the bulk of rent was received on estates by Kincaid J.R. Stewart or Stewart Maxwell who appears to have been ‘third in command’ at Leinster St. The usual practice was for one of them to visit each estate twice annually. The local agent was instructed to ‘notice’ the tenants to have their rents ready by a certain date and to pay on that date at a specific location. Kincaid Stewart or Maxwell would be present at that date to receive the rents. Maxwell once referred to such a visit as a ‘raid’. The ‘raids’ were sequential: they involved itineraries for visiting several estates in a given tour. They required careful planning which imposed strict demands on the postal and transportation systems. Thus Kincaid might depart from Dublin early in the morning; collect rents at specific places and at specified times in say the midlands and then visit specified locations at appointed times in the northwest. His return journey to Dublin might involve another presence on an estate which he had already visited some days earlier or it might involve visits to other estates. When on such tours the person from Leinster St usually slept at the landlord’s residence at a lodge owned by the landlord at the residence of a local agent if he were a man of comfort or at an inn. Smooth implementation of the rent-gathering itineraries presumed an efficient transportation system. Given that passenger railways were not yet in operation outside the Dublin and Belfast districts in the early 1840s such travel was occasionally by canal but more generally by coach.

Coach MailMail coach1-thestewartsinirland.iemail-coach2-thestewartsinireland.ie

Following the development of the mail coach system in Ireland by Anderson and others from 1789 onwards and the expansion of Bianconi’s passenger and mail delivery network in the decades immediately before the famine Ireland’s internal transport system was well suited to SK’s needs. Although one letter from Maxwell refers to delay due to the canal being frozen the correspondence contains no references to inability to get from A to B due to deficiencies in transport. Most of the SK letters which refer to internal transport are relaxed in mood. Thus on 26 November 1843 (a Sunday) Kincaid wrote to Stewart from Longford town in the midlands: I left Clonteem [the lodge of the Marquess of Westmeath on the western (Roscommon) side of the River Shannon] yesterday morn’g for Strokestown & there met Ja’s Nolan [SK agent in Co Roscommon] who … assisted me in the Collection of Lord Westmeath’s Rents. We were busy till half past 6. We then dined & at 7 I started by Bianconi for Longford…. During the two hours I was on the Road … the Car was so Comfortable & the air so mild that I did not feel it…. I will go tomorrow Morn’g by Bianconi to Drumsna [on the eastern bank of the Shannon opposite Clonteem] & remain with his Lordship at Clonteem tomorrow [Monday] Night after which I go over to the Kilglass property [south of Clonteem]. On Tuesday I hope to get into Longford in good time that Ev’g & perhaps go up to Dublin that Night by the Mail … I will not leave Clonteem on Tuesday Morning till after post hour so that if you write on Monday you may address me there. Passenger transport aside this letter reveals complete confidence in the postal system. A letter from Maxwell in the northwest to Kincaid in Dublin 11 October 1845 (a Saturday) provides further details on transport links: I … send you … my R/A [rent account] together with sundry Bills [promissory notes and/or bills of exchange] amounting to £458-10-10…. Your instructions regarding the collecting at Scurmore &c [the Wingfield estate in west Sligo] are very clear and I shall attend to them and shall hope to see you on Saturday. Your best way there [from Dublin] will be by Mail [Coach] and Mail car…. Go about 8 miles per Coach beyond Boyle where you will find a Mail car on the Road side which will take you to Tubbercurry [in Sligo]. SK managed the Stratford estates on both sides of the Shannon estuary – in west Limerick and a few miles to the north of Ennistimon in Clare. Until recent years (when a car ferry across the estuary was initiated) travel by automobile between these districts took many hours. With rent collection in mind Stewart proposed to visit the two estates in 1845. In this context Arthur Vincent SK agent in Co Limerick informed him on 31 May: ‘As to crossing [the Shannon estuary] from Foynes [close to Stratford’s Limerick estate] to Clare it can easily be accomplished … by taking boat at Foynes at ½ past 6 o’clock in the morning so as to meet the day Car at Kildysart by 8 o’clock at which hour it regularly starts for Ennis and arrives in time to proceed by the Miltown Mail Car to Ennistymon’. Apart from collecting rents SK was expected to respond to those tenants who were paying no rent. It might be thought that ejectment was the norm in such circumstances. This however was not the case: ejectment was a measure of last resort on the estates managed by SK. Besides neither the landlord nor his agents could quickly get rid of tenants simply because they were in arrears. It is true that at any time in the 1840s ejectment decrees were outstanding but many of them were not executed. Ejectment was an expensive and time-consuming process which normally suited neither landlord nor tenant. Under tenants and cottiers aside usually the formal procedure was as follows: First a notice to quit had to be served. If the tenant did not settle arrears over some months which followed the landlord or his agents could then arrange for a summons to be issued against the tenant. After further delays and legal expenses incurred by the landlord the parties would go to Court the case would be heard and an ejectment decree might be issued. But this was not the end of the matter: if a decree was obtained it next had to be executed as confirmed by a legal document called a Habere. Service of a notice to quit or (months later) issue of an ejectment decree might induce defaulting tenants to settle. In many cases SK served notices to quit or subsequently obtained ejectment decrees against a targeted group of tenants hoping that the ‘demonstration effect’ of such measures would induce payment from others in arrears. For example in October 1848 Stewart wrote to Kincaid that he did not like ‘the wholesale noticing to Quit unless we can really execute some of the proceedings already taken to show an example’. In the 1840s when SK sought to get rid of a tenant who was seriously in arrears it usually sought ‘voluntary’ surrender of land rather than opting for formal legal procedures. This saved SK time and money and averted bad publicity. Tenants in difficulties who ‘voluntarily’ surrendered their holdings usually received compensation for example part or the whole of their families’ fares to America and sometimes a contribution for clothing. Of course such tenants knew that if they did not agree to surrender then the landlord could probably get rid of them in time through the Courts and execution of a decree; furthermore because in such cases the landlord would have incurred trouble and legal costs such tenants who refused to surrender could not expect to receive much financial compensation if they were ultimately forced to leave an estate. Thus ‘voluntary’ surrender rather than the route toward an ejectment decree was an alternative which could be deemed to have been simultaneously in the interests of both landlord and tenant. This observation must be qualified by noting the analogy that agreement to do something when one has a gun to one’s head is hardly voluntary in any accepted sense of the word. Nevertheless the SK correspondence indicates that there were many examples in which the initiative to surrender land and seek compensation came entirely or mainly from the tenant. Although rent collection was SK’s primary function the firm was also involved in other aspects of estate management. Programmes of ‘squaring the land’ (rationalisation in the structure of holdings) drainage sub-soiling and road-building were among the most important of these tasks. They involved hire of surveyors and agriculturalists. SK had links with Templemoyle Agricultural Seminary in Co Derry and the firm seems to have assisted in arranging enrolment of some of the sons of tenants at that college. SK’s agriculturalists who were paid from £50 to £60 a year each did not merely supervise infrastructural projects; they sought to induce tenants to improve their husbandry. They usually urged them to grow clover – in order to improve the nitrogen content of the soil – and to plant turnips instead of potatoes. The correspondence includes many letters from agriculturalists requesting SK to arrange for supply of seed fertiliser and equipment such as turnip-sowing barrows. The firm’s management was correspondence-intensive. Historians have pointed to advances in transport in facilitating economic development in Ireland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; however they have tended to overlook the role of the postal system. The following observations are important in this context.

Coach Mail

Early Coach Mail First there was the development of the mail coach system from 1789 onwards: ‘In the year 1801 there were but four mail-coaches in Ireland …. By the 1830s … there were … forty coaches leaving Dublin every day’26. Second there was the development of the so-called cross routes for the mail. In the early 1800s letters written in Ireland for delivery in Ireland usually passed through the General Post Office in Dublin. Bianconi first carried mail in 1815. The subsequent expansion of his passenger network led to the development of cross routes of postage by which the sending of mail to Dublin for delivery in the provinces could be avoided. Third there was the cost payable to a State monopoly (the Post Office) of having letters delivered. The two sets of developments mentioned above did not reduce the cost to business of postal communication within Ireland; rather the opposite applied in the early nineteenth century. Irish postal rates were in Irish pence based on distances travelled in Irish miles. (Until 1826 13 Irish pence equalled 12 British. The Irish mile equalled approximately 1 1/4 English mile.) In 1796 a single sheet letter travelling over 80 miles within Ireland cost 6 pence but in 1811 it cost 8 pence. The year 1814 brought major change under which the charge for a single sheet was calculated by the distance between post towns instead of adding the charges to and from Dublin. Under the new scheme a single sheet cost 9 pence for 65 to 95 miles rising to 15 pence for over 300 miles within Ireland. A letter of three sheets travelling over 300 miles within Ireland cost 45 pence. This was about as much as it would have cost to hire a labourer for a week; however given the State’s monopoly in the mails it would have been illegal to send such a person to deliver the letter. Subject to minor modifications the revisions of 1814 applied until 1839. Postal reform in 1839-40 was extensive. The uniform penny post began in January 1840 when half an ounce prepaid to anywhere within the United Kingdom now cost a penny. Payment by the recipient had previously been the norm. SK sent and/or received hundreds of letters each week in the 1840s. If the postal rates of the 1830s had then applied and if the volume of mail to and from the firm had been the same as it actually was in the 1840s then SK’s postal charges in the 1840s would have been equivalent to the cost of full-time employment of several unskilled workers. SK’s business greatly expanded in the 1840s. The postal reforms of 1839-40 probably influenced this expansion. The cheaper postage also facilitated efficiency in management of already existing agencies. Thus the cheapening of information technology (through reform of the postal system) was probably as important as recent advances in transport in explaining the growth of SK’s business in the 1840s. However long-term forces were also relevant. The few decades after the Napoleonic Wars saw the emergence of several land agency businesses. As Donnelly has reported: ‘During the eighteenth century the most common method of managing large estates in Ireland was to split them into considerable tracts of from 100 to 1000 acres or more and then to give them to middlemen on long leases’. But ‘the two decades before the famine were marked by the expiration of a great number of old leases held by middlemen’ and progressively more landlords replaced the middleman system of management (or mis-management) by employing professional land agents to administer their estates. IV The firm of SK was not only a manager of land. It borrowed and lent money and acted as a financial intermediary. In 1844 SK may have arranged a loan from the Dublin brewers Guinness to a firm in England: in May a London solicitor inquired of Kincaid whether ‘Guinness will lend the £13000 [old] Irish [currency] … at 4 per C.’. On at least one occasion Guinness borrowed from SK; on another occasion the borrowing was in the reverse direction. Thus on 19 October 1846 Guinness wrote to SK that ‘on a former occasion we had the mutual advantage in your having some money for us. Now we write to say that we could let you have 5 or 6000 for 3 or 4 months’. SK responded immediately: on 21 October Guinness informed SK that the brewers ‘can let you have £2000 … say 4 p. c. for 4 mo’. The SK correspondence contains several references to efforts to arrange loans for clients. Among them was the Earl of Howth who seems to have been in financial difficulties throughout the 1840s. Another client for whom SK tried to arrange large loans was the Roscommon landlord Daniel Ferrall who was in endless financial difficulties throughout the 1840s. SK also granted some small loans to Ferrall from its own resources. In one case the firm was asked to lend to a client’s son. Thus at a time when SK’s own resources must have been severely stretched due to dearth of rental incomes in August 1848 Lord Lorton wrote to SK requesting a loan of £1000 for his son. In 1847-8 SK applied to the Board of Works for many loans under the Landed Property Improvement Act. Almost every important landlord for whom SK managed affairs obtained one or more of such loans. This suggests with long-term considerations (as well as short-term employment-creation) in mind that SK urged its clients to seek these loans. Stewart’s cousin John Hamilton borrowed probably more under the Landed Property Improvement Act than any other proprietor among SK’s clients. The SK files for 1848 record loans of about £12000 – probably about £1 million in present purchasing power – for improvements on his Donegal estate. SK arranged insurances for several of its clients. For example the correspondence contains letters on these topics pertaining to Lords Howth Lorton and Powerscourt. In one case a client could not complete an application form for life insurance because he could not remember his birth date. Sending the form to SK he requested SK to fill in the blank on this point. However on some occasions SK assisted on matters much more personal: SK tried to manage the consequences of the sexual activities of one client and those of excess alcohol consumption by another. In a few cases SK assisted in transfer of funds between America and Ireland. One of the letters on such transfers written in October 1846 by a person named James Ward was addressed to ‘Stuards and Kincade … Bankers’. Ward wrote another letter to SK ten days later: ‘I received a letter from my Brother Francis Ward dated 28th of September stating that he paid the honourable Mr Packingham [Sir Richard Pakenham Envoy Extraordinary to the US30] British Council … at Washington City DC … £20-12-10 to be paid to James Ward of Ardaghey Parrish…. Send the letter of Credit to Mr Sleat in Company provincial Banke Monaghan for James Ward’. Francis Ward had paid the money to Pakenham who sent a bank draft for the same sum to SK. SK were being asked to use a letter of credit to transfer the money to William Slate manager of the Provincial Bank in Monaghan town31 in favour of James Ward brother of Francis in the US. Note that the Wards thought that SK was bankers. The reason why Francis had paid the money to Pakenham was presumably that he was aware that Richard was a family relative of J.R. Stewart: Stewart was a grandson of the second Earl of Longford and Richard Pakenham was a cousin of that earl. Before the famine SK assisted in emigration to America of several tenants from estates under the firm’s management. This was on a small scale in relative terms (compared to what was soon to come). The SK correspondence contains few hints about how individual emigrants fared in America. It does reveal sad details on the fate of one emigrant Richard Sherlock (brother of the owner of an estate near Dublin managed by SK). In the years before the famine emigrants to America rarely returned to Ireland. Sherlock did visit Ireland from Canada in 1840 but the correspondence records this event only in passing. However a letter from a young man who emigrated circa 1840 from Co Westmeath outlines some of his experiences during a visit to Ireland and indicates some of his intentions for the future. The letter was sent from Mullingar near the end of 1843 by Christopher Cavanagh and the cover was addressed to himself at Brooklyn New York. But the enclosure was to his ‘Beloved Ellen’ as follows: I am now in the midst of my family with the green fields around me…. I write this moment from the window of my room wide open inhaling the aromatic fragrance of the green fields…. Neither the change of clime nor the distance of space has caused the slightest alteration … in me since I left you in the land I love…. It is my intention to be out [to America] early [in 1844]. I cannot say what I shall be able to do till I land…. My Mother … has my sisters … making linen shirts and knitting worsted socks of her own spinning for me…. They did not know of my engagements in America…. I have told them of the faithful one who resides there…. My occupation since I landed has been visiting my friends… A tea party at one friend’s house tonight and a dancing party at another’s tomorrow night.

Hunting ScenesOld Hunting Scene-thestewartsinireland.ieHunting Scene 19c.-thestewartsinireland.ie

Old Hunting Scene A ride through the country on one day and a hare hunt on another. This author knows nothing more of young Cavanagh. The letter indicates that he came from a comfortable family in the Mullingar district but Slater’s Directory of 1846 mentions no Cavanagh under its listings for Mullingar. The letter indicates that he came from outside the town. In the 1840s SK was agent on the lands of Edward Pakenham Earl of Longford to the north and east of Mullingar. It is conceivable that Cavanagh spent his youth on those lands. However his family was better off than most of the emigrants from Pakenham properties during the great famine. During the famine SK organised several programmes of emigration. The partners felt that such schemes should have been implemented by government. Thus in July 1847 Stewart wrote to Kincaid: ‘I see Lord John [Russell prime minister] will do little or nothing for Emigration & with out-door relief Mullaghmore Estate [lands in Co Sligo owned by the third Viscount Palmerston future prime minister] will be a trying property’ (in terms of the implications of outdoor relief for taxation of local property). In September he informed Kincaid that he intended ‘to bring some cases before the Boards of Guardians [who were responsible for local administration of the Poor Law] …. It would cost less to pay 1/3rd of a passage [to America] say 30/- than keep a pauper for a year in the Country…. We might bring the matter before Government’. However on the matter of organised programmes of emigration the government remained virtually passive. The foregoing has reviewed some aspects of SK’s role as manager of client affairs. However tenants sometimes asked SK to intervene in settlement of family disputes or in quarrels with neighbours. Such requests reflect the fact that the tenantry regarded Stewart and Kincaid as paternal figures. Because SK dealt in substantial sums of money it is not surprising that the SK correspondence contains allegations of mis-use of funds by employees. A few of these claims were directed against local agents: in some cases they may have reflected grudges. However the correspondence contains references to embezzlement at Leinster St. Thus on 5 November 1841 Margaret Ormsby wrote to SK that she ‘need scarcely mention with what sorrow I heard of the cause of my son Charles having left your office …. I hope to be able to discharge his debt to you as I am about to receive the money for which I have sold my place…. You proposed to take the £541 by degrees…. I would venture to ask if any part of the sum could be rescinded on my settling the account at once’. Mrs Ormsby again wrote to SK on 18 November: ‘I … feel obliged by … you’re offered reduction of £100-0-0. I am … surprised to find the sum in which my Son Charles is deficient amounts to £577-7-5…. I hope in a few days to settle’. The sum for which Charles was ‘deficient’ was huge. By his mother and brothers becoming the real victims it seems that he avoided prison. V Landlords tenants famine will provide a detailed examination of estates managed in the 1840s by SK in twelve of the thirty two counties in Ireland. In at least five of them SK managed lands of more than one proprietor. The choice of estates to be investigated in detail reflects the fact that the correspondence includes a sufficient amount of material to create a broad picture of what was happening on those lands in the 1840s. However during the same decade SK had many clients whose affairs will not be described in detail in the book. The reason for their exclusion is that in such cases the letters which survive fail to yield a clear indication of developments on their estates considered individually in the 1840s. The impression emerging from the material on the estates which are not investigated in detail is that taken as a group developments on such lands were similar to those on the estates which are investigated in detail. Comments on some SK clients excluded from detailed investigation are as follows: It can be argued that ‘the recklessly generous landlord’33 John Hamilton of Donegal ‘probably did more for his tenants … than any other landlord before during and after the Famine’34. Although Hamilton’s son James was employed at the SK office at some stage in the 1840s in order to learn more about estate management only a small amount of documentation on Hamilton’s estate could be found among the SK files. This reflects the fact that Hamilton’s estate was managed mainly by himself. The material on Viscount De Vesci contains a few letters referring to his properties in Co Dublin and in Co Cork to his annual subscriptions to the Horticultural Society in London and to a benevolent institution in Cork. A letter from Kincaid to Stewart in September 1846 indicates that De Vesci provided food for his tenants at an early stage during the famine. Thus Kincaid wrote to Stewart: ‘Lord De Vesci did write to us to allow Mr Lyster [of Cork City?] to draw on us for a Sum due for Indian meal …. Pay the amount’. The Viscounts Powerscourt owned about 45000 statute acres in Wicklow and Tyrone. In 1848 William Wingfield and the Earl of Roden as guardians to the young Powerscourt obtained a loan of £1800 under the Landed Property Improvement Act for the Tyrone estate. The SK files on Lord Lorton refer to subscriptions to the Queens County Protestant Orphan Society and to the Royal Agricultural Improvement Society of Ireland. They also include letters of 1843-5 from Mrs Renetta Murphy at a school in London: each of these concerns a quarterly pension of £3-15-0 which SK sent to her on Lorton’s behalf. A Dr O’Grady was associated with the dispensary at Swords in Co Dublin one of the subscribers to which was Sir Thomas Staples a client of SK. Staples owned land in the district where distress was acute during the winter of 1842-3. A letter of January 1843 from Robert Bowden of Swords reported and solicited: ‘100 unemployed Labourers of Swords … presented a Memorial … to the Landowners … requesting Relief…. Nearly 70 men were allotted to various Landowners to provide employment for them…. A great number of men still remaining for Relief the following resolutions were agreed to: … That in order to afford those whose circumstances do not admit of their giving employment an opportunity to assist us in providing it for the Labourers a Subscription List are opened…. Unless Subscriptions come in … men cannot be kept on [in employment by the local relief committee] beyond the present week’. Patrick Bowden who was probably related to the person who wrote the above letter was in trouble in 1846 when on 8 July he wrote to SK that he was ‘under Dr O’Grady’s care’ and that the ‘total loss of my potato crop was much against me this year’. Given that the failure of the potato in the autumn of 1846 was worse than in 1845 it is likely that Bowden’s position deteriorated further in the months ahead. A letter dated May 1848 to SK from the Board of Works indicates that although Staples sought a loan of £600 for improvements on his lands near Swords only £300 was approved. Jane Coleman’s lands were in the Kilcullen district of Co Kildare contiguous to Co Dublin. In the 1840s she resided in England. One of her tenants Richard Doyle wrote to SK in January 1843: ‘Was it not for the deplorable change that has taken place in the price of Cattle Corn &c I would now be able to pay the May [1842] Rents’. He was still in the red in October when he informed SK that ‘for the May half year I must beg your kind indulgence until the 1st of next May [1844]’. Some of Miss Coleman’s tenants were in difficulty in the autumn of 1844 when one of them wrote to SK: ‘We have been noticed [to meet a representative of SK] for the rent …. If … yous would forbear a Month longer it would … be a great acquition [acquisition] to the Tenantry for if the[y] be compelled to sell the Corn at this time they will sustain a great loss as markets … is remarkably bad and the people thinks the[y] cannot remain so much longer’. In the same hand this letter was signed in the names of four tenants. Stewart entered on it the manuscript instruction: ‘These may be put off for a few weeks’. John Burtchell was perhaps the most prosperous of Miss Coleman’s tenants. In June 1846 he wrote to SK as Secretary of the recently established relief committee at Kilcullen: ‘It was resolved that [I] should solicit Subscriptions from the Landlords and Gentry of the Neighbourhood to enable the Committee to purchase Indian … Meal to sell to the poor deserving labourer at first cost price & to distribute gratuitously to those who are totally destitute and for whom there is no room at the Work House. In transmitting the above resolution may I take the liberty of requesting you will be so kind as to have it laid before Miss Coleman who has … subscribed on former occasions’? Jane Coleman was a subscriber to the Irish Trinitarian Bible Society the objectives of which included ‘salvation … by circulating … Holy Scriptures’35. She was benevolent. Her donations to relieve famine distress in the Dingle district during 1842 have already been noted. There is no evidence that she owned property near Dingle and it is unlikely that she ever visited that place. A letter of June 1842 from Rev Sherrard of Old Kilcullen Glebe to SK ‘for the Misses Coleman’ refers to destitution in his own district. Sherrard was then Treasurer of the relief committee at Kilcullen and he sought a contribution from the Colemans in order to abate distress. Letters from Sherrard to SK December 1842 and December 1843 refer to Jane Coleman’s subscriptions to the fever hospital at Kilcullen. Another letter to SK from the same writer December 1846 refers to her ‘liberal donation of Five pounds in addition to her annual subscription’ to the fever hospital. A letter from Dr William Shaw March 1846 refers to her annual subscription to a dispensary some miles to the south of Kilcullen while a further communication from Sherrard December 1848 confirms receipt of a donation from Miss Coleman to the Kilcullen dispensary. A letter of May 1846 indicates that she contributed £3 towards building a school. Jane Coleman left management of her affairs largely to SK’s discretion. The correspondence indicates no threats of ejectment from her lands; but note that the sample of letters which refer to her property is relatively small. Similar observations apply to letters on other estates not investigated in detail for which SK were agents. Why do the letters contain a great deal of material on some of the estates managed by SK in the 1840s but little on others? An answer must surely lie in the probability that some files were consigned to the families of proprietors after SK (or the firm’s successors) ceased to be their agents and the firm itself may have destroyed files on extinct agencies. One would expect that in such cases only stray items would remain in the present archive. Note also that when Joseph Kincaid’s son severed his connection with the firm at 6 Leinster St in order to set up a rival agency he took some of the SK business (including that of Palmerston’s heirs) with him. He may have left only stray items on some of those agencies behind. It is known shortly after Messrs Stewart & Son ceased operations in the 1980s that some De Vesci material was consigned to the Pakenham residence Tullynally Castle in Westmeath; that this material was transferred by the Pakenhams to the De Vescis; that those De Vesci files may have been acquired by the National Library of Ireland (but if so they remain uncatalogued) since that family moved residence to England; that Pakenham material was also consigned to Tullynally Castle around the time at which the De Vesci documents were brought there and finally that some of the Pakenham files previously in the possession of Messrs Stewart & Son were stolen from Tullynally in recent years .Other sources of omission should be noted. The chapters in Landlords tenants famine will rely mainly on the SK correspondence in the author’s possession but although these are comprehensive for the 1840s up to and including 1846 they are relatively sparse for 1847-49. This led me to suspect that either the letters for those years went astray after Messrs Stewart & Son closed down or (as I thought more likely) SK were so overwhelmed with work in those years that they failed to keep good records of incoming correspondence. The latter view is reinforced by the fact that the correspondence for 1847-8 was often filed by SK only by year rather than (as was earlier the case) by exact date; furthermore several letters of 1847 were filed as having been written in 1848 and vice versa. The same view was effectively confirmed when I consulted the archives at Tullynally Castle: (i) The Pakenham archive contains 253 volumes (a complete run from 1841 to 1946) containing copies of SK’s or Stewarts’ outgoing letters to or on behalf of all clients38. The earliest of these volumes spans 1841 to 1852. Most of those early copies are unfortunately not now legible. However the dates of those copies are very revealing: The earliest letter-book (1841-52) contains about 1500 pages the first 600 of which pertain to 1841-46 inclusive while the remaining 900 pages pertain to 1851-2. Thus it seems that the firm of SK did not usually make copies of its outgoing mail in the late 1840s. (ii) The Tullynally archive contains a couple of hundred original letters to SK dated 1841-46 pertaining to the Pakenham estates however in that archive I could detect no such letters dated 1847 and only one for each of 1848 and 1849. The Broadlands (Palmerston) papers at Southampton contain important information on SK’s activities in the 1840s which would otherwise be missing; these papers have been incorporated in the larger research project from which the present article is drawn. Finally on the matter of omissions it seems that practically all account books of the 1840s on the estates investigated in Landlords tenants famine have been destroyed by now. Only one such ledger could be found. VI The foregoing sections seem to be inconsistent with the popular belief that during the 1840s the owners of large estates in Ireland and the agents who managed such properties were generally heartless individuals who had little regard for tenant welfare. The principal chapters of Landlords tenants famine now near completion substantively generalise and extend the conclusions from the survey outlined above. Recall that the sketches in the foregoing section V pertained to estates for which the SK correspondence does not facilitate detailed investigation. On the other hand the primary focus in the draft book is on estates for which the SK correspondence does enable detailed investigation. The survey outlined above combined with the findings on estates which have been investigated in detail calls for revision not only of popular views of landlord and land agency behaviour during the famine decade but also for revisions of some of the interpretations of modern historians. The following are among the conclusions of the larger study from which the present article is drawn: First contrary to the views of some modern historians it seems that it was not the case outside the few large urban concentrations that Ireland in the 1840s was basically a barter economy without money (in which goods were usually exchanged directly for goods and in which labour services were usually provided in lieu of rent). In fact the financial system in regard to payment of rents from the estates managed by SK and in the context of other transactions on those estates was surprisingly sophisticated. A second set of conclusions refers to evictions. Eviction (the legal term was ‘ejectment’) is here defined as involuntary (on the part of a tenant) termination of tenancy usually following Court action. As has been indicated in section III above formal eviction was a measure of last resort on estates managed by SK. Many of the tenants against whom ejectment decrees were threatened or obtained in the 1840s were still on the estates after the famine in the 1850s. Historians of the famine era in Ireland have referred to ‘evictions’ but it seems that none of them have explained what they meant by that word. It is probably the case in Irish folk memory that a great many of those who ‘voluntarily’ surrendered land is deemed to have been ‘evicted’. But even when notices to quit and summonses to Court had been served such surrenders did not necessarily constitute eviction as the term has been defined above. It is of course acknowledged here that ‘voluntary surrender’ of land was not always ‘voluntary’ in any accepted sense of the word. But given that initiatives for surrender of land often came from tenants themselves the question of interpretation remains. Surrender of land in return for compensation often constituted mild to strong cases of ‘quasi-eviction’ rather than ‘eviction’. Especially during the famine years SK’s response to tenants in arrears tended to differ depending on whether they had assets or were deemed hopelessly insolvent. In the case of tenants in arrears who had assets and who in SK’s opinion were viable in the long run SK preferred to distrain (i.e. seize property in lieu of rent) rather than lose those tenants. There was little point in replacing them by insolvent tenants. Hence even when they were in arrears during the famine years when viable tenants were very hard to find SK sought to keep those tenants considered viable in the long run. Distraint meant some income for SK. In many cases during the late 1840s a decision to eject would have been tantamount to a decision to leave land untenanted or occupied by new tenants who had no assets which could have been distrained and who could not afford to pay any rent at all. But during the famine years there were a great many tenants who SK deemed non-viable in the long run and hence SK wanted to get rid of them usually in return for compensation. This was the optimal solution from SK’s point of view: the firm thereby avoided waste of time and legal expenses as well as adverse publicity in getting rid of a tenant who was paying no rent. It was also arguably optimal from the tenants’ point of view. Many of them must have recognised that they were probably doomed if they forced on the landlord the implicit and  costs of waiting to go to Court and of Court proceedings and they could not have expected much in compensation on their departure under such circumstances. Many of them therefore regarded it as optimal to surrender the land without Court proceedings in return for financial assistance. This reasoning reflects simple economic calculus: it is therefore surprising that these points appear to have remained unnoticed by economic historians. Recall that cases in which all or much of the initiative to surrender came from a tenant rather than the landlord’s agent were not rare. Tim P. O’Neill has provided a convenient summary of the estimates of historians in regard to the number of evictions during the famine years. Although some researchers have presented numbers as though they were quite accurate the estimates vary hugely from one author to another. The real problems in the works of those who have tried to estimate levels and trends of eviction in Ireland during the famine years – whether using official statistics or estimates of the number of houses and cabins abandoned or literary evidence – are first that they have generally failed to define what they meant by eviction; secondly (and this is an insuperable problem) there is the difficulty of assigning numbers on a spectrum from ‘mainly voluntary’ departures to ‘mild forms of quasi-eviction’ to ‘severe forms of quasi-eviction’ to terminal execution of ejection decrees. In referring to evictions during the famine years hopefully historians will be more cautious in future. A third set of conclusions pertains to landlord-assisted emigration (as distinct from migration to Britain) during the famine years. That Viscount Palmerston assisted about 2000 of his Sligo tenants (including their dependents) to emigrate to British North America in 1847 is well known. Historians are also aware that certain other landlords implemented programmes of assisted emigration during and shortly after the famine. But the SK correspondence suggests that historians have seriously understated the extent of such assisted emigration. It indicates on behalf of their clients that SK assisted in emigration of tenants from most of the estates which have been investigated in detail by this author. The approximate numbers involved are indeterminate partly because the distinction between ’assistance to emigrate’ and ‘compensation’ to leave an estate is nebulous. It is difficult to see how one can sensibly attach confidence to estimates of ‘assisted emigration’ presented by some modern historians. In her book on the great famine published in 1994 Kinealy wrote with apparent certainty that ‘landlord-assisted emigration accounted for only about 5 per cent of the total’43. In 1999 O Grada referred to ‘emigrants whose passages were paid by landlords or by the state’ and he added: ‘Only a small share of all passages overseas [meaning beyond Britain] were so financed certainly no more than 4 or 5 per cent’44. O Grada cites research by Fitzpatrick among his principal sources. Fitzpatrick had reported in 1989 that ‘references were found to about 175 cases of assistance by individuals (usually landlords) or groups who probably aided at least 22000 [emigrants] between 1846 and 1850’45. It is thought here if the SK correspondence had been available to him at the times at which he revealed his research results that examination of its contents would have induced Fitzpatrick to raise his lower bound estimate and that this consideration would have led those who wrote on the subject in the 1990s to express less of a sense  of precision. (The emphasis in the present paragraph has been added by this author.) A fourth set of conclusions refers to improvements implemented in the 1840s on estates managed by SK. A popular view is that the landlords of Ireland neglected their estates. But the 1840s saw very major improvements on most of the large estates managed by SK. First there was rationalisation in the structure of holdings under which tenants were assigned individual plots to be farmed by them alone (in replacement of the earlier system of communal occupation called rundale). This ‘squaring of the land’ facilitated and required further improvements such as road building and construction of new houses. Rationalisation in the structure of holdings did not make sense unless the tenants were sufficiently skilled in husbandry. SK employed ‘agriculturalists’ who sought to induce the tenants to plant clover and turnips instead of potatoes. They also assisted in provision of seed fertilisers and equipment such as ploughs and turnip-sowing barrows. Throughout most of the 1840s they organised sub-soiling and drainage works. Taken as a group it seems that those landlords who were SK’s clients in the 1840s were a progressive set of people who were keen to develop their estates. But this view should be qualified by noting that initiatives behind many of the improvements must have come from SK. It was hardly coincidental that ‘squaring of lands’ was implemented on several estates very shortly after SK had been appointed as agents; indeed the partners seem to have regarded such rationalisation as a precondition for further progress. Nor was it coincidental that a large majority of the firm’s major clients obtained government loans in 1848 in order to finance improvements. As has been indicated earlier SK took a long-term view on matters of estate management and commitment to incur expenditures on improvements may have been embodied in SK’s contracts with client proprietors. But it was up to the landlords to accept or reject whatever proposals for improvements which emanated from SK. It is probably accurate to state at the beginning of the twenty first century that a majority of Irish people believe that the landlords of Ireland and their agents also were generally uncaring and inhumane in their treatment of the tenantry during the famine years. Allegations by nationalist politicians publications by some individuals who have written about the famine and the Irish educational system from 1922 until recent decades are presumably in part responsible for such perceptions. But the SK correspondence creates a very different view of reality. Letters internal to the firm were not written for purposes of propaganda. In several of their references to tenants and former tenants the very choice of words by Stewart and by Kincaid indicates much about their true feelings towards those in distress. In many cases such words indicate feelings of compassion. None of the letters between Stewart and Kincaid express sentiments of disrespect towards the tenantry. Those letters indicate that very many of the tenants were extremely poor but none of them express a view that they were an inferior breed which did not deserve respect. In regard to SK’s local agents it seems on balance and taken as a group that they were reasonable people. Some of them held tenant welfare high in their priorities. As in most other professions some of them were humane while others were less caring. Of course they were not particularly popular among people who did not enjoy having to pay rent. On the landlords themselves the overall impression from the SK correspondence is that although they pursued mainly their own long-term economic interests many of them indicated genuinely good feelings towards their tenants. Paternalistic views of tenants on some estates towards their landlords as well as the choice of words in letters from proprietors to SK indicate some of the thinking of landlords and tenants vis-a-vis one another. On several occasions tenants wrote to their landlords expressing grievances (often complaints about other tenants) and requesting appropriate action or seeking a favour (such as acquisition of employment). It seems that the recipients usually forwarded such letters to SK often adding a note suggesting how the agency might respond. Some tenants adopted a more direct approach by travelling many miles to their landlord’s residence where in most of the recorded cases their arrival was unexpected. Correspondence (A selection of ) relating to the De Vesci Estates. In National Library Dublin MS 38748/9 1713-14:n.d[post-1714?] MS 38921 1799-1806: 1809: [1821]: 1824: 1832: n.d: [1835: 1799-1806: 1809: [1821]: 1824: 1832: n.d: [1835: c.1839] Large bundle comprising three deeds of settlement [two of them damaged] relating to the marriages of John Vesey Archbishop of Tuam’s daughters Leonora who married the Rev. Archibald Stewart of Ballintoy County Antrim in 1713 and Catherine who married the Rev. James Smyth Archdeacon of Meath [and subsequently Bishop of Down - see also MS 38886/1-3] in 1714. The damaged document is a fragment of a deed between Sir Thomas Vesey Bishop of Ossory and James Smyth Bishop of Down [his brother-in-law probably deriving from the 17l4 marriage settlement]. MS 38947 1842-6 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from Stanley Dobbs of the Abbeyleix savings bank (who may have been solely connected with the bank and not with the Abbeyleix estate at all). MS 38948 1841-6 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from William Bell of Bellview Abbeyleix who may have been a sub-agent (see MS 39239/1-2) or perhaps just a trusted upper-class tenant. See also MS 39026/1-2-MS 39027. MS 38949 1841-2: 1846 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid about books and a portrait for Abbeyleix House and about the insurance of the house and contents. MS 38950 1841-4: 1846 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from one Thomas Millie who writes from Derrycavin (Abbeyleix) Maryborough and elsewhere in the neighbourhood and appears to have been a road surveyor superintending the Abbeyleix-Mountmellick road. MS 38951 1844 One letter to Stewart & Kincaid from Henry Owen [Millie’s boss?] about the Abbeyleix-Mountmellick road. MS 38952 1843 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from Alexander MacLean of Liverpool about a new forester for Abbeyleix. MS 38953 1843-6 Pro forma notices to Stewart & Kincaid about the rates struck for the Abbeyleix Poor Law Union. MS 3895 4 1837-8: 1843: 1845 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid about surveying work carried out for the 2nd Viscount de Vesci at Kingstown/Dún Laoghaire and at some unspecified place. [N.B. this latter unspecified work may not have been for Lord de Vesci.] MS 38955 1843-4: 1846 Correspondence of Stewart & Kincaid about Dún Laoghaire business affairs relating to the 2nd Viscount de Vesci only and not to his co-owner Lord Longford. [N.B. the Stewart & Kincaid archive relating to the joint estate has been incorporated in the Pakenham archive at Tullynally Castle Castlepollard County Westmeath.] MS 38956/1-9 1840-46 Nine folders of letters to Stewart & Kincaid from Robert Baily of Cork who appears to have been agent for the 2nd Viscount de Vesci’s estate at Monkstown and Passage West County Cork which had become a separate entity following the partition between Lords Longford and de Vesci in 1835 (see MS 38744/6) and for other properties in the area as well (that of Sir Thomas Pigott is specifically mentioned in one of the letters). [This sub-section is accordingly something of a hotch-potch and does not relate exclusively to de Vesci estate and business affairs.] MS 38957/1-2 1840-46 Two folders of letters to Stewart & Kincaid from Richard Neville Parker of South Mall Cork and other members of the Parker family of Passage West who were prominent tenants and former agents on that property (see MS 38921). MS 38958 1841: 1843-5 Correspondence of Stewart & Kincaid about a holding in Monkstown County Cork let to The O’Grady of Killballyowen County Limerick. MS 38959 1841: 1843-6 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from an individual who is alternatively endorsed ‘Martin’ and ‘W.J.’ Andrews of Passage West. MS 38960/1-5 1841-6: 1848 Five folders of miscellaneous letters and papers of Stewart & Kincaid about the County Cork estate with some references to the Glandore part of the property as well as to Monkstown and Passage West. MS 38961 1841-3: 1846: 1849 Letters to Stewart & Kincaid from the 2nd Viscount de Vesci making fleeting reference to all manner of estate and business affairs including two printed notices numbered 330 and 346 about the line of the ‘Cork Passage and Kinsale railway’ which was going to cross the de Vesci estate 1 Dec. 1845. MS 38962/1-2 1841-6 Two folders of letters to Stewart & Kincaid about miscellaneous money matters relating to the 2nd Viscount de Vesci (remittances interest payments raising of loans etc etc); a number of the correspondents are members of the Vesey and Nugent families [with the exception of the 2nd Viscount’s sons the Hon. Thomas and the Hon. William John Vesey whose letters to Stewart & Kincaid will be found at MS 39006 and MS 39007]. VI. MS 38946/1-5 1841-6: 1848 Five folders of letters to Stewart & Kincaid from the Abbeyleix agent Edmond L. Swan about the payment of sums of money into the 2nd Viscount de Vesci’s account and that of the Abbeyleix savings bank for which Swan also acted as agent. [See also MS 39020/1-17 and MS 39239/1-7.

Biographies & Information of Ministers/Priests Pastors of All Faiths Co Tyrone

Matthew Stewart. He was a native of the county of Tyrone ; and at an early age was awakened and brought to a saving knowledge of God by the ministry of the Methodists. Shortly after his conversion he began to call sinners to repentance ; and in the year 1787 was sent as a Missionary to the west of the county of Donegal where he was instrumental in the salvation of many souls. He laboured with zeal and faithfulness till 1817 when from severe illness he became a Supernumerary; but continued to preach as his health permitted till a few months before his death. He possessed true Christian piety with great sweetness and cheerfulness of temper. As a Minister he was diligent persevering and successful. As a fellow-labourer he was instructive affectionate and steady in his friendships. He suffered much during his long-continued affliction which he bore with Christian patience and finished his earthly course truly happy in God.

Irish Chancery & Common Law Reports 1861

The case was tried before C.J. (Chief Justice) Monahan  at the Summer Assizes of 1860 for the county of Tyrone. At the trial it appeared that the plaintiff held certain lands in the county of Tyrone called the lands of Roughan or Roan under a lease dated the 21st of April 1843 from Robert Lord Castlestuart for two lives or thirty- one years. The plaintiff was also the owner and occupier of a mill on the demised premises which was supplied with water by a stream from Roughan lake. The defendant was the lessee of lands adjoining between the mill and the lake under an indenture dated the 21st of July 1841 made by the Hon. Charles Andrew Knox Stuart and Charlotte Stuart his wife to James King for a term of twenty-one years provided the lessors should so long live. The defendants lands were described as " the mansion house and demesne lands of Roughan. The premises comprised in both those leases had been formerly held under one lease by a person named Thomas Twigg. Twigg's lease was dated the 19th of September 1775 and was made by the first Lord Castlestuart to Graves Chamney under whom Twigg derived for the life of Lord Ranfurly. This lease did not expire until the 26th of April 1840 when Lord Ranfurly died. Subsequently to the year 1775 a mill was built upon the premises and evidence was given of an enjoyment of the right of water by a person named Alexander Stuart a tenant of the mill under Twigg more than forty years before the bringing of the present action and from thenceforward by succeeding tenants. By indenture dated the 30th of April 1836 Robert Earl of Castlestuart in pursuance of a power of revocation and new appointment contained in his marriage settlement appointed to his second son the Hon. Charles Andrew Knox Stuart for his life Exchequer. the mansion-house and demesne of Roan. This deed recited that the mansion-house and demesne of Roan (part of the lands comprised in the settlement) were then with other lands held from Robert Earl of Castlestuart by the Rev. Thomas Twigg under a lease for the life of Thomas Earl of Ranfurly and that Lord Castlestuart was minded to appoint same " as now in the occupation of the said Thomas Twigg." And by this deed Lord Castlestuart then revoked the uses of the marriage settlement so far as related to the mansion-house and demesne lands of Roan and directed that the trustees of the settlement should hold the mansion-house and demesne lands of Roan after the expiration of the lease under which the said premises with others were held to the use of Charles Andrew Knox Stuart for life. Twigg's lease having expired by the death of Lord Ranfurly on the 26th of April 1840 the Hon. Charles Andrew Knox Stuart and Charlotte Stuart his wife by a deed of the 21st of July 1841 demised the dwelling-house offices and demesne lands of Roughan to James King for the term of thirty-one years provided the lessor should so long live. This term was admittedly vested in the defendant Stanley. That portion of the premises included in Twigg's lease on which the Roughan mills stood was demised by Robert Lord Castlestuart by a deed of the 21st of April 1843 to Joseph Stevenson and William Stevenson under whom the plaintiff derived for two lives or thirty-one years. In this lease the premises were granted as " All that and those that part and parcel of the " town and lands of Roughan or Roan containing 39a. Or. 36p "English statute measure be the same more or less together with" the several right to the current or flow of the waters of Drumreagh and Roughan lakes sufficient for the purpose of working machinery as formerly enjoyed by Messrs. Stuart and Murray with the appurtenances. Charles Andrew Knox Stuart had become Lord Castlestuart by the deaths of his father and brother. A great deal of evidence was given with regard to the enjoyment of the alleged right and the obstruction by the (???) At the close of the case neither party sought to have any question left to the jury and the Lord Chief Justice thereupon directed a verdict for the defendant to be changed into a verdict for the plaintiff on the counts relating to the right to the water with one shilling damages in case he should not have so directed. Stewart  John Age 49 Trial date: 12/03/1839 Crime Receiving stolen goods Sentence: Transportation 14 yrs Document ref1: TR 3 p 166 Extracted from the Strabane Morning Post Tuesday August 6 1822 Tyrone Assizes held at Omagh July 1822 The Assizes for this county commenced at Omagh on Monday se’nnight - the Hon. Justice Johnstonb in the Crown Court and the Hon. Justice fletcher in the Record Court. The following Gentlemen were sworn on the Grand Jury: Right Hon. Sir John Stewart Bart. Foreman Wm. Stewart Esq. Scots in Tyrone 1605-1634 Transcribed and submitted by Teena from The Scots in Ulster - Their Denization and Naturalization 1605 -1634” by Rev. David Stewart Stewart Sir Andrew -  Donaghenry    26 Feb 1629 Stewart Henry-           Dungannon 3 Mar 1629 Stewart James Katherine Patrick ? Stewart john - Cookstown      3 Mar 1629 Stewart Robert ? Stewart Partick-          Termononquirk           12 Feb 1619 Stewart William                    7 May 1619 Muster Rolls Derryloran Parish Church of Ireland Roll of Honour Jan. 1915 2nd Battalion Inniskilling Fusiliers Abraham Stewart              Louisville              (Killed) 1st Battalion Inniskillings Coming Home from India: Joseph Stewart              Killymoon Street

Tyrone Residents at the Siege of Londonderry 1689

Viscount Charlemont; William Stewart William Stewart of Killemoon Alex. Stewart Esq. son to the Lord Mountjoy

Irish Recruiting Council Omagh Area Belfast Telegraph  Friday October 4 1918

J.W. Stewart Bog Hill Coleraine R.A.F.; Thomas Stewart Ballycallon Co. Donegal not accepted for service; Rebellion of 1641-42 At the battle of Ballymoney which the English in regard of the fatability of the day called Black Friday was killed the rebels commanded by Colkitto's sons; at the same battle was slain a Scottish minister under the command of Colonel Archibald Stewart late agent to the Earl of Antrim. Mr.Tudge minister of Newry In Ulster by the end of April there were 19000 troops regulars and volunteers in the garrison or in the field. Newry was taken by Monroe and Chichester. Magennis was obliged to abandon Down and McMahon Monaghan; Sir Phelim was driven to burn Armagh and Dungannon and to take his last stand at Charlemont. In a severe action with Sir Robert and Sir William Stewart he had displayed his usual courage with better than his usual fortune which perhaps we may attribute to the presence with him of Sir Alexander McDonnell brother to Lord Antrim the famous _Colkitto_ of the Irish and Scottish wars. But the severest defeat which the confederates had was in the heart of Leinster at the hamlet of Kilrush within four miles of Athy. Lord Ormond returning from a second reinforcement of Naas and other Kildare forts at the head by English account of 4000 men found on April 13 the Catholics of the midland counties under Lords Mountgarrett Ikerrin and Dunboyne Sir Morgan Cavenagh Rory O'Moore and Hugh O'Byrne drawn up by his report 8000 strong to dispute his passage. With Ormond were the Lord Dillon Lord Brabazon Sir Richard Grenville Sir Charles Coote and Sir T. Lucas. The combat was short but murderous. The confederates left 700 men including Sir Morgan Cavenagh and some other officers dead on the field; the remainder retreated in disorder and Ormond with an inconsiderable diminution of numbers returned in triumph to Dublin. For this victory the Long Parliament in a moment of enthusiasm voted the lieutenant-general a jewel worth 500 l. If any satisfaction could be derived from such an incident the violent death of their most ruthless enemy Sir Charles Coote might have afforded the Catholics some consolation. That merciless soldier after the combat at Kilrush had been employed in reinforcing Birr and relieving the castle of Geashill which the Lady Letitia of Offally held against the neighbouring tribe of O'Dempsey. On his return from this service he made a foray against a Catholic force which had mustered in the neighbourhood of Trim; here on the night of the 7th of May heading a sally of his troop he fell by a musket shot--not without suspicion of being fired from his own ranks. His son and namesake who imitated him in all things was ennobled at the Restoration by the title of the Earl of Mountrath. Family Histories Scottish Genealogy society Stewards see FitzAlan Stewart 1   ANS.AYR.SCT   1475-1970   T   C   Many Material related to Stewart: in Raithmuir Fenwick; Clunie; Bonkil; Garlies; Grandtully; Invernabyle; Glenfinglas; a family from Largs; in St Vigeans. Extract from Scottish Genealogist 'Two Stewarts of the 16th Century' vol xvii no.1 1984. Article on 'The Last Stewarts' from the Edinburgh Tatler July 1963. Thomas Stewart's "among the miners" an investigation by Sandra Dobbie September 1989.  Extracts from various OPR and census. Many scraps of information anent various families. Also mentioned: 1771-1943 1780-1970. Stewart 2   All SCT   1430-1900   T   C   Many Notes on Robert Stewart of Atholl son of the Wolf of Badenoch. Extracts from a family bible commencing in 1864. Copy of a disposition deed and settlement 1857 by Mrs Isabella Purdie Stewart with family trees attached 1709-1800; Stewart 1700-1916   T   20 pages Some family papers of the family of Stewart of Williamwood F.R.Stewart Aberdeen 1916. Family tree attached. Stewart.   1786-1970   Many Account of the descendants of Daniel Stewart and Helen Anderson married 1786 Stewart 5   1780-1992   T   1 page Stewart 6   1468-1992   T   2 pages Large tree detailing the history of the owners of the estate of Invernahyle Argyllshire and a family of Stewart that settled near Biggar. Stewart 7   1100-1900   T   C   Many Tree of the ancient family of the High Stewards of Scotland. Account Book of John Stewart of Foss 1763-1845. 'Personal Adventures and Anecdotes of An Old Officer' by Col. James Robertson CB 1906. Notes on Lt. Robert Stewart in India. Stewarts of Innermeath - tree. Notes on Lt. William Stewart 1738-1811 and his issue. Stewart   1840-1960 Stewart Stewart of Ardgowan. Stewart   1670-1872 Stuart 1   .   1579-1984   C   10 pages A few extracts from the OPR; Family group sheet for a family from Angus and going to Chicago including extracts from local newspapers; and an article anent the family in Scandinavia. 2   1043-1981   T   14 pages Family tree of the family of Annat. Booklet 'Stuarts of Annat' descendants of Lt-General Robert Stuart of Annat & Rait by Robert Stuart Hunter.

Steuart's Lodge

The Steuart’s were a Scottish family and the first to settle in Ireland was John Steuart son of the 4th Earl of Galloway who purchased estates in Carlow and Meath in 1719. In 1752 his son William Steuart was given Steuart’s Lodge and 2000 acres of land on “his approaching marriage to Anne Butler daughter of Sir Richard Butler”. According to historian Mary Stewart Blakemore in “A Narrative Genealogy of the Stewarts” the outlawing of Scottish Presbyterians in 1638 and the persecutions that followed caused this branch of the family to flee from Scotland. Ducketts Grove Carlow

duckettsgrove-theStewartsinireland.ie Ducketts Grove 3-thestewartsinireland.ie Ducketts gfrove2-thestewartsinireland.ie

John Steuart of Carlow-thestewartsinireland.ie

John Steuart of Carlow

In 1843 William’s son William Richard Steuart High Sheriff of County Carlow in 1821 married Elizabeth Dawson-Duckett of Duckett’s Grove. The Steuarts did not enjoy the prosperity of the Duckett’s because by the middle of the last century Elizabeth Dawson Steuart then a widow owned a much reduced estate of 650 acres. When she died in March 1893 she left the property to her nephew Major Charles Edward Henry Duckett (1850 – 1904) who adopted the Steuart name and he married the London actress Annie Seymore. Their only son William Steuart Duckett Steuart died in 1930. When Annie died in 1932 Steuart’s Lodge and 136 acres of land went to her daughter Aileen’s son Basil Cyril Dickinson. He was a Dublin based barrister and he sold the property to P.J. Farrell whose nephews Cyril and Bernard Kay sold to the present owner Minnie Lennon in 1958. Two months before she died Elizabeth Dawson Steuart was a witness in an action for slander brought by her former coachman and groom John Sweeney against her nephew William Duckett of Duckett’s Grove. William accused John Sweeney of theft while he was employed by Elizabeth and mentioned the accusation to a number of people. Sweeney sought damages of £500 for slander and defamation of character. He succeeded in his action but with a reduced order for damages of £65. The case was reported in The Carlow Sentinel on January 14th 1893.

Decendants of William Stewart

Generation 1 1. William Stewart was born in Stewart’s Lodge County Carlow , and died 1st April 1834 in Marion Co. Tenn (now Sequatchie Co.) and is buried on the farm. He married (1). Elizabeth Guyton 24th May 1788 in Baltimore Maryland. He married (2). Sarah Carr 1807 in Blount Co. Tenn Children of William Stewart & Sarah Carr: i, John b. Abt. 1789 Maryland d. 1st December 1873 Greene Co. Missouri ii, Nancy b. Abt. 1791 iii, James b. Abt. 1793, Green Co. Tn, d. WFT Est. 1826-1884 Sand Mountain Fort Payne Ala. iv. George b. 10th October 1795 Green Co. Tenn. D. 28th December 1887 Dunlap Sequatcie Co. Tn aged 92 v. Elizabeth b. Abt. 1798 vi. David b. Abt 1800 d. 1840 married Miss Lassiter vii. Robert Bruce b. Abt. 1802 d. 1840 viii. Susan b. Abt. 1804

Children of William Stewart and Sarah Carr

ix, Ann b. Abt. 1805 Green Co Tn. d. 1831-1901 Out West Married Mr Davis x, Mary b. Abt 1807 Green Co Tn. d. 150-1831 Texas Married Robert R Allen xi, William Billy Jr. B 24th July 1808 Blount Tn. d 8th August 1833 Seqatchie Co. Tn

Generation

1. John Stewart (William) b. Abt 1789 Maryland d. 1st December 1873 Greene Co. Missouri He married Sarah Davis 1815

Issue: i. Joseph b. Abt 1812 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. Bef. 1880 Waldens Ridge Bledsoe Tn

  1. Rachel b. Abt 1820 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 1825-1918 Springfield Green Co. Mo.
  2. William b. Abt 1826 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. WFT Est 1827-1916 Springfield Green Co. Mo.
  3. Robert b. Abt 1826 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. WFT Est 1919-1947 Sevier Tn to Pikeville Tn
  4. Ephraim b. Abt 1831 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. WFT Est 1830-1919 Springfield Green Co. Mo.
  5. Timothy b. Abt 1831 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. Springfield Green Co. Mo.
  6. Pleasant b. 1832 Bledsoe Co. Tenn d. 25th October 1917 Shoal Creek Ark buried Tritt Cem. Logan Co
  7. Claybourne b. 1838
  8. Emaly b. 1847
  1. Nancy Stewart (William1) b. Abt 1791. Married George Hixon
  2. James Stewart b. Abt. 1793, Green Co. Tn, d. WFT Est. 1826-1884 Sand Mountain Fort Payne Ala. Married Miss Carr.

Children of James Stewart & Miss Carr: all born in Sand Mountain Fort Payne Ala.

  1. Malinda b. Abt. 1815
  2. Ramsey b. Abt 1817
  3. Scott b. Abt. 1819
  4. Evaline b. Abt 1821
  5. Rebecca b. Abt. 1823
  1. George Stewart (William1) b. 10th October 1795 Green Co. Tenn. D. 28th December 1887 Dunlap Sequatcie Co. Tn aged 92. Married Martha Deakins August 1820 in Green Co. Tenn

Children of George Stewart & Martha Deakins:

  1. Mary  b. Abt 1822 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. Abt 1824 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn
  2. Sarah b. Abt. 1824
  3. Nancy b. Abt 1822 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 1844-1920 Boggs Creek Ark. Married Benjamin Franklin Smith
  4. James Marion Judge b. 10the February 1829 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 14th December 1919 Jasper Bledsoe Co. Tn.
  5. William D. Capt. B. 24th April 1831 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 28th July 1869 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. Shoy Deer Hunting
  6. Absalom Deakins Stewart b. 17th January 1833
  1. Elizabeth Stewart (William 1) b. Abt 1798, Married William Rogers
  2. William Billy Jr.(William 1)  b 24th July 1808 Blount Tn. d 8th August 1833 Seqatchie Co. Tn. Married (1). Achsah Deakins. (2). Ruth Hendrix.

Children of William Stewart & Achsah Deakins all born in Seqatchie Co.

  1. Absolom b. 1828
  2. Sarah b. 1830. Married Howell Baker
  3. Mary b. 1832 Married Nimrod Kell
  4. Alice b. 1833 Married Moses Baker

Generation 3

  1.            Pleasant Stewarrt b. Bledsoe Co. Tenn d. 25th October 1917 Shoal Creek Ark buried Tritt Cem. Logan Co     married Ruhamy Horn 4th March 1853 Springfield Green Co. Mo.

Children of Pleasant Stewart & Ruhamy Horn: i. Caldona b. 4th December 1854 d. New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. May. Cem. Married William Wilburn Venable ii. Sarah Candice b. 8th March March New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. D. 19th November 1915 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. Tritt Cem. iii. John D. 13th December 1866 New Blaine Ark.. Logan Co. Married Lina Berry iv. George Washington b. 6th February 1870 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co d. 3rd April 1950 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co Elizabeth Hall Cem. v. Oma Jane b. 1873 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. D. 13th December 1934 Porum Okla. Colem,an Cem. Married Madison Wiggins. Logan 9. James Marion Judge b. 10the February 1829 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 14th December 1919 Jasper Bledsoe Co. Tn. Married Mary A. Kirklin 3rd April 1853 in Seqatchie Co. Tn. Children of James Judge Stewart & Mary Kirklin all born in Dunlap Sequatchie i. Joseph b. Abt 1854 d. 1884-1945 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn ii. Martha b. Abt. 1857 d. 1873-1951 Big ston Gap Va. Married Rev. W.C. Carden iii. George Kirklin b. 15th May 1858 d. 13th October 1906 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn iv. Daniel Rogers b. Abt 1861 d. Bef. 1898 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn Married Adaline Addie lamb v. William A. B. Abt. 1863 d. 1933 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn Married Martha Mattie Lamb vi. Absolom L. B. Abt. 1865 d. Abt. 1867 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn Married Elizabeth Baker vii. Charles Arthur b. Abt. 1867 d. 1057-1868 Chattanooga Hamilton Co. Tn viii. Byron H. B. Abt. 1869 d. Bef. 1898 ix. Robert Bruce b. Abt 1870 d. 1872-1961 Dunlap Sequatchie Co Tn Married Alice Allie Lamb x. Walter Scott b. Abt. 1871 d. 1872-1961 Chattanooga Hamilton Co. Tn xi. Elizabeth A. Lizza b. Abt. 1873 d. 1874-1967 Chanooga Hamilton Co. Tn

  1. William D. Captain 24th April 1831 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 28th July 1869 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. Shoy Deer Hunting. Married Martha Jane Lamb

Children of William D. & Martha Lamb: i. Sophronia b. Abt. 1852 Dunlap Sequatch Tn d. Abt. 1862 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. Shoy Deer Hunting ii.    Vesta Lucinda b. Abt 1854 Dunlap Sequatch Tn d. November 1902 Married David Condra iii.     John Rogers b. 15th July 1854 Dunlap Sequatch Tn. Shoy Deer Hunting d. 1892-1945 Nashville Henderson Co Tn. Married Hester Ann Rogers 26th Jul 1881 iv. James b. Abt. 1858 Dunlap Sequatch d. 1895-1951 Checotah Okmulgee Co. Ok v. William Josiah Rev. B. Abt 1860 Tn Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 1895-1951 Checotah Okmulgee Co. Ok vi. Lettie Bennett Dunlap Sequatch Tn. Shoy Deer Hunting Married John Baker

Generation 4

  1. Sarah Candice b. 8th March March New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. D. 19th November 1915 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. Tritt Cem. Married Charlie Blair 20th April 1884 in Shoal Creek Ark.

Issue 6 children

  1.  George Washington b. 6th February 1870 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co d. 3rd April 1950 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co Elizabeth Hall Cem Married (1). Clarissa Jane Durning. (2). Alice Neel. (3) Rose Martha Gotee

Children of George Washington Stewart & Clarissa Durning i. Nittie May b. 25th January 1890 ii.    Wess b. 1st August 1892 married Viola. Children of George Washington & Alice Neel iii. Seath  d. August 1904 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. Elizabeth Hall cem. iv. Ray b. 23rd April 1896 d. 23rd August 1927 New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. Elizabeth Hall cem. v.     Clyde b. 1st August 1897 d. New Blaine Ark. Logan Co. Elizabeth Hall cem. Children of George Washington & Rose Gotee vi. Imagine b. 8th October 1912 vii. George Eugene b. 16th September 1915 viii. Paul Shannon b. 23rd August 1921

  1. William Josiah Rev. B. Abt 1860 Tn Dunlap Sequatch Tn. d. 1895-1951 Checotah Okmulgee Co. Ok Married Cora Pittard.

Children of William Josiah Rev. & Cora Pittard. All born in Checotah Okmulgee Co. Ok i. Eugene Ramsey b. Abt 1880 d. Checotah Okmulgee Co. Ok. ii.            Annie Ruth b. Abt. 1882 iii.           Martha Bennrt b. 1884 iv,           Roy. B. Abt 1886 v. William T. B. Abt 1888 D. Washington DC. vi.  Dorthy b. Abt 189 vii. Roger b. Abt. 1892

Barton Collection

The Barton family descend from Thomas Barton a Protestant soldier from Lancashire who came to Ireland with the Earl of Essex’s army in 1599. Ten years later Thomas was awarded an estate of 1000 acres in County Fermanagh for his services to the Crown. His son Anthony was one of untold thousands of Protestant settlers murdered during a savage uprising by Ulster Catholics in October 1641. During the reign of Charles II her son William recouped the family fortunes and became a substantial landowner in Fermanagh and Donegal. In 1725 William’s grandson Tom Barton settled in Bordeaux and established himself as a wine merchant. The business boomed over the ensuing decades. Tom’s only son married Grace Massy a daughter of the Dean of Limerick and sister of Sir Hugh Dillon Massy of Doonas Co. Clare. William and Grace’s fourth son Hugh succeeded to the family’s wine estates on the death of his grandfather in 1780. In 1794 during the reign of terror at Bordeaux a large number of the leading merchants were thrown into prison and their offices closed. Among those arrested was Hugh Barton who was confined in the prison of the Fort du Ha from which through the connivance of his wife Anne (naturalized daughter of Nathaniel Weld Johnson himself a naturalized French subject of Scotch origin) he made his escape to Ireland . A very interesting story is told of the way in which his French property was preserved. Not being allowed as an alien to hold property in Bordeaux he arranged with one Daniel Guestier to take over and manage the business there while Hugh Barton would manage it in Great Britain. This was done without any act of partnership.

Bartons of Straffan

K Club

In 1831 Hugh Barton purchased the estate of Straffan in county Kildare. His son Thomas Johnston Barton settled in Glendalough County Wicklow. The Straffan estate remained with the Barton family until 1949 when Derick Barton sold the house to John Ellis of Yorkshire. Now known as the K Club A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland 1837 Subscribers Stewart Alexander Esq. Trinity-college Dublin *Stewart Alexander Esq. Ligoneil Belfast Stewart D. Esq. Great Russell-street London *Stewart Rev. Henry J.P. Vicar of Rathbarry Rosscarbery Co. Cork *Stewart Rev. Henry Rector of Leixlip Co. Kildare Stewart Henry Esq. J.P. Tyrcallen Stranorlar Co. Donegal Stewart Henry Hutchinson Esq. M.D. Killucan Co. Westmeath Stewart Rev. James Vicar of Leslie Clonakilty Co. Cork Stewart Rev. J. Presbyterian Minister Portstewart Co. Derry *Stewart J. V. Esq. J.P. Rock-hill Letterkenny Co. Donegal *Stewart Mr. Robert Altrest Strabane Co. Tyrone *Stewart Colonel Thomas Enniskillen Co. Fermanagh Stewart Thomas L. Esq. Belfast-castle Stewart W. Esq. Stewart Rev. W. Henry-street Cork Stewart Major W. Harrymount Kingstown Co. Dublin *Stewart W. Esq. Killymoon Cookstown Co. Tyrone *Stewart Colonel W. J.P. Creg near Fermoy Co. Cork *Stewart W. Esq. J.P. Killymoon Co. Tyrone Stewart W. Esq. M.D. Lisburn Co. Antrim Stewart W. Esq. J.P. Horn-head Dunfanaghy Co. Donegal Stewart W. Esq. J.P. Sea-park Carrickfergus Co. Antrim Stewart W. Esq. Drumnagessan Bushmills Co. Antrim Stuart Rev. Alexander Monkstown-glebe Cork Stuart Rev. A. G. Desertcreight Cookstown Co. Tyrone *Stuart The Very Rev. Charles John-street Dublin Stuart Rev. H. Incumbent of Lower Fahan Buncrana Co. Donegal Stuart James T. S. Esq. J.P. Tymore Newport Pratt Co. Mayo *Stuart James Esq. LL.D. Belfast Co. Antrim *Stuart John S. Esq. Bruff Co. Limerick Stuart W. Esq. Carrickfergus Co. Antrim *Stuart William Villiers Esq. D.L. & J.P. Dromana House near Lismore Co. Waterford *Stubber R. H. Esq. D.L. & J.P. Moyne Durrow Co. Kilkenny

Dictionary of Irish Biography

Stewart [afterwards Vane] Charles William (1778–1854) 3rd marquess of Londonderry soldier and diplomat was born … Stewart David (1868–1961) presbyterian minister was born 10 July 1868 in Saintfield Co. Down son … Stewart George Francis (1851–1928) land agent unionist and governor of the Bank of Ireland was … Stewart Henry Hutchinson (1798–1879) doctor hospital governor and philanthropist was born 23 June 1798 in … Stewart Herbert Ray (1890–1989) agriculturalist was born 10 July 1890 only son of Hugh Stewart … Stewart John (c.1758–1825) 1st baronet attorney general for Ireland was born in Co. Tyrone .. Stewart Joseph Francis (1889–1964) politician was born 9 January 1889 in Irish St. Dungannon Co. … Stewart Kenneth Donald (1911–2006) surgeon and evangelist was born 9 October 1911 at 26 Mountshannon … Stewart Maj. Charles (1764–1837) soldier and oriental scholar was born in Lisburn Co. Antrim eldest .. Stewart (Stuart) Robert (d. 1662) army officer was appointed governor of the fort of Culmore … Stewart Robert (1769–1822) Viscount Castlereagh and 2nd marquess of Londonderry chief secretary for Ireland politician .. Stewart Robert (1739–1821) 1st marquess of Londonderry politician was born 27 September 1739 in Dublin … Stewart Robert Prescott (1825–94) organist conductor composer teacher and academic was born 16 December 1825 … Stewart (Stuart) William (d. 1647) 1st baronet army officer was a Scot and may have … Stewart William (1650–1692) 1st Viscount Mountjoy army officer was born six weeks after the death .. Stewart Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest (1852–1915) 6th marquis of Londonderry politician was born 16 July 1852 … Stewart Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest (1878–1949) 7th marquess of Londonderry politician was born 13 May … Stewart Edith Helen Vane-Tempest (1879–1959) marchioness of Londonderry public servant and hostess was born 3 … Stuart James (1764–1840) newspaper editor and historian was born in Armagh city son of Benjamin … Stuart William (1755–1822) Church of Ireland archbishop of Armagh was born in February or March …

From Sinton Family Tree

Stewart Albert Thomas About May 1894 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Ann Margaret Florence Stewart Beverley Ian Stewart Brenda Alice Kilwinning Ayrshire Scotland Stewart David Stewart David Cyril Stewart Emily About August 1886 Cootehill Co. Cavan Stewart Emma Catherine Stewart Esther Stewart Florence Caroline About February 1899 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Florence Dorothea About August 1913  Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Frances Dorathea About May 1890    Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Frances Margaret About February 1905 Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Frederick       18 June 1880 Timahoe Co. Kildare Stewart Frederick Thomas About February 1910 Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Frederick William Stewart George Dillon About February 1892 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart George Victor Stewart Gloria Stewart Harold Stanley About August 1896    Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Helena Martha About February 1888 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Herbert Sydney About February 1903 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Isabella About August 1881 Cootehill Co. Cavan Stewart James About August 1885 Cootehill Co. Cavan Stewart James 30 March 1920 Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Jayne Astrid  1954 Stewart Joseph About February 1883  Cootehill Co. Cavan Stewart Leslie Herbert Stewart Margaret Stewart Margaret AdelineAbout May 1912  Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Mervyn Robert Stewart Nigel Stewart Peter Nigel Stewart Richard About 1845 Co. Kildare Stewart Richard James About November 1908 Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Richard John About November 1883 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Robert About 1840 Co. Monaghan Stewart Robert Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Robert Cecil  About November 1900 Celbridge Co. Kildare Stewart Roseanna Deborah About February 1906  Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Rosemary Erika Stewart Sarah Emily  About November 1914  Donadea Co. Kildare Stewart Thomas Ronaldson About November 1889 Cootehill Co. Cavan Stewart Unknown Stewart Violet Jane Elizabeth Stewart William About February 1917 Donadea Co. Kildare

RIC

Royal Irish Constabulary 1867-1922 Lest we Forget Constabulary of Ireland Const William Stewart 20 Died 20 May 1921 Shot dead by the IRA while unarmed cycling back from leave.

Irish BrigadeIrish Brigades

Irish Brigades HISTORY OF The Honourable Society of the Irish Brigade Na Géanna Fiáine (The Wild Geese) The Celtic Race have a history of serving as mercenaries of fighting others wars. With King Darius they invaded Greece they served the Pharaohs and carved their names on tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Cleopatra had them as a bodyguard. They alone stood firm against Scipio in front of Carthage and paid the price. Hannibal recruited them to cross the Alps with him and Ancient Rome prized them as Cavalry. Edward I recruited Irish light cavalry (hobblers) to serve in his Army in France in the 100 years War and to patrol the English border with Scotland. Their style of warfare gave rise to the famed Steele Bonnets or Border Reivers. In 1243 they fought for the Plantagenets against their fellow Celts the Welsh – perhaps in memory of the Welsh mercenaries that had fought at Strongbow’s side and brought the English to Ireland’s shore. In 1485 they fought with the Yorkists against the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses. When the wars of religion swept through Europe setting Catholic against Protestant the Irish (nominally Catholic) were to be found fighting for both sides. As early as the 1520′s Irish troops were to be found in the Netherlands. The German artist Durer sketched Galloglas & kerne on the continent in 1521.The Tudor crown of England gave the Irish grudging respect acknowledging them as the hardiest and fiercest troops in the known world. For this reason the English commander in the low countries in 1585 requested Irish Galloglas and kerne; these duly arrived in Flanders in 1586.The Irish served as Stanley’s Irish Regiment from 1587 till 1596 with the Dutch against the Spanish. However Sir Edward Stanley a devout Catholic changed sides and took the Irish to fight for Spain. From 1597 till 1604 it was known as “El Tercio Irlanda” (the Regiment later became the Independent Irish Companies). In 1605 The Spanish raised their own Irish Regiment under Prince Henry O’Neill son of Hugh O’Neill The O’Neill and Earl of Tyrone. They recruited heavily from the Irish Companies in Flanders. Called the Tyrone Regiment it served Spain till 1628 when it was dissolved. In 1609 the Swedish Army of King Gustav Adolphus sought out and recruited Irishman and Scots to fight in the Baltics and Germany. They served in Marquis of Hamilton’s Scottish Regiment. In August 1631 the Irish troops were sketched at Stettin by the Nuremberg printer Georg Koler. The Swedes however distrusted the Irish because they were Catholics; many of the Irish later joined the Polish and German armies. The Spanish again raised Irish Regiments in 1633 (O’Neill) 1637 (O’Donnell) and 1640 (Fitzgerald). Further Irish Regiments were recruited and raised between 1646 and 1669 including Dillons O’Reilly Taffe (1672) and O’Byrne’s (1673) for Spanish service. By now the French too had learned the value of the Irish Soldier. In 1632 King Louis XIII hired 3000 Irishmen to form the Walls Regiment. Other Irish Regiments were formed in the French Service: Rodrigh (1615-1650) Coosle (1635-50) O’Reilly (1639-40) and Castelnau (1650-1664). During the English Civil War the Stuart kings hired a large Irish Army to fight the parliamentary forces of Cromwell in England and Scotland. In July 1644 Alasdair MacColla landed in Scotland with 2500 Irish veteran soldiers. At the Battle of Tippermuir (1644) and Aberdeen (1644) the Irish Regiments held the centre of the line and with the Highland Clans developed the famed highland charge. This they used to smash the lowland Scots army and the hated Campbells. At Inverlochy (1645) they took the flanks of the battle and at Auldearn (1645) they held the right flank but at Kilsyth they again held the centre — every battle a victory for the combined Irish and Scottish Gaelic force. In 1689 a 300 man Irish unit served under Bonnie Dundee at the victorious Battle of Killiecrankie again using the highland charge. When the Stuarts were driven in to exile in France in 1652 the bulk of the British Army was Irish. This for the most part was from the 20000 Irishmen the remains of the Irish Confederate forces that had elected to leave Ireland when Cromwell was victorious there. In April 1656 Charles the Prince of Wales (later Charles II) with his brother James signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown and took their army to the Spanish Netherlands to fight France. The Ormonde Regiment was formed of 700 men: The Duke of York’s Regiment The Duke of Gloucester’s Regiment (under Lord Taffe) the Muskerry Regiment and finally an Irish unit under Colonel Farrell. The Irish Regiments again found themselves fighting Cromwell’s new model army when allied to France. Elements arrived to fight the Spanish. In May 1660 Charles was restored to Britain as King Charles II. he immediately abandoned his Irish troops leaving them to rot in Northern France till eventually they were sent to garrison his new Queen’s dowry: Tangiers in North Africa. “Would that it were for Ireland….” By the end of the 17th century Holland and France were at war over what had been the Spanish Netherlands. When the Dutch prince William of Orange married Princess Mary the daughter of King James II (Charles II’s brother) he saw the opportunity to raise more troops for his war with France. William & Mary conspired with the Protestant lobby in England to overthrow James which they did. James a Catholic had recruited Irish Soldiers into the British Army. He had commanded a Regiment of them in Flanders and knew their value. James fled to France in 1688 with his Irish troops; in fact the Irish were instrumental in his escape and that of the Royal family. King Louis XIV in return for 5000 Irish troops agreed to equip and finance King James II’s attempts to regain his throne. The invasion of Ireland by James’s forces was gallant but doomed due to the large number of foreign mercenaries employed by William which included Dutch German French and Swedes – all fighting for the Protestant cause. William very cynically signed a treaty at Limerick with the Irish which he broke as soon as it was signed by instituting a series of anti-Catholic measures which dispossessed the Irish nobility robbing them of the right to land education property livestock and weapons and forcing them in to exile. In France by 1692 there were two Irish forces: The Irish Brigade of the French Army under Justin MacCarthy Viscount Mountcashel and the Jacobite Army of James II under Patrick Sarsfield Lord Lucan. James’ army consisted of 13 infantry regiments 3 independent companies of Foot 2 cavalry regiments and 2 troops of Horse Guards; in total 12326 men. The Irish Brigade of the French Army consisted of 5 regiments; Mountcashel Butler Fielding O’Brien and Dillon with a total strength of 6039 men. Plans for another invasion of Ireland were dashed by the French Naval defeat at La Hogue in 1692 and James was forced to release his Irish Army for service with the French. Sarsfield now a Marshall of France died of wounds received at the battle of Neerwinden in 1693 his last word – “would that it were for Ireland.” The Irish were noted for their penchant for hand-to-hand fighting and engaging the enemy at close-quarters. France’s Greatest Marshall de la Saxe noted that native French troops though gallant in a charge lacked the discipline to maneuver or hold a line under attack; for this reason France employed large numbers of mercenaries. The Irish Brigade victories at Marsaglia (04th Oct 1693) in Italy against the Kingdom of Savoy and at Barcelona in Spain 1697 were amongst their bloodiest and most notable. By 1698 when the war ended with the treaty of Ryswick over one third of the Irish Force had been killed and crippled. The Irish Brigade was retained but the larger Jacobite Army was disbanded leaving the Irish to become beggars or Highwaymen. Some of these men moved to Spain to enlist in the Spanish Army. The Spanish had disbanded the “Tercio Irlanda” in 1698. James II’s son permitted the Regiment of Bourke to transfer to Spanish service. William III recruited some of his old enemies for the “Catholic Corps” which was sent to assist the Austrian fighting the Turks in Hungary where it was wiped out. The 18th century started with the death of King Charles II of Spain. Austria Britain Prussia Portugal Holland and a number of minor German Kingdoms opposed his nominated successor Prince Philip of Anjou grandson of the King of France. The French had Spain Bavaria Mantua Savoy and Cologne as allies. France immediately approached James III to reorganise a Jacobite Army recruited from amongst the Irish. The regiments of Galmoy Bourke Berwick Dorrington Albermarle and Sheldon were raised and the Irish Brigade itself brought up to full strength. The Irish were sent to Italy with detachments despatched to Flanders Bavaria and Spain. In 1702 The Austrians attacked the Garrison of Cremona. On the Austrian side were Irish Officers including a McDonnell and a Taffe in German service. The defence of the Cremona against tremendous odds on the night of 31st Jan 1702 is legend; the Irish inflicted very heavy casualties on the Imperial Army and their German allies losing over half their own number killed. In 1704 at Blenheim 3 Irish Regiments held the town of Oberglau and covered the retreat of the French and Bavarian forces. At Ramilles in 1706 the Irish captured the flag’s of Churchill’s Regiment and of a Scottish Regiment in the Dutch Army. The war ended in 1706 with a French victory. The 15-year-old war had cost 35000 Irish casualties. The Venetian Republic threatened by Turkey recruited an Irish unit in 1702 under Francis Terry who later became a Brigadier General. The unit served Croatia and Bohemia. In 1717 the Regiment became the Regiment of Terry and served Venice till the fall of the Republic in 1797. The Irish were so prized in the 18th century as soldiers that Frederick the Great has one Regiment entirely of Irishmen kidnapped from other armies. Chroniclers have noted it was perhaps his most effective unit. With the various disbandment of Irish units in Spanish and French service Irishmen drifted in to other Armies. The Austrian and Russian Imperial forces became home to many of the Wild Geese. By the mid-18th century there was a thriving Military community in Austria. Peter the Great of Russia hired 30 Irish and Scottish Officers to modernise his Army and many of them played crucial roles in the expansion of the Russian Empire the Conquest of Finland The Baltics and the Crimea the most famous being Marshall Peter de Lacy. His and other Irish portraits are to be found in the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg An t-Óglach. I was that which others did not want to be. I went where others feared to go and did what others failed to do. I asked nothing from those who gave nothing and reluctantly accepted the thought Of eternal loneliness should I fail. I have seen the face of terror. Felt the stinging cold of fear and enjoyed the sweet taste of a moment’s love. I have cried pained and hoped but most of all I have lived times Others would say were best forgotten. At least some day I will be able to say that I was proud of what I was…  a soldier. Austria’s 3 greatest Marshals were Irish; Maximilian Von Browne (1705-1757) son Count Ulysses Von Browne (died 1731) and nephew of Marshall Georg Von Browne of the Russian Army Franz de Lacy (1725-1801) son of Peter de Lacy and Carl O’Donnell Count of Tyrconnel (1769-1824) a relative of the Spanish Field Marshall Henry O’Donnell (1769-1834). Nine Irishmen gave their names as Colonels of Austrian Regiments. Austrian Infantry Regiments No. 19 Dalton (1773) No. 22 Roth (1741) Lacy (1756) No. 35 MacQuire (1763) No. 36 Browne (1740) No. 42 O’Nelly (1740) No. 43 Butler (1768) No. 45 O’Kelly (1761) No. 46 MacQuire (1752) No. 56 Nugent (1767) The British Army William III had raised troops in Ireland in the late 17th century. Most of the Irish Regiments were raised in the mid-1680′s. The 6th Horse became the 5th Horse in 1690 this in 1746 became the 1st Irish Horse and in Feb 1788 became the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards. The 5th Royal Irish Lancers were raised in 1689 fought at the Battle of the Boyne and as Ross’s Horse were sent to the Netherlands were disbanded in 1799 having being infiltrated by the United Irishmen. The 5th was raised again in 1858. The 6th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards were raised in 1689 to fight for King William III. The Regiment left Ireland in 1708 and did not return for 100 years fighting in the 1715 rebellion in Scotland were in Flanders and fought at Fontenoy in 1745 later at Waterloo in 1815 and Balaclava in the Crimea in 1854. The 8th Royal Irish Hussars was raised in 1693 as dragoons later called 8th Dragoons or King’s Royal Irish Light Dragoons. In 1823 they became 8th Royal Irish Hussars. The 18th Foot (Royal Irish Regiment) was raised in 1683 and fought against King James II. It fought against the Irish Brigade in Flanders and the Spanish Irish Regiments at Gibraltar. In 1751 it became the 18th Foot. It was disbanded after action around the globe in July 1922. The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers were raised in 1689 and in 1751 it became the 27th Regt. of Foot. In July 1968 the Inniskillings was amalgamated with other Irish Regiments to become the Royal Irish Rangers. The Royal Irish Rifles were raised as the 83rd Regiment of Foot in October 1758. Disbanded in 1763 and raised again in 1793. The 86th Regiment was raised in November 1756 disbanded in 1763 and raised again in 1778. In 1881 the 83rd and 86th were combined to form the Royal Irish Regiment. The 87th Regiment and 89th Regiment were raised in Ireland in 1793. In 1881 the two Regiments were amalgamated to form the Royal Irish Fusiliers in 1968 this was amalgamated in to the Royal Irish Rangers. The Connaught Rangers were formed in September 1793 as the 88th Regiment following a Republican mutiny in 1920 the Regiment was disbanded in 1922. The Leinster regiment also disbanded in 1922 was formed from the 100th and 109th Regiments of Foot. The Royal Munster Fusiliers were formed from 101st and 104th Regiments and it too was disbanded in 1922. The-Royal-Munster-Fusiliers-5 The-Royal-Munster-Fusiliers-4 The-Royal-Munster-Fusiliers-1 The Royal Dublin Fusiliers was created from 102 and 103rd Regiments in India but can trace their origins back to 1661. The Regiment was stood down in 1922. The newest addition were The Irish Guards raised after the Boer War in which Irish Brigades served on both the British and Boer side. Reserve units such as the North and South Irish Horse The London Irish Rifles The 8th King’s Liverpool Irish and the Tyneside Irish Battalions (24th 25th 26th 27th Battalions Northumberland Fusiliers) were raised and fought in the 1914-1919 War. The Royal Irish Rangers were merged with the Ulster Defence Regiment battalions and the London Irish Rifles in 1992 to form the Royal Irish Regiment. The British Army had always used Irishmen in fact it is has been said “the British Empire was won by the Irish administered by the Scots and Welsh and the profits went to the English”. In recent years the last line was amended to read “lost by the English.” The Normans used Irish mercenaries in France Wales and Scotland. The majority of the Tudor Army in Ireland was Irish as were Tudor troops abroad. Queen Elizabeth I even raised her own Galloglas unit known as The Queen Majesty’s Galloglas. By 1707 the British had six Irish Regiments by 1713 this had dropped to 2 but later raised to 5 Irish Regiments. However it was estimated that by 1860 some two thirds of the British Army including the English country regiments was constituted by Irishmen or their descendants. A Quarter of a million Irishmen would die the 1st World War when the 3 Irish Divisions were created being the 10th 16th and 36th Divisions. In the Second World War the 38th Irish Brigade was formed. Irish Regiments were formed in the Armies of South Africa Canada and Australia. The French and Spanish continued to use Irish Units. The French kept the Irish out of the Scottish Rising of 1715 despite demands by the Irish Brigade to participate. The Rising resulted from the death of the last Protestant Stuart Queen Anne in 1714 and the throne passing to the Hanoverian Guelph family. In 1715 the Irish Brigade of France stood only 3300 strong and it was re-organised in to 5 infantry regiments each of one battalion; Dillon Berwick O’Brien Lee and Dorrington and one cavalry regiment – Nugent. The war between France and Spain had the Irish of both armies fighting along the border till 1720. In 1733 the War of the Polish Succession broke out and the Irish were sent to fight in Germany. In 1740 the War of the Austrian succession started. In 1744 Lally formed another Irish Regiment and the Brigade was now formed of the Regiments of Lally Dillon Clare Berwick Roth Bulkeley and Fitzjames horse. The Irish Brigade won its greatest victory on 11th May 1745 when they swept the Saxon from the field at bayonet point with the Gaelic battle cry “Remember Limerick and Saxon Faith (betrayal).” Volunteers from the Brigade were with Bonnie Prince Charlie in Scotland for the 1745 rebellion. At Culloden in April 1746 the Irish piquets held firm against the British Cavalry fighting to the last bullet and covering the retreat of the Highland clans. The Irish were then sent to India to fight the English through corrupt French officials India was lost. Lally was wrongly blamed imprisoned and executed. Though later vindicated the act of treachery by the French broke the back of the Irish Brigade and Recruitment became difficult with many Irish resigning their commissions to seek their fortune elsewhere. The Irish Cavalry was wiped out in June 1762 at Wilhelmstahl. In 1779 the Irish were sent to the United States to assist the colonists in their rebellion against the English. The Irish were involved in the storming of the Caribbean island of Grenada and then the siege of Savannah in Georgia. The Irish were devastated in attacks on the fort. The French withdrew from the mainland to continue assault on British Islands in the Caribbean. The French Revolution caused the destruction of the Irish Brigade most of the Brigade slipped away to serve the exiled French Royal Family and the Irish Brigade was re-organised. In 1792 it was disbanded and the future King Louis XVIII conferred a colours to the Brigade in a farewell ceremony — the Irish Harp and shamrocks with the legend 1692-1792 and the motto “Semper et Ubique Fiderlis” – always and everywhere faithful. The English sought out the remnants of the Irish Brigade and transferred it in to the British Army as “Le Brigade Catholique Irlandaise” consisting of 6 regiments. The Brigade was forbidden to serve in England or Ireland and was used as a foreign legion serving mostly in the Caribbean till disbanded in 1797/1798 after the United Irishmen’s rebellion. Edward Dillon formed another Irish Regiment in 1794 to fight for the English in Northern Italy Corsica; it seized Minorca and then fought gallantly in Egypt. It was then based at Malta before being posted to Spain and disbanded in 1814. A Dillon Battalion was also formed by the French Revolutionaries of Irishman and sent to Dominique they were captured in 1793 by the British and absorbed in to England’s Irish Brigade. Two Irish companies were formed in as the Moore Company and MacDermott Company within the Dutch Armies’ Legion of Damas. In 1795 they too were absorbed in to England’s Irish Brigade. In 1796 The French directorate formed the Regiments of Lee and O’Meara to create an Irish Brigade for the invasion of Ireland under General’s Tandy and Tone. In August 1803 Napoleon ordered the formation of an Irish Legion this became the Regiment Irlandais and later 3rd Foreign Regiment and was disbanded on Napoleon’s exile. A petition of Officer veterans of the Old Irish Brigade to re-create the Brigade greeted Louis XIII when he ascended the throne of France. The King under British pressure declined. In 1818 the Spanish also disbanded their Irish Brigade. This had been formed over a hundred years before as the Regiments of Ultonia (Ulster) Hibernia Irlanda and later with the Regiments of Waterford and Limerick. During the Spanish Civil War between the Republican government and Franco’s Fascists Irishmen served in units on both sides. There was an Irish bandera (battalion) in the Spanish Foreign Legion fighting for FranCo. Pitted against them were a number of Irishmen forming the James Connelly column in the 5th International Brigade. In 1718 the King of Sicily was given the Limerick Regiment and Waterford was incorporated into the Hibernia in 1734. The Irish Brigade made a gallant stand at Mount San Juan in Sicily against the Austrians. Between 1727-1728 the Irish besieged the British in Gibraltar and were then posted to North Africa in 1732 and seized Oran. In 1741 they were sent to Tuscany and the Regiment Hibernia was all but wiped out at Campo Santo. The Irish were then sent to garrison Naples. The Austrians attacked in August 1744 several hundred Irish were killed but in a battle similar to Cremona the Irish held and drove out the Austrians. The Spanish were driven out of Italy by an Austrian army led by the Irishman Field Marshall Maximilian von Browne. In 1756 the Irish returned to garrison North Africa and in 1762 were involved in the Spanish invasion of Portugal. In 1768 the Irish were sent to Garrison Mexico City. The Hibernia was sent to fight in Brazil in 1777-78 then Cuba and then Florida and was involved in the attack on the British at Pensacola. In the 1790′s the Irish were sent back to North Africa to fight the Moors. In the Napoleonic wars they fought an hereditary Irishman General Joaquim Blake against the French and covered the English retreat to Corunna. The British commented that whilst many of the Spanish officers were cowardly and shiftless those with Irish names and Irish origin were amongst the bravest and effective of the Spanish Army. Despite this the Spanish King chose not to re-create the Irish Regiments in his new army of 1818. In 1828 a 2400 man Irish Brigade was recruited to fight in Brazil; an Irish Legion fought to liberate South America from Spanish colonialism. In the 1846 invasion of Mexico by the United States a San Patricio Battalion was formed which fought bravely against the invading United States Army. The war which lasted till 1848 was unpopular in the United States and was condemned by two future US presidents Lincoln and Grant. The Irishmen captured were tortured and murdered including at least 1 wounded amputee in contravention of the U.S. Government’s articles of War and the U.S. Constitution. The Irish in the American Civil War is dealt with separately herebelow. It should be mentioned that the Fenian Irish Republican Army that invaded Canada was sought by General Santa Anna as an Irish Legion to fight in Mexico in 1866. The General had discussions with the Fenian leadership. The Irish also formed a San Patricio Battalion as part of the Papal army that fought against Garibaldi and Sardinia and held at the fortress of Spoleto till they ran out of ammunition. An Irish Legion came to the aid of the French during the Franco-Prussian War of 1871 and the Germans in World War One created an Irish Brigade under Sir Roger Casement.

“….Every cause but our own.”

Sir Charles Stuart a distinguished general fourth son of the third earl of Bute was born in January 1753. He was educated under the superintendence of his father and after having made the tour of Europe and been presented at the principal courts he entered the army in 1768 as ensign in the 37th foot. He was rapidly promoted through the intermediate steps and in 1777 was made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th foot or Cameronians. He continued in that regiment for several years and eminently distinguished himself in the American revolutionary war. In 1782 he had the rank of colonel and in 1793 of major-general. In October 1794 he was appointed colonel of the 68th foot and in the following March of his old regiment the 26th. In 1794 and following year he was employed in the Mediterranean and made himself master of Corsica. In December 1796 he was appointed to the command of the auxiliary British force in Portugal and the measures he adopted on his arrival with the troops effectually secured that country against the then threatened invasion of the French. On his return to Britain he was in January 1798 promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. In September of that year he again sailed for Portugal took the British troops there under his command and proceeded with them to Minorca. He landed November 7 and by the 18th of the same month he had made a conquest of the whole island without the loss of a man the Spanish forces to the number of 3700 having capitulated. For this important service he was invested with the order of the Bath January 8 1799 and the same year was appointed governor of Minorca. He was afterwards summoned to the defence of Sicily and at the close of the same year was ordered to Malta which Bonaparte had conquered on his voyage to Egypt. After taking the fortress of La Valette by blockade he returned to England and to his representations it was partly owing that the British government retained possession of that island. He died at Richmond Lodge May 25 1801 in his 49th year leaving two sons the elder of whome for his diplomatic services was in January 1828 created a British peer by the title of Baron Stuart de Rothesay. Stuart family once claimed potential soverignty over the Island. Stuart family members can still be found close to Ponte Leccia (see Hotel Stuart) and in the nearby cemetery in Moltifao. Stuarts again active in Corsica after French Revolution With the opening of hostilities against France by the First Coalition Colonel Stuart returned to active service. On 23 May 1794 he took command of the army in Corsica and supervised the taking of Calvi (the action in which Horatio Nelson lost an eye). Col. John Moore was at the time his adjutant general.[1] Stuart was promoted to lieutenant-general for this action and on 24 October 1794 was made colonel of the 68th Regiment of Foot[3]. However his pride and violent temper led him to quarrel with Lord Hood commanding the Mediterranean Fleet and with the civilian viceroy of Corsica Sir Gilbert Elliot Bt. His partiality for Pasquale Paoli against Elliot and other conflicts led Stuart to resign in February 1795.[1] On 25 March 1795 he left the colonelcy of the 68th for that of the 26th Regiment of Foot which he held for the remainder of his life[3]. Independent Corsica (1755 to 1769) England Monarchy a model for Corsica: The Returned Army County Louth Servicemen in the Great War 1914 -1918 Richard Thomas Stewart 343  9 Light Horse Australian Imperial Force. Born Dundalk Co Louth  age 20. Church of Ireland. Occupation Station Hand. Previously 4 years as a clerk with Great Northern Railway Dundalk. Next-of-kin  Richard Thomas Stewart  c/o Plympton Post Office Plympton  South Australia father.  Church of England.  Enlisted 19 October 1914. To Gallipoli  16 May 1915. To hospital ship 12 June 1915 ‘shrap(nel )wound back (penetrated) Spine severe’. Transferred to Malta 20 June 1915. To England 6 July 1915. To Australia 7 November 1915. Landed 21 December 1915. Discharged  5 May 1916 medically unfit. Two letters from Pte Stewart in January and February 1927 looking for copies of his discharge papers. Awarded 1914/15 Star Victory Medal and British War Medal. 1911 Census: Richard Thomas Stewart age 17 lived at 45 Broughton Street Dundalk Co Louth. Occupation Clerk.  Father  Richard Thomas Stewart  age 47 Railway Foreman.  Mother  Jane Stewart age 41 Seven siblings including William John see below.  All born Co Louth. Stewart Sapper William Royal Engineers. From 47 Castle Road Dundalk. (Tempest’s Annual 1916). G J Postal Section Royal Engineers Stewart William John  2832 Australian Imperial Force. Born Dundalk Ireland.  Age 18. Church of Ireland. Occupation Blacksmith’s Striker. Next-of-kin Mrs Jane Stewart Plympton Post Office South Australia mother.  Previous military service Senior Cadets (still serving).  Enlisted 29 January 1916. Embarked from Australia 20 February 1916. In France 17 May 1916. Tunnelling Company 29 September 1916. To hospital England with influenza 13 February 1917. To France 14 April 1917. Wounded in action (Gas) 7 March 1918. Rejoined unit 19 April 1918.Charged March 3 1919 absent without leave 12 February 1919 to 23 February 1919. Awarded 11 days Field Punishment No 2. Returned to Australia 7 July 1919. Discharged 21 November 1919.  Awarded  Victory Medal and British War Medal . See also Stewart Richard Thomas. History of congregations of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland and biographical notices of eminent Presbyterian ministers and laymen Images of Churchs can be found in the County pages on this web site Ballymoney 1st. The first minister here was Mr. Ker. His settlement was opposed by Mr. Stewart of Ballintoy who had some interest here. Mr. Ker was supported by the majority of the people; but Mr. Stewart appealed to the Parliamentary Commissioners and they referred the case to the Presbytery. He was ultimately settled about the end of the year 1646. Boveva Presbyterian church It would appear that the first minister here was Mr. Hans Stewart a licentiate of the Presbytery of Linlithgow. He seems to have been settled as minister of Boveva in 1701. He died on the 6th of May 1737. He was succeeded by Mr. John Lyle who was ordained here in 1738. He died in this charge on the 20th of May 1765. The next minister was Mr. William Stewart who was ordained here on the 18th of June 1770 Broughshane 1st.Presbyterian church September 1810. In the May of the preceding year the Rev. Robert Stewart was ordained his assistant and successor. At that time little attention was paid to the question of Sabbath sanctification; and even in cases where the election of a minister was strenuously contested it was not unusual to take the poll of the congregation on the Lord’s Day. When a candidate for the pastoral charge of Broughshane Mr. Stewart encountered a vigorous opposition; and the voting which commenced after public worship on Sunday was continued till nine or ten o’clock at night. The Synod of Ulster at length saw the impropriety of permitting a poll to be taken on the day of sacred rest; and it is said that the Broughshane election terminated the history of this species of Sabbath desecration. Mr. Stewart early distinguished himself in the Synod as an able debater and in 1816 was chosen Moderator. He excelled in quick repartee in clear discrimination and in failseeing sagacity. In 1827 he had a remarkable discussion with the Rev. B. M’Auley Parish Priest of Ballymena on the subject of the Papal Supremacy. This discussion which took place in the courthouse of Ballymena and which con- tinued for three days excited uncommon interest. Whilst it was going on Mr. Stewart was occasionally to be seen looking into a cliest of books which was beside him and which he was obviously searching for authorities when at the same time he was conducting a vigorous argument and replying most effectively to some previous statements of his antagonist. In all intricate and important negotiations he was usually employed by the Synod of Ulster. During the Arian controversy he exhibited great tact and coolness; and his speech in 1828 in support of the celebrated overtures and in answer to Dr. Montgomery was one of the happiest efforts of his eloquence. In 1843 he was elected Moderator of the General Assembly. He frequently visited London and Dublin on deputations to Government. He died on the 26th of September 1852 and his funeral was attended by an immense multitude. There is a graveyard attached to the 1st Presbyterian Church of Broughshane; and the first body buried in it is said to have been the remains of a soldier of King William III. Presbytery of Templepatrick The people adhering to the Synod gave a call to Mr. James Carmichael who was ordained here on the 24tli of May 1832 Mr. Carmichael becoming infirm obtained as his assistant and successor Mr. Samuel Edgar Stewart who was ordained here on the 25th of July 1871. Mr. Carmichael died on the 28th of July 1873. Mr. Stewart resigned the pastoral charge on the 30th of October 1882 on his removal to Carrickfergus Dungannon. Mr. Kennedy was succeeded at Donouglimore or Carlan by Mr. Robert Stuart who was ordained here August 11th 1720. He died in this charge April 11th 1746. He was succeeded by Mr. William Kennedy who was ordained at Carlan as it was now called on the 2nd of April 1754. Mr. Kennedy becoming infirm Mr. Robert Stewart was ordained his assistant on the 9th October 1798. Mr. Kennedy died April 9th 1801 leaving a family. Mr. Stewart died in 1812 leaving a family. Convoy The parish of Raphoe formerly embraced that of Convoy and the meeting-house was erected on the Montgomery estate at Convoy though the minister was known in church records as the minister of Raphoe. There were a consider- able number of Presbyterians in the district in the former half of the seventeenth century ; and in April 1644 the covenant was administered in the town of Raphoe to the whole regiment of Sir Robert Stewart Cookstown 1st. November 1847. The meetinghouse was first placed in the old town of Cookstown where it continued till 1701 when it was pulled down by the rector. Mrs. Margaret Stewart of Killymoon within three weeks built a house at her own expense within the demesne where the congregation worshipped till 1764. The present church is of recent erection. Cootehill This congregation was erected off the congregation of Drum in 1718. Its first minister was Mr. Andrew Dean who was ordained here on the 9th of October 1721. He died in this charge in April 1760 and was succeeded by Mr. Thomas Stewart who was ordained here on the 22nd of April 1766.  Mr. Stewart died on the 10th of December 1816 leaving a family. Donaghadee 1st. The first minister of whom we have any record here was Mr. Nevin who had previously been an Episcopalian but who became a Presbyterian in 1642. He was succeeded by Mr. Andrew Stewart son to Mr. A. Stewart minister of Donegore. He was ordained here about the year 1658. He suffered many severe trials and persecutions but died in this charge January 2nd 1671.Their next minister was Mr. James Maxwell Stewart ordained here March 7th 1733. He died in this charge June 2nd 1743; Donegore 1st. The first minister of this congregation was Mr. Andrew Stewart. Several interesting particulars respecting him are to be found in the well-known book entitled “Fleming’s fulfilling of the Scriptures.” He commenced his ministry in this parish about the year 1627 and after seven years labour died in September 1634 aged 36. His tombstone is in Donegore churchyard Downpatrick In August 1825 certain families in the town and neighbourhood applied to the Presbytery of Dromore connected with the Synod of Ulster for preaching which was granted; and the Presbytery after- wards erected them into a congregation. About this time the pious Captain Hamilton Rowan * was governor of Downpatrick Jail and he was mainly instrumental in promoting the establishment of the new erection. The first minister was Mr. William D. Stewart who was ordained here on the 29th of March 1827. He was a very acceptable and able minister but his career was brief. He died here on the 21st of July 1831. Dundonald Mr. James Stewart was installed here by the Presbytery of Belfast May 24th 1709. He died in this charge March 3rd 1748 Dungannon1st. About this time the family of Mr. Stewart of Ards was Presbyterian. Faknet This congregation was known at first by the name of Clondevadock. It was originally associated with Eamullan. Major Alexander Stewart came as commissioner to the Presbytery wishing him to be continued in the charge; but in September of that year the Presbytery released him from it. He after- wards settled at Ardstraw; and after the Evolutiou became minister of Billy in County Antrim. Glennan This congregation has been also known by the name of Glasslough. In 1713 the people petitioned the Synod to be erected into a distinct congregation. Their commissioners were Messrs. William Johnson of Tully Henry Gillespie James Widney and John Stewart. Grange In the Grange a district in the neighbourhood of Ballymena and Randalstown Mr. Hall Stewart who was ordained here on the 21st of July 1842? Becoming infirm Mr. Stewart retired from the active duties of the ministry in August 1881 Kilrea IREA 1st. Mr. James Stewart who was installed here on the 27th of February 1874. Rev John Francis * Rowan of Drumballyroney Drum Down County Ireland. Born 1664/65*; died 1728. He conformed in 1694. He married Margaret Stewart of Rathfryland Down County. She was born 1669. They had seven sons: Abraham Steven/Stephen Rev. John born April 12 1749 and married Elizabeth Howard James William Andrew and Robert. c. Jane born before 1676 married Capt. William Stewart. Christ Church Derriaghy J. A. Stewart Canon Another remarkable person among the clergy of Derriaghy was Canon Stewart. He spent over fifty year’s ministry in the parish. He was curate from 1862-1863 and again from 1866-1915.He was certainly the most wealthy. His Will published in 1915 gave the gross value of his estate at 107788. 1s. 9d. During his curacy he was never rector he contributed too many parochial enterprises. The organ chamber was his gift Ballymacash Mission Hall and Church were largely supported by him; he supplied a teacher for many years for Castlerobin School and according to a newspaper cutting for many years maintained at his own expense a scheme for pensions for the aged in his district. He lived at Killowen House now Killowen Hospital. Previously he had lived at Pond Park House. Many parishioners still recall the Canon his wife and brother. He provided employment in Ballymacash for many families who helped to run and maintain the house and farm. In his Will there are numerous bequests to local people and too many charitable and Church societies. His leaseholds at Cheapside in London inherited from his father were left to a relative the wife of George Bernard Shaw. But Derriaghy only features in 50 left for the poor of the parish. At the death of his father the Rev. Henry Stewart rector of Derriaghy in 1872 strong feeling was aroused in Ballymacash and Castlerobin because he had not been appointed to succeed him. We are told that some children were taken from Castlerobin School and sent to Stoneyford. Canon Stewart is buried in the family vault at Killymoon Cookstown. His wife outlived him by many years. She came under the influence of the sect of Rayburnites and attended their meetings regularly in Belfast. `Bishop’ Rayburn was a very forceful American evangelist who settled in the city and died there aged ninety-four in 1930. In her latter days it is said that the old lady was persuaded to take up lessons on playing the harp to prepare for the next world! It is also reported that she died in poverty. She is buried in Derriaghy Churchyard in an unmarked grave. Mr. W. S. Corken adds the following note: Canon Stewart had family connections with Derriaghy his kinsman Colonel Stewart of Carrickfergus having married a daughter of Robert Duncan of Magheralave. A selection of Coats of Arms Sketches from the National Library Dublin

Stewarts Tyrone of Kilmoon Sketch1-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewarts Tyrone of Kilmoon 1a Sketcha-thestewartsinireland.ieStewart Tyrone James of Kilmoon Mar 1783 Sketch a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Tyrone James of Kilmoon Arms sketch1a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Tyrone Coat of Arms James Sketch o 1783a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Sketch list 2aa-thestewartsinireland.ieStewart Kildare William of Tyramaney 1615a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Kildare Memorials on Sketch List 1aa-thestewartsinireland.ieStewart Kildare Memorial & Sketch 5a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Kildare Memorial & Sketch 3a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Kildare Memorial & Sketch 2a-thestewartsinirland.ie Stewart Kildare Dublin Arthur Vic Mountjoy of Smithfield a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Kildare Capt Robert Castlerudderya-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Kildare 1621a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John1-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John of Athenree Grant & Ratify1-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John of Athanree 4a-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John of Athanree 3a-thestewartsinirland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John Esq reissue1-thestewartsinireland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms John Athenree issued 1803 1-thestewartsinirland.ie Stewart Coat of Arms Ballymorrin Arms 2a-thestewartsinirland.ie Stewart Antrim Family Tree John Ballinaboy1-thestewartsinirland.ie Stewart Antrim Coat of Arms Sketch3-thestewartsinireland.ieStewart & Stuart Kildare on Sketch lists-thestewartsinireland.ieFawcett Kildare Memorial & Sketch 4-thestewartsinireland.ie Fawcett Kildare Memorial & Sketch 1a-thestewartsinireland.ie Fawcett Kildare Memorial & Sketch 1

Using Coats of Arms – A Brief History of Heraldry

Heraldry has been defined as the art of blazoning, assigning, and marshalling a coat of arms. Its origins are uncertain, but Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, has drawn his own conclusion: “The registry of its birth may be found among the archives of the Holy Wars, …its cradle was rocked by the soldiers of the Cross, and… its maturity was attained in the chivalrous age of Feudalism.” Between 1135 and 1155 A.D., seals show the general adoption of heraldic devices in Europe. Historians once theorized that a coat of arms enabled a knight to be recognized by his followers during battle. The coat of arms became hereditary just as a knight inherited the right to lead or the duty to follow another leader in battle. Later historians dispute this theory based on the small numbers of knights who had any followers. “The service due from a military tenant in the feudal system was well-defined. He held his land by service of two knights, one knight, or half a knight,…. A single knight, let alone a fraction of a knight, had no band of followers, so he had no need to identify himself to them.” [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson (Oxford University Press, 1988)] Woodcock and Robinson suggest that it was much more likely that the depiction of arms on a shield was a form of “individual vanity” rather than a practical military device. One historian (Beryl Platts, author of Origins of Heraldry) notes that “family identification” was practiced in northern Europe even before the Norman Conquest, and she believes that all heraldry in England is the derivation of the heraldic devices brought by the families who accompanied William the Conqueror. The oldest documented example of a coat of arms borne on a shield is where King Henry I of England is said to have bestowed on his son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in 1127 A.D.: the azure shield bore four gold lions rampant. [Source: The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson.] Regardless of their origins, coats of arms became military status symbols, and their popularity increased along with the popularity of the tournament, which was developed in the mid-eleventh century in France (reportedly by Godfrey de Preuilly). The tournament became a training ground for knights, and its pageantry became more elaborate as time passed. Some knights made their living (and their reputations) roaming from tournament to tournament. William the Marshal and Roger de Gaugi were two such enterprising men, not only excelling at tournaments but extorting ransoms from the families of knights they captured. By 1400 A.D., bearing a coat of arms had become a prerequisite to participation in a tournament, and due to the importance of social standing in such pageants, a coat of arms also became a mark of noble status. In the early days, most coats of arms were assumed by the bearers and not “granted” by any authority. King Richard I changed his coat of arms from two lions combatant (or a lion rampant) to three gold leopards (or lions passant guardant). The earliest coats of arms were fairly simple — bars or wavy lines, a lion rampant or an eagle displayed, or an arrangement of fleurs-de-lis. The designs became more complex as the years passed, and the practice of quartering (incorporating the arms of other families acquired through marriages) developed. The word “Heraldry” is derived from the German “heer” — a host, an army — and “held” — a champion. The term “blason,” by which the science of heraldry is denoted in French, English, Italian, and German, is probably derived from the German word “blazen” — to blow the horn. Whenever a new Knight appeared at a Tournament, the herald sounded the trumpet, and as the competitors attended with closed visors, it was his duty to explain the bearing of the shield or coat-armour belonging to each. This knowledge of the various devices and symbols was called Heraldry, and as the announcement was accompanied with the sound of a trumpet, it was termed “blazoning the arms.” Source: Burke, Bernard, The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (Heritage Books, Inc., 1996). Please note that the use of the Coat of Arms were granted to various Stewart families by the Crown of England. The only families of today who are entitled to use such Coats of Arms must be a direct descendant of the original family to which the Coat of Arms was granted to. The editors family cannot or do not claim any such Coats of Arms, as so far no proof of this can be found. Famous Stewart familys in Ireland STEWART, Alexander II (1746-1831), of Ards, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. LONDONDERRY, 19 July 1814 – 1818 Family and Education b. 26 Mar. 1746, 2nd s. of Alexander Stewart, MP [I], of Mount Stewart, co. Down by his cos. Mary, da. of John Cowan of Londonderry. educ. Glasgow Univ. 1761. m. 2 Oct. 1791, Lady Mary Moore, da. of Charles, 1st Mq. of Drogheda [I], 2s. 2da. Offices Held: MP [I] 1800., Sheriff, Co. Donegal 1791-2. Biography Stewart was the younger brother of Robert, 1st Marquess of Londonderry, Castlereagh’s father, on whose interest he sat for a month in the Irish parliament for county Derry in 1800 before transferring to Lord Clifden’s borough of Thomastown. In September 1800 he was spoken of as a likely parliamentary candidate for Donegal, where he had resided for 18 years. 1 Nothing came of this, and when Stewart was returned for county Derry in 1814 it was as a family stopgap, a replacement for his nephew Charles William Stewart. He retained the seat only until the dissolution, when he was replaced by his son Alexander Robert who had meanwhile come of age. Stewart, conscious of what he called ‘the family interest entrusted to my care’,2 was governed by Castlereagh in his conduct. He supported government silently and although the viceroy, approving his return in 1814, was assured that Stewart was ‘a most staunch-Protestant’, he voted for the Catholic claims, to which his nephew was favourable, on 21 May 1816. In February 1816 his excuse to the chief secretary for his absence was that Castlereagh had told him that he need not attend till ‘pretty late in the session’ and that he awaited his nephew’s instructions. He was present in June 1816, perhaps for the last time. In November 1817 he wrote of ‘the uniform support which I gave to government, so long as my health permitted my attendance, without any interested view to myself’, and this in a letter to the chief secretary complaining that his requests for county patronage were being ignored. His plea was reinforced by his nephew Charles, but in February 1818, still in poor health, he renewed his complaints of neglect and failure in his applications.3 He was clearly relieved to retire. Stewart died in August 1831. Ref Volumes: 1790-182 Author: P. J. Jupp Notes: 1.An Intro. to the Abercorn Letters ed. Gebbie, 211-12. 2. Add. 40271, f. 248. 3. Add. 40188, f. 281; 40252, f. 258; 40271, ff. 248, 302; 40274, f. 69. STEWART, Alexander Robert (1795-1850), of Ards, co. Donegal. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. LONDONDERRY, 1818 – 1830 Family and Education b. 12 Feb. 1795, 1st s. of Alexander Stewart*. educ. St. John’s, Camb. 1815. m. 28 July 1825, Lady Caroline Anne Pratt, da. of John Jeffries Pratt*, 1st Mq. Camden, 1s. suc. fa. 1831. Offices Held: Sheriff, Co. Donegal 1830-1. Lt.-col. Londonderry militia ?1822-d. Biography Stewart succeeded his father as Member for county Derry on the interest of his father’s brother Lord Londonderry. As Castlereagh’s cousin, he supported government, silently. His votes with them on the case of Wyndham Quin*, 29 Mar., against Tierney’s censure motion, 18 May, and for the foreign enlistment bill, 10 June 1819, attested to this. He voted for Catholic relief, 3 May 1819. He died 25 Mar. 1850 Ref Volumes: 1790-1820. Author: P. J. Jupp   STEWART, James (1742-1821), of Killymoon, Co. Tyrone. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. TYRONE, 1801 – 1812 Family and Education b. 1742, s. of William Stewart of Killymoon, MP [I], by Eleanor, da. of Sir Henry King, 3rd Bt., MP [I], of Rockingham, co. Roscommon. educ. Trinity, Dublin 1758; Grand Tour. m. 1774, Hon. Elizabeth Molesworth, da. and event. coh. of Richard, 3rd Visct. Molesworth [I], 2s. 2da. suc. fa. 1797. Offices Held: MP [I] 1768-1800. Trustee, linen board [I] 1801. Col. Strabane vols. 1780; capt. Cookstown cav. 1796, Newmills yeomanry 1802. Biography Stewart served in the army in his youth and succeeded his father to the county seat in 1768. In 1782 it was reported: His father has a large estate in this county Tyrone and a valuable lease under the primate—a well disposed man—has generally opposed—he unfortunately killed his brother by his gun going off by accident, and he has never recovered his spirits since the event. Stewart, whose wife’s sister was married to William Brabazon Ponsonby*, was one of the promoters of the Irish address to the Prince Regent in 1789, opposed the Union and remained a staunch Whig. Fox wrote of him in 1806 as ‘a very old friend of mine. He came into Parliament at the time I did, and I believe has supported our principles with less deviation than any other member of the Irish parliament, be he who he may.’ He added that Stewart had carried the county for nearly 40 years against the government.1 When Stewart was returned to Westminster in 1801, he was rated by the Castle a country gentleman who might be gained from opposition, but on 31 Mar. 1802 he voted with them for the Prince of Wales’s claims to the duchy of Cornwall revenue, and on 7 May when he again joined the minority the official comment was ‘has seldom favoured us with his support’. He was in Ireland in March 1803 and a year later was expected to act with the Ponsonbys. He was in opposition to Pitt’s second ministry, seeking to delay the Irish additional force bill, 3 July 1804, after voting against the general measure in June, and was described as an Irish Fox and Grenvillite in September and ‘as independent as any Member in the House’ in November.2 He did not attend at the opening of the next session, but was named to the Irish finance committee on 18 Mar. and voted with the opposition majority censuring Melville, 8 Apr. 1805, as well as in favour of his criminal prosecution on 12 June. He voted against Catholic relief on 14 May: he had always opposed it. Stewart supported his friends in power in 1806, appearing in the majority for the repeal of Pitt’s Additional Force Act on 30 Apr. On 3 May he called on Fox, ‘rather dissatisfied’ that his son had not been given ‘Sir George Shee’s place’ as promised, and Fox informed the viceroy that while Stewart was willing ‘to wait a little’, he ought to have ‘every mark of attention and regard shown him’.3 He was assured county patronage and support for his election and was listed as a supporter of his friends once more in opposition in April 1807. Stewart was unable to leave Ireland for the opening of the Parliament of 1807 and his attendance could not be counted on thereafter—that winter he was known to be seeking a government Member to pair with.4 He appeared in the minority against Castlereagh’s supposed corruption, 25 Apr. 1809, and further voted with opposition on the Scheldt inquiry, 23 Feb., 5 and 30 Mar. 1810. On 1 June, not unexpectedly, he voted against Catholic relief. The Regency debates stirred up memories of old battles and on 17 and 21 Dec. he spoke in favour of proceeding by address, as the Irish had done in 1789, and duly voted against ministers on the subject, 29 Nov. 1810, 1 and 21 Jan. 1811. He was in the opposition majorities in favour of sinecure reform, 4 May, and a stronger administration, 21 May 1812, though he supported the bank-note bill on 10 Apr. Although the Prince Regent expressed an interest in his return, Stewart was confronted with a coalition of the grandees of Tyrone in 1812 and withdrew before a poll. His son William recaptured the seat in 1818, when the chief secretary welcomed his candidature from respect for his father’s character. Stewart died 18 Jan. 1821.5 Ref Volumes: 1790-1820, Author: Arthur Aspinall Notes 1.Procs. R. Irish Acad. lvi, sec. C, no. 3 (1954), 266; Add. 47569, f. 283. 2. Add. 35713, f. 92; 37882, f. 120. 3. Add. 47569, ff. 283, 284. 4. Grey mss, Stewart to Howick, 19 June; Wellington mss, Daly to Wellesley, 13 Dec. 1807. 5. Add. 40295, f. 141; Gent. Mag. (1821), i. 189; PRO NI, Stewart mss D3167/2/268. STEWART, John I (?1758-1825), of Ballygawley Park, Co. Tyrone. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. TYRONE 1 Mar. 1802 – 1806 CO. TYRONE: 1812 – 22 June 1825 Family and Education b. ?1758, 1st s. of Rev. Hugh Stewart, rector of Termon, by Sarah, da. of Ven. Andrew Hamilton, DD, archdeacon of Raphoe, sis. and coh. of Sir Henry Hamilton 1st Bt., MP [I], of Castle Conyngham, co. Donegal. educ. by Rev. R. Norris, Drogheda; Trinity, Dublin 1 Nov. 1774, aged 16; L. Inn 1779, called [I] 1781. m. June 1789, Mary (d. 28 May 1795), da. of Mervyn Archdall I*, 2s. 1da. suc. fa. 1800; cr. Bt. 21 June 1803. Offices Held: MP [I] 1794-1800. KC [I] 1795; counsel to commrs. of revenue [I] 1797; bencher, King’s Inn 1798; solicitor-gen. [I] July 1798-1800, attorney-gen. [I] Dec. 1800-May 1803; PC [I] 23 Dec. 1800. Sheriff, Co. Tyrone 1809-10. Trustee, linen board [I] 1802. Commdt. Omagh vols. Biography Stewart was distantly related to James Stewart* of Killymoon, but his family interest was much more modest and their politics were poles apart. His professional career was promoted by his friendship with Lord Clare. His parliamentary patron was Lord Abercorn, who valued his services and encouraged his professional ambitions. In the last Irish parliament he became solicitor-general and helped prosecute the rebels and draft the articles of Union. On the eve of its accomplishment, he became attorney-general, though George III subsequently alleged that he was ‘one of the legal gentlemen advanced at the Union more for parliamentary considerations than for knowledge of his profession’. Nevertheless to become chief justice of the King’s bench was his next ambition: it was not to be realized.1 Stewart was returned to Westminster for Tyrone in 1802 under the aeg2is of Lord Abercorn and with government’s blessing. He came in unopposed on a vacancy, but had already advertised his intention of offering for the county and of giving up his legal office if it were thought unsuitable for a county Member. On leaving his legal duties to attend Parliament that winter, he informed the Castle that he felt the two duties were incompatible and thought he might be more useful to government in Parliament. When he first gave proof of this in a speech in favour of Irish militia recruitment by bounty, 15 Mar. 1803, he was already negotiating his retreat from legal office, which was delayed by government’s difficulties over his successor and over his terms of resignation. The Castle wished him to act as a legal adviser on Irish revenue bills, but he declined payment for this as it was unfavourably remarked upon (through Stewart’s own indiscreet talk, according to the viceroy) and settled for the promise of a place at the treasury board when vacant, to be resigned in turn on security of a reversion (worth about £1,200 p.a.) of second remembrance of the exchequer to his two sons on Lord Donoughmore’s death. As an afterthought Stewart, who was already assured of compensation of £2,586 5s.9d. p.a. for loss of fees while in office, asked for a baronetcy. These terms involved him in an unpleasant interview with Under-Secretary Marsden at the Castle, but after seeing Lord Hardwicke en route for England, 10 May 1803, he wrote to him four days later to say that if his request for his sons were thought ‘unacceptable’, he would wish something to be done for his second son and for his brother in the church. He then resigned and received the baronetcy. The Home secretary informed the King that he could not understand why Stewart should resign in his prime, but the King put it down to the state of his health and his inability to cope as a law officer. The chief secretary described it as a ‘retreat’.2 Stewart eventually supported Pitt’s second ministry, though he was critical of the Irish election bill, 6 June 1804, disliking the alteration of Irish freehold leases it entailed, and opposed the additional force bill, requesting the postponement of the Irish version of it, 29 June. His claim for a Treasury place was acknowledged, but in January 1805 government took advantage of his offer to waive it conditionally in order to reward George Knox* and Sir Lawrence Parsons*; the condition being that the reversion of Donoughmore’s sinecure should be guaranteed to his sons. In March 1805 the viceroy guaranteed it and undertook to satisfy Stewart completely by providing for his brother in the church.3 Meanwhile, he had been a leading spokesman and teller for the suspension of habeas corpus in Ireland, 8 Feb. 1805. He went on to vote with the government minority on Melville’s conduct, 8 Apr., a question in which he took a keen interest,4 and against Catholic relief, 14 May. He was chairman of the committee on Sir Home Popham* that month. Like his patron, he went into opposition to the Grenville ministry, voting against them, by one account, on their repeal of Pitt’s Additional Force Act, 30 Apr., if not subsequently, and being on their black list as far as the next election was concerned. Stewart, who expected at any time to make way for Lord Abercorn’s son, declined a contest in which the odds were against him in 1806, and despite a canvass in 1807, when he was favourable to the Portland ministry, he did not go to a poll. He complained of a coalition of his opponents against him on both occasions, but the state of his patron’s registry was weak and Stewart himself, according to one critic, George Knox, too ‘vain of his cunning’ to give up the attempt.5 In 1812 he recaptured the seat, after a sustained campaign during which he was at times so discouraged that he contemplated purchasing a borough seat. Lord Liverpool’s government welcomed his return as a gain. He duly supported administration and voted against Catholic relief. He explained on 26 Feb 1813 that, without securities, he could not support it. On 23 Feb. 1815 he was a spokesman for the Irish agricultural interest in defence of the Corn Laws and on 22 May 1816 for the gentry of the north against Newport’s allegation that they connived at illicit distillation, on which occasion he delivered a most vehement peroration against the district fines system as a violation of constitutional rights and of the Union. The viceroy merely commented, ‘I conclude we are not to consider Lord Belmore as a friend’. On the same subject, 7 May 1819, he lamented that the system in question had originated in the Irish parliament and on 20 May indicated that while he wished to see illicit distillation suppressed, he could not condone the current method. He had welcomed Horner’s Irish grand juries bill, 14 Feb. 1816, but could not swallow later versions of it proposed by government: at times, in fact, the Castle resented his independence. The chief secretary grumbled that Stewart ‘had his scruples’ about the renewal of the property tax, 2 Mar. 1816, and reported on 29 Apr. that he sometimes affected to be Belmore’s Member and sometimes to be independent, ‘just as it suits his purpose. As far as independence depends on not giving effectual support to government he is very independent certainly.’ This penchant for independence was encouraged by Belmore, whose interest in the county tended to surpass that of Abercorn after 1806, as long as government denied him the representative peerage he craved with Stewart as his advocate; but his bargaining power was damaged by the opposition politics of his colleague Knox in the Parliament of 1812 and scarcely improved by a fresh alignment in the election of 1818, in which his new colleague likewise turned out to be an oppositionist.6 He died after being thrown from his phaeton, 22 June 1825. Ref Volumes: 1790-1820, Author: P. J. Jupp Notes 1.Geo. III Corresp. iv. 2748; PRO NI, Abercorn mss IB2/3/4; IK17/31-2. 2.Dublin Evening Post, 19 Jan. 1802; Add. 35717, f. 64; 35739, f. 70; 35772, ff. 163, 172; 40298, f. 40; Abercorn mss IB2/4/1, 11-13; Geo. III Corresp. iv. 2746, 2748; Sidmouth mss, Wickham to Addington, 29 Aug. 1803. 3. Add. 35709, f. 222; 35710, f. 36; 35746, f. 129; 35750, f. 102. 4.Colchester, ii. 4-5. 5. Add. 47569, f. 283; NLS mss 12910, p. 169, Elliot to Newport, 4 June; 12917, Newport to Elliot, 1 June; 12920, Vincent to Elliot, 3 May 1806; HMC Fortescue, viii. 258; Abercorn mss IB3/13/26. 6. Add. 40192, f. 123; 40290, ff. 116, 224; PRO NI, Belmore mss H/2/6, Stewart to Belmore, 30 Apr. 1816 STEWART, Sir James, 7th Bt. (?1756-1827), of Fort Stewart, Co. Donegal. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. DONEGAL 1802 – 1818 Family and Education b. ?1756, 1st s, of Sir Annesley Stewart, 6th Bt., MP [I], of Fort Stewart by Mary, da. of John Moore, MP [I] of Drumbanagher, co. Armagh. educ. by Rev. R. Norris, Drogheda; Trinity, Dublin 30 Oct. 1773, aged 17. m. 19 Dec. 1778, Mary Susanna, da. of Richard Chapell Whaley, MP [I], of Whaley Abbey, co. Wicklow, 2s. 3da. suc. fa. as 7th Bt. Mar. 1801. Offices Held: MP [I] 1783-1790. Sheriff, Co. Donegal 1799-1800. Capt. commdt. Ramelton vol. inf. 1796. Biography Stewart came of well-established Donegal gentry with insufficient property to command a parliamentary seat. Like his fater he sat for a close borough in the Irish parliament. In 1802 he was returned for the county under the aegis of Lord Abercorn and held it with the concurrence of Lord Conyngham, who had the other major interest. It was generally agreed that he could not afford a contest. In the Irish parliament Stewart had shared his father’s opposition politics. At Westminster he was reckoned a supporter of each successive administration, except for Lord Grenville’s, which was doubtful of him. Nevertheless, he seems to have voted against Addington’s ministry on the division that brought it down, 25 Apr. 1804. He is rarely reported to have spoken, though on 7 June 1804 he presented a petition complaining of the peremptory conduct of Mr Justice Fox of the common pleas at the Donegal assizes. This involved him in giving evidence in the Lords in February and June 1805. Subsequently he was not to be relied on for attendance. In October 1807 he was not expected to live long. He voted with government on the Scheldt inquiry, 5 and 30 Mar. 1810, after being pressed to attend, and on sinecures, 4 May 1812, as well as against Stuart Wortley’s motion, 21 May, being prepared to go into opposition with the Liverpool administration at that time. He voted against Catholic relief in 1813 and 1816 and either he or Sir John Stewart voted in favour in 1815 and against in 1817. He retired in 1818 by arrangement with Lord Conyngham and died 20 May 1827. NLI, Richmond mss 73/1757; Wellington Supp. Despatches, v. 152; Add. 37297, f. 172; 40280, f. 46. Ref Volumes: 1790-1820 Author: P. J. Jupp STEWART, William (1780-1850), of Killymoon, Co. Tyrone. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. TYRONE 1818 – 1830 Family and Education b. 1780, 1st surv. s. of James Stewart* of Killymoon. educ. Christ Church Oxf. 26 Oct. 1797, aged 16. unm. suc. fa. 1821. Offices Held: Capt. Cookstown inf. 1803; lt.-col. co. Tyrone militia 1805-d.; capt. Newmills inf. 1822. Biography Stewart’s father attempted to get a place for him, apparently as receiver-general of the Irish customs in place of Sir George Shee, when his Whig friends were in power in 1806. After his father had given up a contest for the county in 1812, having represented it for more than 40 years, it seemed unlikely that Stewart would recapture the seat on the ‘ruins’ of his father’s interest, and his unopposed return in 1818 was secured by government manoeuvre. The Castle knew nothing of his politics, but were informed by his brother-in-law Henry John Clements: I do not think he is what is called a decided government man but certainly not hostile, and a most dedicated Protestant. If you can be of any use to him I hope you will and certainly you have more to expect from him than Knox. Thomas Knox, who had been in opposition, was pushed out in Stewart’s favour and Stewart was thus categorized: ‘doubtful how he will vote, but not expected to be in regular opposition’. He was so regular in opposition on all critical issues except Catholic relief that these hopes were soon cancelled: the only consolation for government was his silence in debate in his first Parliament. He died in September or October 1850. Add. 40278, f. 225; 40295, ff. 137, 141; 40298, f. 40; 47569, f. 283; Gent. Mag. (1850), ii. 565. Ref Volumes: 1790-1820 Author: P. J. Jupp STEWART, Hon. Charles William (1778-1854), of Mount Stewart, Co. Down. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: CO. LONDONDERRY 1801 – 1 July 1814 Family and Education b. 18 May 1778, o.s. of Robert, 1st Mq. of Londonderry [I], by 2nd w. Lady Frances Pratt, da. of Charles Pratt† 1st Earl Camden; half-bro. of Hon. Robert Stewart*. educ. Eton 1790-4. m. (1) 8 Aug. 1804, Lady Catherine Bligh (d. 11 Feb. 1812), da. of John, 3rd Earl of Darnley [I], 1s.; (2) 3 Apr. 1819, Frances Anne Emily, da. and h. of Sir Henry Vane Tempest, 2nd Bt.*, 3s. 3da. Took name of Vane in lieu of Stewart 5 May 1821. KB 1 Feb. 1813; cr. Baron Stewart [UK] 1 July 1814; GCB 2 Jan. 1815; GCH 22 Mar. 1816. suc. half-bro. Robert as 3rd Mq. of Londonderry [I] 12 Aug. 1822; cr. Earl Vane [UK] 28 Mar. 1823; KG 19 Jan. 1853. Offices Held: MP [I] 1800. Ensign, lt. and capt.-lt. Macnamara’s Ft. 1794; maj. 106 Ft. 1795; a.d.c. to ld. lt. [I] 1795-8; maj. 5 Drag. 1796, lt.-col. 1797-9; lt.-col. 18 Drag. 1799; a.d.c. to the King 1803; col. 1803, brig.-gen. 1808; gov. Fort Charles 1809-22; adj.-gen. in the Peninsula 1809-12, maj.-gen. 1810; col. 25 Drag. 1813, lt.-gen. 1814; col. 10 Hussars 1820-43; gen. 1837; col. 2 Life Gds. 1843-d. Under-sec. of state for War and Colonies Mar. 1807-May 1809; groom of bedchamber July 1812-14, ld. of bedchamber June 1814-27; PC 22 July 1814. Envoy extraordinary and minister plenip. to Prussia and commr. with the allied armies Apr. 1813-14; ambassador to Austria Aug. 1814-23 and plenip. at Congress of Vienna 1815. Custos rot. co. Londonderry 1821, co. Down 1822; gov. co. Londonderry 1823, jt. gov. co. Down 1824; ld. lt. Durham 1842-d. Biography Stewart’s military career was assisted by his maternal uncle Lord Camden, to whom he was a.d.c. during his Irish lord lieutenancy. In his favourite role of a dashing cavalry officer he saw action in 25 battles in the Netherlands, Ireland and the Peninsula until Wellington declined his services in 1813. By then, his half-brother Castlereagh being foreign minister, he was assured of a diplomatic career. His political life was uninspired, governed by his family’s and Castlereagh’s requirements; his devotion to Castlereagh, on whose death his public career fell into abeyance and whose reputation, alive and dead, he jealously guarded, was unquestionable and Castlereagh in turn indulged and, according to Wellington, over-valued him.1 Stewart was returned to the last Irish parliament for Lord Clifden’s borough of Thomastown in March 1800 at his brother’s request, but transferred to county Derry three months later, his uncle Alexander exchanging seats with him. His family’s interest enabled him to retain the county seat at Westminster without much difficulty: he headed the poll in his only contest in 1806. At Westminster, ‘votes with Lord Castlereagh’ was the typical comment on him. In May 1804 he alarmed the chief secretary and viceroy by insisting on lingering in Ireland with his regiment when required in Parliament, which led to rumours that he was acting on his half-brother’s instructions while Castlereagh came to ‘some understanding’ with ‘some of the opposition’.2 Such fears proved idle. Stewart spoke in favour of limiting punishments by courts martial and for the reform of the latter, 5, 12 Mar. 1805, and on 6 Mar. defended the additional force bill, until a better plan could be found. His Suggestions for the improvement of the force of the British Empire, published that year, was his own contribution to the subject. On 14 May 1805 he voted against the Catholic claims. Like his brother, Stewart went into opposition to the Grenville ministry, voting against Ellenborough’s seat in the cabinet, 3 Mar. 1806. On 2 June he criticized Windham’s enlistment scheme, and when Grattan clashed with him, informed him that he did not profess to be an Irish orator, but an Irish soldier. As under-secretary to Castlereagh at the War Office, he was a regular attender in support of the Portland ministry until in August 1808 he went to the Peninsula as a brigadier-general. Back in England, 24 Jan. 1809, he justified the discretionary publication of Sir John Moore’s despatches, as authorized by the latter, to Castlereagh’s satisfaction, and next day paid tribute to Wellesley’s conduct at Vimeiro. Castlereagh secured him a colonial sinecure worth £1,200 p.a. that month, and in April 1809, relinquishing office, he returned to the Peninsula. He distinguished himself as Wellesley’s adjutant-general at the Douro and Talavera. For this, while on sick leave, he received and acknowledged the thanks of the House, 5 Feb. 1810, having four days previously paid tribute there to Wellington as a military leader. He was in the government majority against the Scheldt inquiry, 30 Mar. 1810. While fully in Castlereagh’s confidence, in sympathy with his quarrel with government in September 1809 and, inevitably, listed as one of Castlereagh’s squad in 1810, he was prevented from public expression of it by his resumption of his Peninsular duties. He further distinguished himself at Badajoz and again received the thanks of the House. In February 1812 he returned home ill and became a groom of the bedchamber and a mediator in Castlereagh’s restoration to favour and office. On 10 Dec. 1812 he came to the defence of the German legion in debate and, though due back on duty, lingered in the House until 2 Mar. 1813, when, like Castlereagh, he supported Catholic relief.3 A reluctant adjutant-general, he was disgruntled by his failure to obtain a cavalry command from Wellington and switched to diplomacy, serving the allies as a military commissioner from Berlin, on which account he was absent from Parliament until, on the eve of becoming ambassador to Austria, he was given a peerage in July 1814. Thereafter ‘all stars and tenderness’, he assisted Castlereagh in ‘keeping Metternich steady’ in Congress Europe, not without disadvantageous comment on his pretensions and conduct. He could not stomach Canning’s succession to Castlereagh in 1822 and devoted himself subsequently to the development of the Tempest estate, his wife’s heritage, in county Durham. He was also a memorialist of the Napoleonic wars and of Castlereagh.4 He died 6 Mar. 1854. Ref Volumes: 1790-1820 Author: P. J. Jupp Notes 1. Add. 33101, f. 240; 33102, f. 51; Wellington Supp. Despatches, vii. 165, 549; HMC Bathurst, 532; Castlereagh Corresp. i. 143; Croker Pprs. ed. Jennings, i. 346. 2. PRO 30/8/123, f. 155; Add. 35705, f. 302; 35715, f. 33. 3.Geo III Corresp. v. 3781, 3870; HMC Var. v. 164. 4.Letters of Countess Granville, 62; Castlereagh Corresp. xii. 1; HMC Bathurst, 319, 327; Greville Mems. ed. Strachey and Fulford, i. 28.   STEWART, Hon. Robert (1769-1822), of Mount Stewart, Co. Down. Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790-1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986 Available from Boydell and Brewer Constituency Dates: TREGONY 12 May 1794 – 1796 ORFORD 1796 – 19 July 1797 CO. DOWN 1801 – July 1805 BOROUGHBRIDGE 18 Jan. 1806 – 1806 PLYMPTON ERLE 1806 – 1812 CO. DOWN 1812 – 6 Apr. 1821 ORFORD 28 Apr. 1821 – 12 Aug. 1822 Family and Education b. 18 June 1769,1 2nd but 1st surv. s. of Robert Stewart, 1st Mq. of Londonderry [I], by 1st w. Lady Sarah Frances Seymour Conway, da. of Francis, 1st Mq. of Hertford; half-bro. of Hon. Charles William Stewart*. educ. R. sch. Armagh 1777; by Rev. William Sturrock, Portaferry 1781; St. John’s, Camb. 1786; continental tour 1791-2. m. 9 June 1794, Lady Amelia Anne Hobart, da. and coh. of John Hobart†, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire, s.p. Styled Visct. Castlereagh 8 Aug. 1796-1821; KG 9 June 1814, GCH 1816; suc. fa. as 2nd Mq. of Londonderry [I] 6 Apr. 1821. Offices Held: MP [I] 1790-1800. Keeper of the privy seal [I] July 1797-1801; ld. of treasury [I] 1797-1804; chief sec. to ld. lt. [I] Mar.-Nov. 1798 (ad. int.), 1798-1801; PC [I] 20 Oct. 1797, [GB] 19 Dec. 1798; pres. Board of Control July 1802-Feb. 1806; sec. of state for War and Colonies July 1805-Feb. 1806, Mar. 1807-Nov. 1809; sec. of state for Foreign affairs Feb. 1812-d.; plenip. at Paris 1814, 1815, Vienna 1814-15, Aachen 1818. Lt.-col. co. Londonderry militia 1793, col. 1798-d.; gov. co. Londonderry 1805; custos rot. 1821. Biography Stewart’s father, ‘a country gentleman, generally accounted to be a very clever man, in the north of Ireland’, was described as being at the head of the dissenting interest there. He sat for county Down as an independent, was staunch in opposition and both a Volunteer and a parliamentary reformer. His heir was in appearance ‘a handsome graceful Conway’. It was at the instigation of his stepmother’s father Lord Chancellor Camden, ‘the remote cause of all his future successes’, that he completed his education at Cambridge. Then scarcely of age he returned home to contest the county and won a seat against the Downshire interest at the reputed expense of £60,000. His success entailed membership of the Northern Whig Club and he was expected to act with opposition, but on Camden’s advice he paid court to Pitt, whose power in debate he had previously admired from the gallery at Westminster. First-hand observation of the national assembly at Paris in 1791 made him critical of radicalism, and of Ireland he commented, 11 Nov. 1792, ‘The government of it I do not like; but I prefer it to a revolution’. His ambiguous conduct thereafter in the Irish parliament pleased neither the government nor his friends in opposition; in March 1793, for instance, he spoke in favour of Catholic relief, but stopped short of enfranchisement, though a supporter of parliamentary reform; and while he was a convinced advocate of the war with France, he did not oppose critical inquiry into its conduct.2 In April 1794, of his own volition, Pitt offered Stewart a seat at Westminster for Tregony, where Richard Barwell* accommodated friends of government. Stewart paid only £200, the cost of his return. ‘He is Pittized with a vengeance which he candidly owns’, wrote an Irish oppositionist.3 Pitt desired his attendance at Westminster at the opening of the 1794-5 session, but its postponement frustrated Stewart and he had to be content with seconding the address at College Green ‘in his drawling diffuse manner’.4 Soon afterwards his step-uncle the 2nd Earl Camden became lord lieutenant of Ireland, and Stewart one of his spokesmen in the Dublin parliament: it was not until 29 Oct. 1795 that he made his debut at Westminster, when he ably seconded the address, commending the prospects for the successful prosecution of war with France.5 Camden had Stewart in mind as a replacement for the ailing Thomas Pelham* as resident secretary to him if no better candidate could be obtained from England, and wrote of him to Pitt, 18 Nov. 1795: He has gained very great credit in this parliament, and has great weight and an high character in the country. I am aware that there are objections to his being an Irishman but when you converse with him you will find he has no Irish prejudices. Camden did not wish to press the suggestion and did not inform Stewart of it; on the other side of the water, the preference, until Pelham was persuaded to remain, was for an Englishman. After championing Pitt’s reputation at College Green in January 1796, Stewart attended at Westminster in April and May. Before leaving Ireland he had consulted Camden as to whether he should choose an Irish or an English career, his own preference being for the former. Camden thought he might give up Ireland, ‘as Lord Mornington has done’, or ‘make oneself master of its real interests by way of inducing England to listen to one’s opinions as to its proper government’, in which case Stewart would need to sit in both parliaments. Camden preferred him to remain with him as long as he was in Ireland and return to England with him subsequently. Meanwhile he informed Pitt, 6 May 1796, that Stewart wished to have a seat in the next English Parliament, for which he was apparently willing to pay £2,000. In the event his uncle Lord Hertford brought him in for Orford: but he arrived at Westminster in July only in time for the prorogation and did not return there from Ireland before resigning his seat a year later.6 In August 1796, on his father’s elevation to the earldom, Stewart took as courtesy title his father’s viscountcy of Castlereagh. He was one of Camden’s close advisers, personally responsible for the arrest of United Irish leaders in Belfast in September 1796. The checking of disaffection among his father’s tenantry prevented his attendance at Westminster that winter, but he carried proposals for national defence at College Green in February 1797 and moved a loyal address in May. In June he accepted an Irish sinecure, the privy seal, worth £1,500 p.a. and vacated his English seat, retaining his Irish one unopposed. In October he became a lord of the Treasury and privy councillor. Owing to Pelham’s ill health, Camden returned to the idea of his protégé acting as his secretary. His appeal to Pitt and Portland of 16 Mar. 1798, in which he stated that although Castlereagh was reluctant and would have yielded to William Elliot*, the former objections to him must now be ruled out, was successful. On 29 Mar., by an ‘almost unavoidable necessity’, Castlereagh was appointed secretary ‘during the indisposition of the Rt. Hon. Thomas Pelham’. Although he had no share in any of the excesses committed under the proclamation of 30 Mar. enabling the military to suppress sedition, he was subsequently blamed for them. The arrest of the United Irish leaders in May, secured by him, frustrated their conspiracy to seize Dublin. Cornwallis, who superseded Camden as lord lieutenant after the insurrection in June, found Castlereagh anxious to encourage his conciliatory policy by snubbing the ultras of the Castle ‘gang’. He thought him ‘a very uncommon young man, and possesses temper, talents, and judgment suited to the highest stations, without prejudices or any views that are not directed to the general benefit of the British empire’. William Elliot, too, praised his ‘temper, moderation and discretion’.7 In the autumn of 1798 Pelham was ready to resume the secretaryship and proposed that Castlereagh should replace Sir John Parnell as chancellor of the exchequer, with an English peerage. Castlereagh demurred, but when in October Pelham finally decided to resign, succeeded him with his backing, and the blessing of Cornwallis and Pitt. The King disliked the precedent of an Irishman’s appointment, but, as Cornwallis pointed out, Castlereagh was ‘so unlike an Irishman’. Indeed, his ‘coldness of manner’ in public intercourse was the most frequent criticism made of him. As a convinced advocate, on grounds of national security, of the union of Ireland and Great Britain, provided it could be carried on a ‘close protestant basis’, he was invited to London in December 1798 to discuss the terms. His plan for Irish representation at Westminster was approved by the cabinet and he returned to Ireland an English privy councillor. Although he carried two out of three divisions on the subject at College Green in January 1799, opinion was then so evenly divided that he conceded delay and prepared for an ‘uphill game’. Lord Grenville, a critic of his appointment, relented: ‘I was better satisfied than I had expected with his manner of doing business, which I found both ready and clear; and he seems to me to have the success of this measure most thoroughly at heart’. Surveying the interests opposed to the Union in February 1799, Castlereagh came to the conclusion that a combination of compensation for the dispossessed parliamentary patrons and a bid for Catholic support would carry the measure: this involved persuading the Catholics that the Union was their only road to emancipation and, as a practical concession, the subsidizing of the Catholic clergy, besides that of the presbyterian clergy in the North. Pitt and Dundas concurred: not so other members of the cabinet and the King disapproved of the subsidy plan as early as January 1799. During that year Castlereagh’s hold over the Irish parliament grew stronger and in June he was confident of the success of his proposal ‘to buy out and secure to the crown for ever the fee simple of Irish corruption, which has so long enfeebled the powers of government and endangered the connection’. His family borough was one of 84 to be bought up for £1,260,000. In September he procured for Cornwallis the assurance of government support for the Catholic claims in principle; but it was hinted to him that there were reservations about total concession and that the King was believed to be hostile, for which reason it was thought advisable to promise nothing before the Union.8 On 5 Feb. 1800 Castlereagh introduced the Union proposals in the Irish parliament and carried them by 43 votes in the largest division ever known there. The Union process was reported to be ‘softening down the reserve’ of his character and to have ‘much diminished the unpopularity which his cold and distant manners in private society had produced’. He was on his mettle against Grattan and other inveterate opposition orators and finally carried the Union at Dublin on 7 June 1800; it was a personal triumph and he felt ‘very proud … of being less an Irishman and more an Englishman than hitherto’. He refused to be one of the 38 claimants who achieved promotion to or in the peerage, but his father was promised the British peerage intended for his son whenever he wished. He also evidently declined Pitt’s offer of the government of Bengal at this time. Proceeding to London, on 30 Sept. 1800 he presented the cabinet with a memorandum ‘on the expediency of making further concessions to the Catholics’. On the premise that Ireland, ‘a country of sectarists’, could no longer be governed ‘upon a garrison principle’, but only ‘through the public mind’, he proposed state subsidies for the sectarian clergy, the establishment of their hierarchy and education in Ireland and the commutation of tithes; but Catholic emancipation remained the linchpin, and while the other proposals were accepted, this crucial one was postponed, 9 Oct. On his return to London in December, he found that at Lord Chancellor Loughborough’s instigation Catholic relief was vetoed. On the day the Union came into force, 1 Jan. 1801, he wrote a protest to Pitt, and, when the latter resigned, informed Cornwallis that although royal opposition had frustrated the measure, Pitt was pledged to its future reintroduction. This pledge too was to be overruled by the King’s persuasion. The King affected to believe that it was, at least in part, Castlereagh’s unwholesome influence over Pitt that had produced the crisis.9 Intending to resign with Pitt but detained in office by the King’s illness, Castlereagh surrendered his Irish sinecure of the privy seal to his successor as Irish secretary, Charles Abbot, though the new premier Addington offered it to him for life; he had offered to surrender it to Pitt a few months before for Pelham’s benefit. Sitting for his county at Westminster, he continued to transact Irish business until his successor was ready, thus establishing the Irish office. On 12 Mar. 1801 in a ‘masterly speech’ he carried the bill to continue martial law, and on 16 Mar. the suspension of habeas corpus in Ireland, without a division, answering the charges made against him after the rebellion of 1798 and becoming one of the Irish secret committee. He sat with Pitt, whom he had urged to resume the helm from Addington, in the third row behind the Treasury bench. Pitt applauded him, but Castlereagh suffered a nervous breakdown and was obliged to forget politics for the rest of the session. In the autumn he went to Ireland and helped clear up the Union engagements with Hardwicke, the new lord lieutenant.10 On 3 Nov. 1801, after being at first ‘puzzled’ on the subject, Castlereagh spoke in approbation of the peace preliminaries, which he regarded as of the utmost value to Ireland in particular, although he warned against a false sense of security. A Whig critic James Hare* remarked, ‘He has a wonderful flow of words, without force or eloquence, and seems only determined not to hesitate’, and added that he seemed likely to rival or supersede Canning in Pitt’s favour. Pitt ‘took great pains to mark his approbation of all that Lord Castlereagh said and when he rose to speak called out for him with particular eagerness’. The fact was that he had been canvassed by Lord Grenville, who put out feelers through William Elliot in October and ‘took great pains to persuade Lord Castlereagh to head an opposition in the House of Commons in concert with him in the House of Lords, which Lord Castlereagh at once refused’. Grenville’s overture was instigated by his belief that Castlereagh was ‘second only to Mr Pitt in the Commons. Lord Castlereagh will have to choose between a secondary situation in the present administration, and the prospect of the leading one at some remote period’. Pitt prodded him towards office under Addington and he was appointed to the committee on East India judicature and to that on the Prince of Wales’s financial claims. He further made himself useful on Irish affairs and Anglo-French relations in debate. Hs supplied Addington with a memorandum on the latter in April 1802 indicating some reservations about the peace settlement with special reference to Malta, but justified the treaty on 14 May in the House. He was offered the presidency of the Board of Control, with the difficult task of preventing Lord Wellesley from resigning the government of Bengal over his quarrel with the East India Company directors. (Pitt had urged him not to leave Parliament even if he were offered the succession to Wellesley in Bengal.) He accepted, the King’s prejudice against him having been overcome. ‘The great point’, wrote William Wickham, ‘is that he should be understood to have nothing to do in the affairs of Ireland, and that he should take no part in them in Parliament when religious questions are started’. Castlereagh’s gradual severance from his Irish roots was thus facilitated by royal obstruction: he had in any case disliked developments in Irish policy since he had lost its superintendence and, albeit reluctantly, concurred in the break with his past when the Catholic clergy, provision for whom he had stipulated as his price for joining the government, refused it unless the laity were emancipated.11 Returned unopposed for his county in July 1802, Castlereagh dedicated himself to reconciling Wellesley and the East India Company directors. In this he was encouraged by Pitt and by Dundas, who boasted that ‘my system in its essential parts will be religiously adhered to, and Mr Pitt and he will take care of it in the House of Commons’. Addington, it was said, expected Castlereagh to be ‘his right hand man in the House of Commons’, a ‘readier man’ than Hawksbury ‘in extempore and miscellaneous debate’; they were ‘pleased with one another’. In October Castlereagh became a member of the cabinet. In December, when Pelham was expected to resign the Home Office, he was named as his probable successor and in the same month Addington sent him to parley with Pitt at Bath, ostensibly to discuss Malta, but also, it was thought, to smooth the way for a possible junction. Castlereagh certainly deplored Pitt’s absence from Parliament. His own contributions to debate were often unhappy; he was roughly handled by the Whig leaders and, to quote Creevey, ‘certainly fallen much in public estimation as to his talents, and is generally thought a very shabby fellow’. Accordingly he was foremost in pressing Addington to come to terms with Pitt, in anticipation of a justifiable renewal of war, in April 1803, and was Addington’s unsuccessful emissary for the purpose. He was disappointed with Pitt’s negative attitude and after deprecating alarmism during the unsuccessful negotiation with Buonaparte which heralded war in May, publicly and despondently marked his difference from Pitt on Patten’s censure motion, 3 June.12 At this time it was thought probable that he would exchange the Board of Control for the Admiralty in a reshuffle, but no such change took place. Lord Malmesbury suggested, prophetically, that a continental diplomatic mission would suit him best. Apart from Indian business, he also upheld government defence measures in debate, while disagreeing with Addington on recruitment methods. When he opposed Hely Hutchinson’s motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the Irish administration after the Dublin rising, 11 Aug. 1803, it was hinted in debate by Lord Temple that Castlereagh was lukewarm in defence of the Hardwicke administration in Ireland. This he denied, but Lord Redesdale, who thought that Castlereagh’s Union promises had ‘involved the succeeding government so as almost to deprive it of the character of a government’, believed him one of a junto in London ‘decidedly hostile’ to the Dublin administration. Castlereagh later admitted his disapprobation and that on this account he had declined to take the Home Office in Pelham’s place. Nevertheless he defended the coercive legislation for Ireland in December 1803, as well as the army estimates, and was reckoned by Robert Ward the only respectable member of government in debate. That autumn he was denied Pitt’s advice on Indian business, owing to Pitt’s resentment at the ‘offensive’ line taken against him, and lamented that he had been unable to forestall this rift by exonerating Addington of all blame for it. Canning reported that Pitt had shed all ‘shabby tenderness’ for Addington’s administration ‘except for Castlereagh’ and even spoke of him ‘in a much less whiny way than heretofore’.13 From January to April 1804 Castlereagh was one of the pillars of Addington’s tottering administration, particularly in the debates on Irish affairs and on defence, twice marking his difference from ‘his right honourable friend’ Pitt. He no longer looked to Pitt to prop up the government and opposed negotiation with him. He also defended Wellesley’s conduct in India, though at first a critic behind the scenes, and on 3 May proposed a vote of thanks to him for his successful campaigns in India. (Despite this diplomacy, relations between the two men were subsequently poisoned.) When in May 1804 Pitt returned to power, he retained Castlereagh, who had been Addington’s emissary to him in a bid to proscribe Fox and Lord Grenville, at the Board of Control. Henry Wellesley, who had hoped for the appointment, assured Lord Wellesley: ‘No good will ever be done at the Board of Control until he is removed from it’. Opposition attacks on the war in India and on the East India Company budget were nevertheless successfully parried by him in 1804 and 1805 and he was expected to succeed Wellesley in India, but had no wish to do so. He also gave his ‘cordial support’ to Pitt’s additional force bill, 5 June 1804, and defended it against Sheridan’s motion for repeal on 6 Mar. 1805. He displeased Wilberforce by his attitude to the abolition of the slave trade, 7 June 1804: he was a friend to the measure, but desired a practical solution and thought international guarantee the only basis for one, lest the national interest suffer by unilateral declaration. There were rumours of his succeeding to the Foreign Office in October, but it was Camden’s proposal that he should succeed him as secretary for War and Colonies, made in December 1804, that pleased Pitt most. It would give him a secretary of state in the Commons who stood well with the Duke of York and Lord Chatham and was ‘a very efficient man’. Camden suggested that Castlereagh might retain India pro tem and so he did in due course. Meanwhile he encouraged and welcomed the reconciliation between Pitt and Addington.14 Castlereagh’s usefulness to Pitt in general debate was not up to expectations: his reply to Grey on the war with Spain, 11 Feb. 1805, was ‘very long, but weak and dull’. When he opposed Whitbread’s censure motion on Melville, 8 Apr., he was ‘not listened to’. But he was livelier when goaded: on 29 Apr. he took up the cudgels against Fox in defence of Pitt’s reputation and next day fulminated against Whitbread for seeking to exclude his name from the committee to consider the charges against Melville, though, as was pointed out, he had initially disapproved the setting up of the committee. He was one of those unexceptional candidates whose appointment to the Admiralty in the place of Melville would have prevented Addington’s break with Pitt: his was one of four names mentioned by the King for the office. Instead Pitt implemented Camden’s suggestion of making him secretary for War and Colonies, retaining India. Fox thought it ‘complete proof’ of Pitt’s ‘weakness and impotence’. On 10 July he resigned his seat to seek re-election and found that the grudge Lady Downshire bore him had provoked her into opposing him. He had also voted against the Catholic petition on 14 May. He was defeated and taken aback at his unpopularity. Lord Hardwicke wrote: ‘I conceive that the satisfaction which is sometimes felt in mortifying those who have raised themselves to great power, has operated upon this occasion on the northern presbyterians.’ He had the consolation of drawing closer than ever to Pitt: in September Lord Lowther was told, ‘Pitt seems to have exchanged Lord Melville for Lord Castlereagh; the latter appears to be all in all’. Even so, Pitt assured Canning that Castlereagh would not retain the India Board.15 At the end of the year William Sturges Bourne* found a seat for Castlereagh, who had been occupied in the preparation for the abortive expedition to the Elbe and an equally abortive scheme to set fire to the French flotilla at Boulogne. It was he who brought Pitt the fatal news that reports of the disaster at Austerlitz were true. He took his seat for Boroughbridge on 21 Jan. 1806, only in time to bid farewell to his political leader. During Pitt’s last days he and Hawkesbury drafted the King’s speech, which Pitt amended; Castlereagh was his spokesman at Downing Street and in the House. On 25 Jan. he announced that the King was taking steps to form a new government; and his name was among those mentioned as a ministry maker. He would certainly have preferred to stay in power if possible in a Pittite administration, and affected to believe that the King would be distressed if he had to call on the opposition. On the other hand, he was unwilling to commit himself as to how this was to be effected. His tribute to Pitt in the House on 27 Jan. contained the prophecy that it would be necessary to recur to Pitt’s system. He rallied Pitt’s friends but soon found himself winding up his official duties. On 7 Feb. he wrote to Camden regretting that the Pittites had not ranged themselves behind Lord Grenville, a step which might still prove desirable in future; meanwhile, concert was essential, or they would split up into three groups. At the time, they were ‘entirely on the defensive, and by no means entering into a contentious opposition’. Canning, who resented those Pittites who had served under Addington telling the party what it ought to do, was informed by Castlereagh and Perceval on 8 Feb. that they looked to Lord Grenville rather than to Lord Sidmouth. On 19 Feb., however, at a Pittite meeting to concert measures, it was decided not to pledge any support to administration. In the next week Castlereagh made known his hostility to the new government and his objection to Ellenborough’s seat in the cabinet, which he duly maintained in the House on 3 Mar. A month later he led the attack on Windham’s military plan in what Lord FitzHarris termed ‘an ill judged speech … replete with indiscreet and inappropriate expressions’.16 Castlereagh went on to oppose the repeal of Pitt’s Additional Force Act at every stage and he consistently opposed Windham’s army reforms, particularly their neglect of volunteers and limitation of enlistment, both injudicious and, he claimed, prejudicial to the royal prerogative. He defended Wellesley’s conduct in India, criticized the Indian budget, and opposed the American intercourse bill. In the debate of 12 June, his opposition was more general: he spoke of the ‘systematic absurdity’ of the government and listed their faux pas. At the end of the session there was a threat of a division among the Pittites about overtures to individuals among them from government: Castlereagh was present at Lord Lowther’s, 4 July, when they agreed not to accept them, and favoured a ‘complete change’. Yet the Grenville party had thought of him as a candidate for office, even cabinet office, though Lord Wellesley, their negotiating agent, demurred, as he did not think Castlereagh ‘of the calibre for which he gave himself’. In July an approach was made to him through the bishop of Lincoln but nothing came of it then, or on Fox’s death. He doubted whether any offer worth accepting could be made and only the Board of Control or the Mint were mentioned for him and Canning.17 Castlereagh had to look for a fresh seat at the dissolution of 1806, having consigned Down to his half-brother Charles until the prejudice against him there died down. After Camden had made an ineffectual bid to bring him in for Bath, Lady Spencer reported, ‘Lord Castlereagh is gone down to get a seat on one of Lord Mount Edgcumbe’s rotten close stools’ (i.e. Plympton). George Rose* claimed to have arranged it, and Mount Edgcumbe complained to Lord Grenville that Castlereagh was brought in without his knowledge. In any case he held the seat for two Parliaments. He spoke on the address, 19 Dec. 1806, but was ‘very indifferently heard’, there being no division. His argument was that ministers had been too complacent in their hopes for peace. In January 1807 he continued his campaign against Windham’s army reforms and in one of his ablest speeches attacked the army estimates. On 4 Feb. he supported Perceval’s motion on the order in council on neutral vessels. At this time he was reputed: a man with a very clear head, who at once saw into the marrow of a subject … a man of a cool and equal temper, and is not ruffled by speeches in the House of Commons or by any attacks upon him, and does not aim at more than plain speaking. Canning spoke ‘highly of Castlereagh’s ability for business and the acquisition he would be to any government, that he liked him himself and was on the best footing with him, but that he was not popular’. In February 1807 he took it into his head to controvert Lord Henry Petty’s plan of finance on Petty’s own data, whereas Long, Huskisson and Rose, the Pittite pundits on finance, preferred to question the data provided. He soon got out of his depth, but after some assistance from William Huskisson, made his point and offered his finance resolutions on 26 Feb. He wished for a scheme to operate for nine rather than 20 years, both from concern for the interest of the public creditor and to avert the threat of national bankruptcy. This was interpreted as a bid for the Exchequer in future.18 When Canning negotiated with Lord Grenville for a possible merger on 5 Mar. 1807, Grenville stated that he had no objection to including Castlereagh in the deal, though he had nothing to offer him; at best, he might go to Madras or, if Tierney went there, resume the Board of Control. Canning, who found ‘poor Castlereagh … really very tractable and good natured, and sensible … of his not having done so well in the House of Commons’ was not willing to press his name for the Foreign Office, though he did not rule out his joining the cabinet. As Canning saw it, and as he informed him through Long, it would be better for Castlereagh to take the Exchequer, though he appeared reluctant to do so, and the lead in the House with it, since if they were both secretaries of state, it would be impossible for Canning to satisfy his friends with ‘giving him the precedency’. Castlereagh heard this ‘very quietly’ and said it was very kind of Canning to speak so openly ‘and to be willing to make the concession in the one case’. It was clear, however, that he hated the idea of taking the Exchequer and, as he got on well with the Duke of York, Canning toyed with the idea of Castlereagh’s resuming the War department while he himself took the Admiralty.19 Castlereagh’s last bid to thwart Windham’s military reforms by preserving enlistment to the line for life failed, 12 Mar. 1807. He remained an opponent, but not an active one, of the abolition of the slave trade. When the Grenville ministry fell he found no opportunity of speaking against Brand’s motion critical of their successors, but spoke ably against Lyttelton’s similar motion on 15 Apr., justifying the King’s action ‘not from political consideration, but from a paramount religious feeling’. He claimed that public opinion endorsed the dismissal, which was warranted by the ‘complete imbecility’ of ministers’ conduct throughout. In the Portland ministry he accepted the War department, Canning obtaining the Foreign Office, which had been predicted for Castlereagh. They had concurred as long ago as December 1806 in Perceval’s taking the lead in the Commons in a Portland ministry. From mid April 1807, however, Castlereagh was too ill to attend to his duties. Not until 22 July was he able to introduce his militia transfer scheme, which enabled 28,000 men to be recruited for the regulars from the militia to provide a striking force. It was well received. He prefaced it with his considered critique of Windham’s reforms, conceding only that enlistment might be either for life or for a limited period. That autumn he was so weakened by internal haemorrhages that his resignation was confidently expected; he looked ‘like a corpse’, and it was thought he might go to the Lords with a secondary cabinet office.20 He returned to the fray on 28 Jan. 1808, moving the vote of thanks for the success of the Copenhagen expedition. The destruction of the Danish fleet and the preservation of the Portuguese one gave him an auspicious start at the War Office. He was one of the hawks in the cabinet, as he admitted in debate, 18 Feb., and, being thwarted in his wish to revive the Pittite expedient of continental alliances against France, was eager for intervention in the Peninsula. He carried his military proposals for indefinite enlistment, 8 Mar. 1808, and for replenishing the local militia in June. Other matters that engaged him in debate that session were the defence of Wellesley’s administration in India, the defence of the orders in Council and opposition to the reception of the Irish Catholic petition. On this he explained, 25 May, that his own views were those of Pitt: he favoured Catholic relief, but, like Canning, thought the moment inopportune: no pledge had ever been given. The subject was not congenial to him being reported to have produced a cabinet rift, and it was noted that Castlereagh, like Canning, absented himself from the debates on the Maynooth grant and the appointment of Patrick Duigenan*. While he was able to cope with Whitbread’s criticisms of the limited scope of British intervention in the Peninsula, he suffered a severe setback in the autumn of 1808 when the convention of Cintra and the retreat of Sir John Moore divided the cabinet and provoked public opinion. He was prepared, after overcoming his initial dismay, to endorse both measures but Canning reacted hotly, and, other ministers and the King being also unhappy about the situation, it was thought unlikely that he could continue in his present office. But he refused to abandon either Sir Arthur Wellesley or the deceased Sir John Moore, went on ‘as if nothing had happened’ and thought merely of how ministers might exonerate their characters by ‘increased and accelerated exertions’ in the Peninsula. When he justified Cintra and Sir Arthur’s conduct in the debate on the address, 19 Jan. 1809, and proposed a monument to Moore’s memory on 25 Jan., he was given credit both for propriety and coolness, though he went on to resist the publication of Moore’s dispatches. On 21 and 24 Feb. he resisted the opposition motions critical of government handling of Cintra and the Peninsular campaign. Apart from taking temporary charge of the Home Office during Lord Liverpool’s absence in January 1809, he also promoted his militia enlistment bill, which he followed up with a militia completion bill in March and with a ‘remarkably good’ defence of the Duke of York against the charges made against him, 27 Jan., 14 Mar. 1809. Imputing malice to York’s detractors, he supported Perceval’s resolutions on the subject.21 On 25 Apr. 1809 Lord Archibald Hamilton charged Castlereagh with corruption because he had in 1805 promised his friend Lord Clancarty an East India writership to assist him to obtain a seat in Parliament. But it was an intention and not an act and the motion was defeated by 216 votes to 167, Castlereagh defending himself candidly against the imputation of any political motive and then withdrawing. Canning’s amendment in his favour, which saved the principle but exonerated him personally, was carried by 214 votes to 167. Canning had on 24 Mar. pressed Portland, without naming names, to reshuffle the government, being dissatisfied to the point of resignation with the conduct of the war, and had secured a secret promise from Portland that Castlereagh, with whom Canning was now reported to be ‘at daggers drawn’, should be moved from his office, though not until the end of the session. To this Canning had consented, so as not to give the appearance of deserting Castlereagh in his hour of embarrassment. Castlereagh successfully resisted Temple’s motion on the Peninsular campaign on 9 May and he and Perceval easily weathered another charge of political corruption on 11 May, when Madocks accused them of seating Members by Treasury influence in certain constituencies and, in the case of Quintin Dick, unseating one of them for political reasons. He opposed Curwen’s reform bill of that month. The two charges of corruption against him, while flimsy, were symptoms of his unpopularity and the Duke of Richmond thought that if opposition could make ‘anything like a case’, Castlereagh would be obliged to resign. He himself was ‘perfectly satisfied’ as to the outcome of the first charge and on what he called ‘my second impeachment’ reported: Nothing could be better than the tone of the House. The country gentlemen considered it as a revolutionary and not a personal vote, and having exhausted their scruples upon my former question (on which several voted against) they were ready and determined to negative this.22 Behind Castlereagh’s back some of his cabinet colleagues had since April 1809 been discussing his future, to meet the threat of Canning’s resignation. Outright dismissal was out of the question; in May Lord Bathurst suggested the Board of Control with colonial affairs for him, but this was thought unacceptable. On 10 May Portland informed the King, who enjoined secrecy and persuaded Canning not to resign for the time being. Early in June Portland proposed to Canning a restructuring of the War department so as to take the conduct of the war out of Castlereagh’s hands and put it into Canning’s, but this was thought likely to alienate Castlereagh, and Portland’s overriding concern was to keep the services of both. Meanwhile Castlereagh had been engaged in preparing the expedition to Walcheren he had wished to promote for two years past, and on 13 June Canning protested to Portland that, whether the expedition failed or succeeded, it would be wrong to remove Castlereagh without prior warning. Indeed Canning found it difficult to believe that Castlereagh had not been already informed by Camden, who had known the secret since April; if he had not, it was high time to tell him. Portland, however, accepted the blame for the concealment and the King forbade any revelation of it to Castlereagh. Before the expedition sailed, Portland revealed the secret to its commander Lord Chatham, who told Canning it was unfair to Castlereagh: Canning pointed out that the concealment had received royal sanction. On 18 June Portland informed Canning that Lord Wellesley was to come into office; as Wellesley had been earmarked for a mission to Spain, there were at once rumours that Castlereagh was to go to Spain in his place. On 21 June, the day of prorogation, the King directed Portland to get Camden to tell Castlereagh that the War department was to be remodelled. Next day Portland disclosed the secret to Perceval, who disapproved. As a sop to Canning, his friend Leveson Gower became secretary at war with a cabinet seat on 27 June, but Canning derived the impression that he was being shamed into dropping his demand for Castlereagh’s removal. Portland assured Canning next day that Castlereagh would be informed within a fortnight by Camden, and the King again refused Canning’s resignation. On 4 July 1809 Portland informed Canning that Camden would resign the lord presidency in favour of Castlereagh, who would be given a peerage. Canning accepted this, but Perceval demurred pending Castlereagh’s reaction (he later said he would have refused). On 11 July Canning saw Lord Liverpool, who while preferring Canning in office to Castlereagh, said that the latter could not in justice be displaced until the expedition was over. Canning agreed, provided the change was then made, but would not hear of Liverpool’s resigning his office in Castlereagh’s favour, which he proposed on hearing that Camden was reluctant to do so. In this case too Castlereagh would have had a peerage foisted on him and been compensated with the lead in the other House. Lord Bathurst was also prepared to resign in Castlereagh’s favour. On 16 July Portland informed Canning that, by the King’s command, Castlereagh was not to be informed, and in reply to Canning’s expostulation, assured him that Camden had not revealed it to Castlereagh and that he Portland was to blame. Canning foresaw that this would be used against him when it all came out and on 2 Aug. saw the King, from whom he derived another reason to blame Portland for the concealment. Soon afterwards Portland suffered an epileptic fit, at the very time when he had relieved Camden of the responsibility of enlightening Castlereagh; his illness prevented him from doing so himself. He would be happy to resign as soon as his successor was chosen; this was seen as an opportunity to avoid the whole issue of Castlereagh’s displacement, but Canning declined discussion of an overture from Perceval, 28 Aug., which stipulated that Castlereagh should retain office. On 3 Sept., news having arrived of the failure of the expedition to achieve its major goal of taking Antwerp, Canning demanded action from Portland. Portland, to whom Perceval had communicated his face-saving plan, told Canning that Castlereagh would be moved to another office, but not excluded, as some of his colleagues would not continue without him. Canning thereupon announced that he would himself resign and drop the demand for Castlereagh’s removal. On 7 Sept. he was absent from a cabinet meeting and that evening a bewildered Castlereagh learnt the gist of his colleagues’ guilty secret from Camden, whom he never fully forgave for the concealment. Having declined any alternative office, he offered his resignation next day; the news from Spain being bad as well, he was ‘a figure of woe’ as he sat to Lawrence the portrait painter. While the rump of the ministry were discussing overtures to the Whigs, he gave vent to his wounded feelings with a challenge to Canning, 19 Sept: he was prepared to remain in office only if he enjoyed the full confidence of his colleagues; it was unjust that he should be the scapegoat for failures in Flanders and Spain, and rather than submit to this he would defend his character out of office. While blame attached to Camden, Portland and the King in the concealment, Castlereagh thought that Canning was the primum mobile of the campaign against him. Canning accepted his challenge and all attempts to avert the duel having failed, it took place on 21 Sept. when Castlereagh wounded Canning at the loss of a button off his coat. While his ex-colleagues regretted that he had gone so far, they admitted that he had a right to challenge somebody to a duel and that his choice of Canning was almost inevitable. When Perceval took office on 2 Oct., Castlereagh put himself out of the question as a candidate for inclusion in the new ministry. He informed his half-brother, ‘I need not break my heart at losing so shabby a set of friends as mine have proved themselves’. Lord Melville thought Castlereagh’s treatment ‘a circumstance unparalleled in the annals of any government’.23   Recriminations followed when Castlereagh, dissatisfied with Camden’s explanations, resolved to go to the heart of the matter and establish through Perceval, whose ‘candour’ he acknowledged, the grounds given for his removal from office, even if they were not intended to be stated to him. Having done so, he sent a memorial to the King, 1 Oct. 1809, answering Canning’s specific complaints about his handling of Cintra, the defence of the Peninsular campaign and the delay in strengthening Portugal. The King in reply assured Castlereagh that he did not agree with the complaints. Canning published an apologia addressed to Camden, who in justifying himself had made use of Castlereagh’s letter of challenge to Canning. The publication did not exonerate Canning from the suspicion of intrigue and of systematically underrating Castlereagh to promote his ambitions. In December 1809, Castlereagh remaining ‘extremely hurt’, it was ‘very doubtful’ what part he would take next session.24 One thing was certain, that Castlereagh would defend his character. On 23 Jan. 1810, on the address, speaking ‘from under the gallery, two rows behind Canning’, he insisted that his conduct was capable ‘of the most rigid scrutiny’: all ‘that related personally to himself he did with a conscious sense of being right’, wrote Creevey, ‘and a degree of lively animation I never saw in him before. Base as the House is, it recognized by its cheers the claims of Castlereagh to its approbation, and they gave it.’ Castlereagh vindicated the expedition and when the division came ‘said with the gayest face possible, “Well, Creevey, how do we look?” ‘.  He could not have voted for an amendment to the address which reflected on himself (as well as on Canning), but when Porchester moved for an inquiry into the expedition on 26 Jan., he voted silently with the opposition majority. He sat aloof with four friends [noted Creevey] and these five instead of going out, decided the question in our favour. Had they gone out we should have been beat by one! Castlereagh bent his head from his elevated bench down almost to the floor to catch my eye, and I gave him a sign that all was well. He could scarce contain himself: he hid his face, but when the division was over, he was quite extravagent in the expression of his happiness. Canning, watching Castlereagh like a hawk, commended his speech of 23 Jan. as ‘a very good one’ and found nothing in it to  quarrel with, declaring in his turn that he would say nothing in the House about their quarrel; he himself did not vote against ministers on 26 Jan.  lest  he appear to be putting Castlereagh on trial. Castlereagh had supported the vote of thanks to Wellington for the victory of Talavera on 1 Feb. and had promised every cooperation in the inquiry into the Scheldt expedition next day, Canning, prepared to give him the credit for the honours gained by Wellington, commented: ‘Being turned out has certainly done him a world of good—both given him speech and obtained him a hearing … pity works for Castlereagh’. He was right: John William Ward, remarking that Castlereagh had ‘astonished all the world by his speech the other night’, added ‘I am glad he succeeded for, though an abominable minister, he is an excellent man and a perfect gentleman’. Fremantle’s comment was: ‘Castlereagh has gained great credit—Canning has lost himself’. In mid February Castlereagh was kept away from the House by his sister’s death and there was some speculation as to his intentions. Robert Ward, who complained that Castlereagh and Canning either voted against government or attended only upon questions that concerned themselves, believed that opposition wished to detach them, more particularly Castlereagh. When on 23 Feb. government were beaten on the question of Lord Chatham’s account to the King of the expedition, he and his immediate friends (his half-brother Charles, Frederick John Robinson, Thomas Wood, George Peter Holford and William Sloane) did not vote. On 1 Mar. Castlereagh put in a word for the success of his recruiting plans. When Chatham’s narrative was considered on 5 Mar. Castlereagh exonerated him from blame but, insisting that Chatham should have consulted the rest of the cabinet, voted for Whitbread’s first resolution against Chatham and against the previous question preferred by government. Canning, who did the same, noted that Castlereagh with three followers was also to have voted for Whitbread’s second resolution, which Canning made Whitbread give up. Wellesley Pole professed surprise that Castlereagh, who had received so many favours from Pitt, should take ‘the very worst view of Lord Chatham’s case that was put to the House in the course of the debate’. He reckoned without Castlereagh’s recently provoked abhorrence of underhand and unilateral acts by cabinst colleagues.25 In mid March 1810 there were rumours of office for him. Canning at first thought he might be offered the Ordnance, then reported that he had declined the Admiralty. Robert Ward denied this, saying an attempt would be made to bring in Castlereagh, as well as Lord Sidmouth.  Canning was not without hope of a reconciliation with Castlereagh, whose personal following was exigious, to add to his own weight, which would thus be sufficient to sway divisions. Charles Long reported disapprovingly a notion of Castlereagh’s that a junction with Lords Grenville and Grey might offer ‘the best chance’. Grey was certainly partial to Castlereagh. Canning was sure that government would try to anticipate such a junction and Lord Wellesley was reported to be anxious to promote the plan of uniting Canning and Castlereagh through the agency of one of the latter’s Seymour uncles. On 26 Mar. 1810 Castlereagh spoke for three hours on the Scheldt expedition, justifying its grounds, disclaiming the notion that written military opinion was necessary as a basis for such expeditions and denying that the resources might have been better deployed elsewhere. It was considered ‘a  prodigiously good speech’ by Canning and praised by Perceval to the King: indeed, Castlereagh easily outmatched Porchester and he and his friends pleased government by supporting them throughout against the censure.26 In April 1810 when Perceval entrusted Wellesley with a negotiation to bring in Sidmouth, Canning and Castlereagh, the first two demurred and Castlereagh was not approached, as Wellesley had no intention of angling for the other two without Canning. Although Castlereagh’s windows were broken by the Burdettite mob, he and his friends were absent from the debate on the release of John Gale Jones the radical, 16 Apr. On 18 May he opposed Hamilton’s motion to expunge from the Journals as a personal slight the record of his unsuccessul charge of corruption against him the year before; it was negatived without a division. He voted against parliamentary reform, 21 May. On the Catholic petition, 25 May, he defended Catholic claims on grounds of expediency, but insisted on proper safeguards and advised the Irish Catholics to moderate their demands until public opinion was ripe: he could not support a demand that was still impracticable. On 31 May he was absent on Bankes’s resolutions against sinecures, but his friends supported government. In August government renewed their overtures to Canning and Castlereagh, proposing a joint offer of the Home Office and Admiralty: out of tenderness to Castlereagh, Wellesley’s proposal that Canning should have the Foreign Office was rejected. Perceval’s offer of 22 Aug. found Castlereagh in Ireland; he rejected the Admiralty, earmarked for him, on 4 Sept. Government were agreed that neither should come in alone, and Wellesley would not, for Canning’s sake, consent to Castlereagh and Sidmouth coming in together. Castlereagh’s ground for refusal was that though willing to serve, he did not believe the public would credit a reconciliation between himself and Canning or give their confidence to a patched up government.27 Perceval promly informed Castlereagh of the King’s ensuing illness. Like Canning, Castlereagh would not commit himself as to his line. He was expected to be ‘a great man in the Regency’, through his kinship with Lord Yarmouth, the Prince’s favourite. He was one of the committee named by Perceval to cross-examine the royal physicians, and there were rumours of a fresh offer to him and Sidmouth being vetoed by Wellesley; the upshot was that Castlereagh was expected to support government, and consulted Sidmouth. On 20 Dec. he preferred procedure by bill rather than by address on the Regency question; on 31 Dec. he defended the principle of restrictions, not with reference to the Prince’s intentions but as a precedent for the future. On the proposed restrictions next day he was critical of the dual royal household and of all unnecessary limitations of the Regent’s powers, so he supported the successful opposition amendment, as did Canning, who pointed out however that Castlereagh and his three friends could not have saved the day for government even had they wished to. The Duke of Richmond’s comment was that Castlereagh was ‘too old a politician to be defended in gratifying Lord Hertford’. On 17 Jan. he renewed his objection to concessions made to the Queen and on 21 Jan. objected to the Household clause, to which he proposed an amendment transferring the great officiers of the Household to the Prince and making them removable; it was negatived. On 25 Feb. he clashed with Whitbread and Burdett over the conduct of the cabinet and of Lord Eldon in particular during the King’s illness in 1804; the question had previously been reviewed by him with Sidmouth, who was reported to be so satisfied with Castlereagh’s conduct on the Regency question that he eshewed any contribution to the debates himself. In March and April he spoke on the army estimates, objecting to alteration of his own military reforms of 1809, and on the militia enlistment bill, with a disquisition on the best methods of recruiting. He was a strong advocate of interchange of militia between England and Ireland. He continued to pay tribute to military successes in the Peninsula. His major effort, which he published, was a criticism of the report of the bullion committee, 7 May 1811, on which he was one of the dissenting minority on the ‘speculative’ basis for proposing resumption of cash payments by the Bankin two years’ time; he doubted whether payment could be resumed till after the war was over. On 15 July he spoke in favour of the gold coin bill, ably supporting the exemption of Ireland from it.28 Office was still in the air for Castlereagh at the beginning of the session of 1812. He was supposed to have refused India, while Princess Charlotte thought he must succeed Yorke at the Admiralty ‘as her ladyship is the great crony of the Marchioness [of Hereford]‘. Wellesey who had lent himself to a bid to bring in noth Canning and Castlereagh, claimed that the Prince Regent did not want Castlereagh in office, ostensibly because of his association with the ill-fated Walcheren expedition, but that people about him (he had Yarmouth in mind) worked for nothing else. According to Lord Bathurst, the Regent might be induced to admit Castlereagh in place of Wellesley at the Foreign Office, but would accept no further changes. On 23 Jan. Perceval pressed the Regent to take in Castlereagh. The Regent said he had only spoken to him once in his life but had no objection, except the possible offence to Wellesley and Canning. When Perceval persisted, the Regent allowed him to send Peel to Castlereagh, who was asked if he would come in alone, or if not, if he would do so with Sidmouth. He replied next day that he had no wish to stop a gap; besides, the Sidmouth party was inadequate and the Prince had better look to his own friends. If the Regent were ‘unreasonably pressed’, however, he would come in, provided he was not fettered as to Catholic relief. The Regent took this well and insisted on secrecy, while overtures to Sidmouth, Grenville and Grey were made, to no avail. Meanwhile Morpeth’s motion on Ireland, 4 Feb., enabled Castlereagh to expatiate on Catholic relief: he deplored its frequent agitation, but promised his support to any practicable plan which included securities. He did not join the minority in the division. This line, according to the Whig Francis Horner showed Castlereagh, as well as Canning as ‘temporizers who have no ambition for anything higher than office’. Robert Ward reported a few days later: Lod Castlereagh is much talked of to succeed either Lord Wellesley or Mr Yorke. For the details of any office he is excellent; as a help to Mr Perceval he cannot be much after all that passed formerly about him in the House from which he is not recovered. Of his speeches, that on Tuesday we all thought the very worst ever committed by his noble Lord, whose good nature, however, in private conciliates everybody and who is as far as ever beyond [Canning], who notwithstanding his eloquence has not stirred an inch farther into public opinion than when he tripped himself up by intrigue two years ago. Ward noted, however, that if Castlereagh succeeded Wellesley, the Canning party would treat it as a ‘declaration of war’, while upon Wellesley’s offering his resignation a week later, he in turn was obliged to deny that it was a manoeuvre intended to bring in Canning. Castlereagh was reported to be willing to come in, provided he had the War Office, but Lord Liverpool disliked this and the Regent would not hear of it, owing to his past history there. On 19 Feb. he accepted the Foreign Office in Wellesley’s place, which was to Canning ‘the very worst and most galling result’. Wellington, writing to Castlereagh’s half brother to regret that Castlereagh had not obtained the War Office, interpreted the appointment as a sure sign of the weakness of a government which had also swallowed Castlereagh’s wish that his uncle Camden should go out of office. Describing Camden’s expulsion as ‘a good espièglerie on the part of Castlereagh, Lord Auckland added, ‘That accommodation must have gone much against the grain’. Castlereagh took his seat on the Treasury bench on 25 Feb. He had again stipulated for freedom of speech on Catholic relief, and on Turton’s motion, 27 Feb., while he followed Perceval’s line in arguing that the time was not ripe and that safeguards were essential, he envisaged the realization of Catholic relief. (In a memoir on the subject to Lord Hertford on 27 June 1811, he had explained that as, in his view, the question could not be carried until the Pope had ceased to be Buonaparte’s prisoner and was in a position to grant a concordat providing securities, he wished the Regent would declare it an open question to which he was a friend but not a partisan, thus enabling ministers and Members alike to make up their own minds on it and encouraging the Catholics to moderate their demands. It would cease to be a party question and the Regent might bring it ‘to a safe and happy issue’.) At the same time (27 Feb. 1812), he justified his return to the fold be reference to the unwillingness of the opposition leaders to co-operate with government and to their unrealistic attitude to the Catholic question. This was considered one of Castlereagh’s better speeches, though it occasioned ‘some laughter and murmurs on the other side’. So that his vote might not be lost, Castlereagh did not receive the seals of office until 28 Feb., and on 2 Mar. was reported to be on terms of ‘great civility’ with Wellesley. In March he commenced business by moving the subsidies to Portugal and Sicily. A petition presented by him from Belfast was the pretext for his speeches justifying the gold coin amendment bill, 17, 26 Mar., 10 Apr. 1812, which ended the Irish exemption from the bill on the ground that specie had become scarce in Ireland. On 24 Apr. he spoke and voted against Grattan’s motion in favour of Catholic relief, refusing to give a blind vote where no securities were guaranteed. He made it clear, however, that he was a friend to the Catholics and asked them only to define their demands. On other issues he was in step with government, defending the constitutionality of McMahon’s appointment as secretary to the Regent, 14 Apr., and the orders in council, though he approved a committee on petitions against them; opposing the sinecure offices regulation bill, 4 May; and criticizing Brand’s motion for parliamentary reform, 8 May 1812.29 On the assassination of Perceval there was ‘not a dry eye in the House’ when Castlereagh broke down while he moved the address to provide for Perceval’s family, 12 May. The moment had arrived for conciliatory talks with Canning. Few thought that Castlereagh would succeed Perceval as premier, but an arrangement was discussed whereby he and Canning were included under the leadership of a third party. When his colleagues proposed the overture to Canning and Wellesley, Castlereagh conceded that some such step was needed, but ‘imprudently sent a letter of resignation to the Regent’. This was unacceptable ‘as it must have the appearance of turning him out to make way for Canning’. Castlereagh retracted it, on the understanding that Lord Liverpool, not Wellesley, was to be premier and that he should retain the Foreign Office and have the lead in the House of Commons. Canning objected to this last stipulation: he would have preferred the Foreign Office with the War department business in the Commons, while Castlereagh became chancellor of the Exchequer with all Treasury and general business in the Commons. There the negotiation foundered; neither would concede the lead and his colleagues opted for Castlereagh.30 On 21 May 1812 Castlereagh led the government opposition to Stuart Wortley’s motion for a stronger administration, though he was not as explicit on the negotiation as some of his colleagues had hoped: his main concession to them was to deplore the airing  of the Catholic question to embarrass the government at a time when the war must be their chief preoccupation. Tierney reported next day: ‘Poor Castlereagh made sad work of his first performance as leader. I do not mean so much in point of speaking as in the management of the divisions, and the mode of presenting the address.’ He was referring to the fact that after Stuart Wortley’s motion had been carried, Castlereagh and Yorke carried a counter-motion that the address should be presented by privy councillors, but gave it up when more opposition Members entered the chamber. Further negotiation with Canning and Wellesley follwed: the Regent saw Camden with a view to reconciling Castlereagh to Canning’s return to office, but Camden assured him that Castlereagh still had insufficient confidence in Canning as a colleague and, rather than be driven into union with him, would probably resign. The Regent then saw Castlereagh’s half-brother, emphasizing his preference for Castlereagh over Canning because of his ‘solid and useful abilities’ and ‘mild and gentlemanlike manner’, albeit the latter was his superior in debate. The negotiation failed, Castlereagh diplomatically absenting himself from the session of the cabinet on 27 May when they informed the Regent that they had decided to give up the attempt: they too preferred Castlereagh to Canning. When the Regent asked Moira to try to form a government, the stipulation made for Castlereagh by Canning’s friends was that he should go up to the Lords with a promise of office before the next session, while Canning took the Exchequer and the lead. Castlereagh feared that the ‘officiousness’ of Canning’s friends would prevent him from taking any practical placatory steps.31 On 8 June Castlereagh himself announced in the House the failure of Moira’s efforts and the resumption of the government by Liverpool, but could give no reply to Stuart Wortley’s query as to whether the government would be strengthened, and on 11 June deprecated the latter’s censure on the subject. On 16 June he opposed Brougham’s motion for the repeal on the orders in council, but announced their revocation a week later. Having on 10 June announced that Catholic relief was to be an open question, he concurred, as an individual, with Canning’s successful motion of 22 June, in what was described as ‘a whimpering and shuffling speech’, alleged by the Duke of Richmond to be a bid for support in county Down, which Castlereagh now wished to restore to himself. Before the close of the session he ushered in the committee of secrecy to consider the disturbances in the midlands and the preservation of the peace bill to deal with them. Having just revived the system of continental alliances against Buonaparte, he also justified the rejection of French peace overtures.32 The last month had made it clear that Castlereagh was ‘utterly incompetent to the management of the House of Commons’ and had ‘no consideration, or effect, or following, or poularity in the House of Commons’. This was not only the opposition view: Charles Arbuthnot maintained that, without Canning, government could get through another session, and as Canning wished ‘very much’ to belong to them, Castlereagh’s ‘sense of his own honour’, which made him think that he could not cede the leadership in the Commons ‘without disgrace’, was the main obstacle. Much as his colleagues were averse to any sacrifice of him, Arbuthnot feared that ‘Castlereagh does not seem to be aware of his own insufficiently, and indeed his conduct induces me to think that he would rather destroy the government than lend himself to an arrangement which would give us the advantage of Canning’s abilities’. He added: ‘In private life I have always had great regard for Lord Castlereagh; but his inefficiency as a leader in Parliament is extreme, and we have not a supporter in the House of Commons who is not crying out for Canning’; and concluded that ‘at this moment therefore it is to depend on the pleasure of Lord Castlereagh whether we should have a government which is to stand or fall’.33 Lord Liverpool brought Canning and Castlereagh together at Fife House on 17 July 1812. Castlereagh was willing to give up the Foreign Office to Canning in exchange for the Exchequer, which Arbuthnot thought ‘a great concession’, but he showed ‘a settled determination … to retain the lead in the House of Commons which lead devolved upon him’. Canning deprecated the discussion of the leadership, which should be allowed to find its own level; he was willing to act with Castlereagh, but not under him. It appeared that Castlereagh had steadily resisted the Regent’s efforts, over the preceding six weeks, to induce him to accept a peerage to facilitate the arrangement and he now as obstinately refused to cede the leadership. This Canning interpreted as a claim to superiority. In the next few days another attempt was made to establish a basis for negotiation: Canning, as sole secretary in the Commons, required Castlereagh to disclaim the lead, ‘except what belongs to the chancellor of the Exchequer when not joined with the premiership’. He suggested that a third person, such as Vansittart or Bragge Bathurst, take Treasury business or, finally, that Castlereagh should have the lead except for messages from the throne, which he reserved for himself. An ‘inflexible’ Castlereagh refused all of Canning’s proposals and was more than amendable to his friends’ advice that he should take care not to be duped. He restated his claims in a letter which was read to Canning by Liverpool on 27 July. Canning dispelled the suspicion of intrigue by appearing to concur in this proposal, which gave him the Foreign Office with the lead on the conduct of the war, and Castlereagh the Exchequer and the lead in other respects, lest a nicer division of it undermine the government; but afterwards he sent for the letter to peruse, and concluding that Castlereagh was still insistent on superiority, refused the offer. It seemed to Canning’s friends that Liverpool was too willing to back Castlereagh’s pretensions ‘to the uttermost’; Liverpool wished to arbitrate, but was unable to suggest a demarcation of duties acceptable to both men and a final appeal by him to Canning failed. ‘It is calamitous for the country that Canning and Castlereagh cannot act together’, wrote Arbuthnot. Canning was so far hoist with his own petard as to believe that Castlereagh’s letter which induced his refusal had been circulated. Lord Amherst’s comment was: What powerful support must Castlereagh enjoy to maintain himself in the opinion of his colleagues against an union which would have secured them in the possession of their places, and have rendered their administration a strong one as well as a popular one! Canning concluded that in office the Pittites, guided by Charles Long, must choose Castlereagh, while if both men were out of office, he himself would be their favorite. The Regent thought Canning ‘too touchy’, believing Castlereagh, once he had overcome his initial obstinancy, to have been happy with the prospect of ‘perfect equality’ between them.34 At the opening of the new session, 24 Nov. 1812, the adjournment was to have been moved by Vansittart, but Castlereagh ‘rose first and persisted’. Elected for Clitheroe as a security, he had resumed his seat for Down by an arrangement with Lord Downshire which the latter’s mother described as a ‘faux pas’ not to be repeated: but he was to retain the seat until he entered the Lords. On the address, 30 Nov., he claimed that ‘in every quarter our prospects are most bright and happy’; but his performance in the next month did not impress. George Eden thought that if this went on the ministry would be ‘laughed out of office’. Despite the taunt that he could do ‘everything but speak in Parliament’, his debating improved with experience. He carried such tricky measures as the vice-chancellor bill, the war with the United States and the rejection of Burdett’s motion on the Regency in February 1813. On 2 and 9 Mar. he renewed his support for Catholic claims, dissociating himself from his colleagues and voting, as he was sure Pitt would have done, for the committee proposed by Grattan: this was thought to be ‘intended to commit him irrevocably to the general measure’, if not to the details. In March he parried the endeavours of the Princess of Wales, led by Whitbread, to air her grievances, accusing Whitbread of the motive of defaming the Prince Regent; he eventually withdrew the accusation, but had made his point. In the same month he began the arduous task of carrying within the session the renewal of the East India Company charter, which he managed, according to Wilberforce ‘admirably—coolly and quietly’, although the missionary clause was compromised in a way the ‘Saints’ could not welcome. He also opposed Bankes’s sinecure offices bill, objecting to the expense of its pension scheme. Creevey described this last move as ‘an effort to regain or to preserve his royal master’s favour’, being of opinion that Castlereagh was losing it. The affairs of the Princess had ‘much irritated’ him.35 On 11 May 1813 Castlereagh was disposed to favour Grattan’s Catholic relief bill, even if it was ‘not all he could wish’; although he then voted for procrastination, he was ‘very reasonable and tractable’ and on 13 May announced his support for the second reading, explaining that he had not been consulted on the drafting. Both he and Canning were supposed to wish for the credit of drawing up a bill that would succeed and to have ‘courted’ Charles Butler, who drafted it. They now concurred in its favour, after proposing alterations, Castlereagh’s being designed to ensure the crown veto on the nomination of Catholic prelates. On 24 May he approved the ill-fated bill and on 29 June joined in opposition condemnation of Orange lodges. ‘He now is the most strenuous advocate for the Catholic bill’, groaned Wellesley Pole who, did not seem to think that the Regency protected Castlereagh from the charge of inconsistency, since he had once deprecated Catholic relief while the King reigned. It was a conspicuous fact that being ‘next to Liverpool, the most effective member of the government’, he was the only minister to come out unequivocally on the Catholic side. On firmer ground, he rebuffed attacks on the subsidies to the allies led by Whitbread and accused him of insisting on peace on any terms. In the recess Canning complained that Castlereagh’s keenest critics of the year before now extolled his leadership loudest and regretted that he had ever lent himself to his friends’ plea for ‘a struggle with Lord Castlereagh’.36 In November 1813 Castlereagh introduced the bill to allow the militia to serve abroad and defended it, together with fresh subsidies to the allies, against Whitbread. He was involved in the promotion of the East India shipping bill when the time came to implement the decision to send him informally to the allied congress at Chatillon, taking in a mission to the Prince of Orange on his way. Having on 20 Dec. adjourned the House until 1 Mar. he left England on 31 Dec. accompanied by Frederick John Robinson and attended the congress in February and March 1814. Despite the allied differences exposed there, he remained unpeturbed and his diplomatic reputation was thus established, but he left a gap in the Commons that government could not supply. He next proceeded as plenipotentiary to Paris where, to quote George Rose, he did ‘admirably well … better I am firmly persuaded than any other man in this country could have done’. On 6 June 1814 he was back in the House to present the peace treaty of 30 Mar: he never appeared there to better advantage. He ‘bore it all with real modesty’, claimed Rose, ‘and certainly stands very high in public opinion’, as also, he noted, in Canning’s. He was awarded the Garter. When the treaty was discussed on 29 June the only demur came from Wilberforce, who was disappointed that the slave trade had not been abolished; but Castlereagh claimed that he had tried, if in vain, to effect this and swallowed Wilberforce’s manifesto of protest. On 1 July, after having so often moved the thanks of the House to him before, he hailed the returning Duke of Wellington as a hero, ‘the most affecting proceeding … ever witnessed in Parliament’, according to the reporters. In resuming the leadership of the House he was able to effect a temporary solution to the problem of the Princess of Wales, being empowered to offer her an income of £50,000 of which she accepted £35,000 and prepared to leave the country. With regard to the relaxation of such wartime restrictions as the Aliens Act, he remarked that some precautions must yet be maintained: ‘in politics, as in most of the transactions of common life, a middle course was the best to pursue’.37 In the summer of 1814 Castlereagh set out for the Continent, ‘first … to Ghent to settle America; then to Brussels to settle Holland; thence to Switzerland, and thence to Vienna’. He had ‘nearly … the most difficult [task] a minister has ever had to perform’ in preventing the allies from falling out. He was to have come home for the parliamentary session, but found that he had to play off France and Austria against Russia and Prussia, for which ‘his personal appearance at Vienna was indispensably necessary’. So he remained there until peace terms were agreed, arriving home on 3 Mar. to resume his role as ‘the prop of the administration’. In his absence the Whigs had ‘made mincemeat of Van[sittart] and co.’. Rumours that he was now to become chancellor of the Exchequer and succeed Liverpool as premier were ‘more current than ever’, but proved groundless. On 6 Mar. he appeared in the House but evaded Whitbread’s request for a report of his mission, the articles of peace being not yet ratified. In the next few days he justified the magistrates’ employment of the military to restrain the anti-corn bill rioters in the vicinity of the House, deploring the intimidation of Members and accusing Burdett of aiming at the subversion of the constitution. His own windows were broken by the mob, but he was an ‘unruffled’ spectator. On 16 Mar. he announced that government would not tolerate the restoration of Buonaparte, of whose escape he had informed them six days earlier. On 20 Mar. he vindicated, in a four-hour speech, his proceedings at the congress of Vienna. Reported to be ‘red hot’ for resumption of war with Buonaparte, on 7 Apr. he justified the Regent’s message for the augmentation of the armed forces with a view to the security not of Britain alone but of Europe. Against Whitbread he insisted that he had not meant immediate war. On 11 Apr. he carried the treaty of Ghent, ending hostilities with the USA, by 128 votes to 37. Three days later he admitted that an overture had been made to him by Buonaparte, but refused to comment on it except that it had been referred to the allies; he resisted the arguments put forward by Whitbread a week later for coming to terms with Buonaparte, though he agreed to lay the substance of the treaty of Vienna (signed on 25 Mar.) before the House on 23 Apr. In doing so, he assured Whitbread that he would be happy to take the sense of the House as to peace or war. He subsequently thwarted opposition motions critical of the details of the peace settlement, carried the embodying of the militia to deal with the emergency and justified the renewal of alliances and subsidies to defeat Buonaparte, whose rejected overtures he disclosed. This was endorced on 25 May by 311 votes to 92.38 Apart from foreign affairs, Castlereagh was also occupied that session in defending the property tax continuation; resisting Tierney’s motion for a civil list committee, 8 May; supporting, as an individual Parnell’s motion for Catholic relief, though he did so on principle only and objected to Parnell’s proposals, 30 May; justifying the Prince Regent’s personal expenditure, 31 May; deprecating the timing of Wilberforce’s slave registry bill, though he had circulated a treatise in favour of abolition at Vienna and supported it on principle, 5, 13 June; moving the thanks to the military for the victory of Waterloo; and, trickiest of all, carrying the Duke of Cumberland’s marriage allowance. He complained to the Regent in May that government was ill supported on civil list questions and would have to pay more than lip-service to professions of economy. In June he was pursued by the mob after Burdett’s Palace Yard meeting, an indication of the increasing tendency to make him the scapegoat for the unpopularity of government, encouraged by the hostile language used towards him by Whitbread and other Whigs in Parliament, who readily spoke of bringing Castlereagh to ‘trial’. On the other hand, his stand on Catholic relief was a factor tending to conciliate the more conservative Whigs, the Irish leaders Grattan and Plunkett particularly, to his foreign policy. A government back-bencher thought, at the opening of the session of 1816, that he was ‘a very able and fully qualified man for his situation as ministerial leader in the House of Commons. Being full of information he is always prepared to answer any questions or any charges brought against him and the measures of administration.’39 In the summer of 1815 Castlereagh returned to Paris where he was ‘the pre-eminent star’ in the negotiations for a new peace treaty and the removal of the quadruple alliance, achieved on 20 Nov. 1815. On 1 Feb. 1816 he was back to defend the Regent’s speech in doing which he deplored the frequent attacks made in the House on the conduct of foreign governments and, in a ‘quiet and subdued’ tone, admitted the problems that peace would create at home. In the next few days he defended his part in the recent negotiations, designed to secure European equilibrium, and justified the high peacetime establishment. His chief opponent in foreign affairs was now Brougham, whose motion in favour of the Spanish Liberals he deprecated as typical of the kind of meddling in the affairs of other countries that was increasingly resented on the Continent, 15 Feb. On 19 Feb. in a four-hour speech he justified the peace treaty, which was approved next day by 240 votes to 77. It was the basis of his hope that Britain would adhere to a European ‘concert’ maintained by open diplomacy. During his ensuing short illness, it was remarked how weak government spokesmen were in his absence. He returned to find the House ‘in time of peace a much more unruly body than in war’ and quite ‘intractable’ on the issues of the army estimates and the renewal of the property tax. The former were carried on 13 Mar. after a record debate of ten nights, but the latter was unexpectedly lost on 18 Mar. His opponents noted with delight ‘how completely the currycomb of the House of Commons had taken off all the gilding and lacquering that Castlereagh had brought from the Congress’. He was afterwards engaged in resisting opposition proposals for ‘ill judged retrenchment’ on official salaries. On 3 May he brought in the civil list regulation bill designed, by distinguishing between royal and state expenditure, to prevent undue odium from falling on the crown when there were arrears due not to royal extravagence but to increase in State expenses. He carried it after having ‘drilled about fifty of the country gentlemen at his office’. He was reported to be more eager than ever to meet Catholic claims; opposing Sir John Newport’s motion on the state of Ireland, 26 Apr., he stated that it could not be made a government question, but he spoke ‘with more than usual eagerness’ for a Catholic committee on 21 May and prompted the provision of securities for emancipation. After the nadir of March 1816, Castlereagh now found it easier to carry the navy estimates and Princess Charlotte’s marriage allowance, but he disappointed Wilberforce by finding new grounds for procrastination on the international abolition of the slave trade, and exasperated Newport by the ‘unintelligible’ language in which he opposed the resumption of cash payments by the Bank, 1 May. This was a common complaint: Sir James Mackintosh referred to Castlereagh’s speaking ‘in his usual Transylvanian dialect’, and Byron to ‘the strange displays of the odd string of words, all in a row which none divine, and everyone obeys’. It was nevertheless thought that if he were removed to the Lords, the government would be very much the worse for it in the Commons.40 At the start of the 1817 session Castlereagh deprecated the uncritical acceptance the uncritical acceptance of petitions for parliamentary reform. On 4 Feb. he secured the appointment of a secret committee to investigate ‘certain dangerous combinations’ against the State, but despite what even Brougham thought a ‘judicious and good humoured’ speech, failed to secure Whig co-operation for the select committee he named on public income and expenditure, 7 Feb. Yet he ‘surprised all parties with the amount of his retrenchments’. The report of the secret committee was the basis for the seditious meetings bill introduced by Castlereagh on 24 Feb.; two days later he defended the suspension of habeas corpus. At the same time he repelled attacks on Admiralty salaries, deploring threats held over the heads of office-holders, and he negatived Brougham’s motion on the trade depression as a political stratagem, 13 Mar. Brougham reported Castlereagh’s reaction to his attack: He at first yawned as he generally does when galled—then changed postures—then left his seat and came into the centre of the bench—then spoke much to Canning and Van[sittart], and at last was so d-d fidgety that I expected to see him get up. It ended by his not saying one word in his word in his defence, but appealing to posterity. At the end of February and again in March, Castlereagh had ‘a sharp fit of gout’. He was reported to have become ‘of a full habit’ [i.e. corpulent] and ‘a very grouty appearance’ by Wellesley Pole, who added ‘I do not wonder at it, for his office out of Parliament and his drudgery in the House of Commons are enough to destroy the health of Hercules’. Though apprehensive that he would not be able to resume the lead and subject  henceforward to further spasms, he was back in his place at the end of April. On 5 May he accepted the recommendations for abolishing sinecures made by the finance committee, since they did not burden the country with a pension list, and next day defended Canning’s embassy to Lisbon when it came under attack. On 9 May he summed up his considered views in favourof Catholic relief with seurities. He carried the revival of the secret committee on sedition, 5 June, and defended the temporary renewal of habeas corpus suspension, 23 June. On 11 July he met with greatest challenge of his debating career when Brougham, in his motion on the state of the nation, raked up the old charges against him of cruelty in Ireland, which he answered once and for all and, so Brougham thought, ‘in by far the greatest fury ever I saw any man’: With respect to Ireland, I know I know I never shall be forgiven. I have with many other incurred the inexpiable guilt of preserving that main branch of the British empire from that separation which the traitors of Ireland in conjunction with a foreign power had meditated … my conduct has been the constant theme of invective. But I think those who are aquainted with me will do me the justice to believe that I never had a cruel or unkind heart. It was considered his best speech of the session, together with Canning’s in his defence. Creevey wryly remarked to the Duke of Wellington that Castlereagh would have expired politically in the year 1809—that all the world by common consent had had enough of him, and were tired out—had it not been for the piece of perfidy by Canning to him at that time, and that this, and this alone, had raised him from the dead, and given him his present position. Canning had now, to all appearances, ‘decided to pin himself to Castlereagh’s tail, thinking that at present the best speculation’. This was the view of Marquess of Buckingham, who regarded Castlereagh as being, with the Regent’s favour, beyond the control of Lord Liverpool. He thought that  there was a rift between them due to the premier’s jealousy and dislike of Castlereagh’s prestige (but he had the arrière-penseé of a junction with Liverpool to which he regarded Castlereagh, who saw no need to strengthen the government, as the chief obstacle). Eagerly Buckingham grasped at rumours that Castlereagh was ‘not near so popular at Carlton House as he was’; but they were groundless. The Regent was especially devoted to Castlereagh, one of principal instigators of his daughter’s marriage, and, while the Princess coud not consent to have Lady Castlereagh as her lady-in-waiting, her husband, Prince Leopold, was thought to be entirely influenced by him. The possible consequences of this were in any case cancelled by the Princess’s death.41 The session of 1818 opened with the repeal of the suspension of habeas corpus, which Castlereagh justified, 27, 29 Jan. In moving for another secret committee on the internal state of the country, 5 Feb., he stated that no legislation would be based on their report on their report, but that government would bring in an indemnity bill. This bill he duly defended as justifiable from precedent and in no way a cover for violation of the rights of the subject, 17 Feb. Brougham tried unsuccessfully to frustrate Castlereagh’s membership of the secret committee. He was also on the finance committee which he revived on 3 Feb. and on the Poor Laws committee proposed on 4 Feb., though he indicated that this could not be a government question. He was able at last to satisfy the ‘Saints’ when he produced the treaty with Spain on the slave trade, 28 Jan., though the expense of £40,000 to execute it was questioned; similar treaties with Portugal and the Netherlands followed.42 He continued to obstruct efforts for parliamentary reform. On 12 Mar. Althorp carried, against Castlereagh’s oppostion, his motion for a committee on the repeal of the leather tax; and in April there was more trouble when Castlereagh tried to carry the marriage allowances for the royal dukes. On 15 Apr. the grant for the Duke of Clarence was reduced from £10,000 to £6,000 by an opposition majority of nine. He was obliged to carry the rest at £6,000, protesting that this reduced the royal family to vying for their services at the cheapest tender. On 16 Apr. even £6,000 for the Duke of Cumberland was rejected by seven votes, and when the same sum for the Duke of Kent was agreed by 205 votes to 51 on 15 May, Castlereagh protested at the invidiousness of voting according to the personal merits of the recipient. In May and June he shepherded through the revised aliens bill, saving the substance of it from amendment by the Lords. He opposed Brougham’s motion for inquiry into the education of poor, 3 June. In the summer of 1818 Castlereagh left for the congress of Aachen. News of the pacification of Europe agreed there was his first contribution to the new Parliament in February 1819. On 2 Feb. he obstructed, as he had done on the previous 1 May, Tierney’s motion for resumption of cash payments by the Bank, coming to Vansittart’s rescue and treating it as a bid for support from the new Members. He succeeded in excluding Brougham from the secret committee on the Bank’s affairs of which he was a member, 8 Feb. His main bugbear was the Windsor establishment bill, necessitated by the death of the Queen. On 4 Feb. he proposed a saving of £83,000, and when on 22 Feb. in select committee he halved the Regent’s income, he carried it by 281 votes to 186;  but there were quibbles next day over the £10,000 earmarked for the Duke of York, Castlereagh speaking in his ‘very worst and most perplexed style’. He struggled through this, only to come to grief over the reduction of royal equerries. Preferring prison reform to criminal law reform, he was satisfied with a select committee on the former, 1 Mar., and next day opposed Mackintosh’s motion for the latter. He aimed to disconcert opposition, too, by the introduction of the Bank cash payments bill, 5 Apr.  On 18 May he met Tierney’s censure motion with a manifesto  in defence of government policies, admitting readily that ‘the situation of ministers was never fuller of difficulty and responsibility’. Edward John Littleton thought their two speeches ‘the two best party speeches I ever heard’ and noted that Castlereagh ‘in an unusual fluency and eloquence’ insisted that it was an attempt to turn out the government and made it a party question: he described the opposition as ‘a Mahratta confederacy’ out for ‘a grand field day’. They were duly frustrated and when he again challenged Tierney on finance resolutions of 7 June he was received with ‘continued cheers’. For the remainder of the session he was preoccupied, as an opponent of the ‘liberation’ of the Spanish American colonies, with the vindication of the foreign enlistment bill, and of the charitable foundation bill designed to meet Brougham’s exposure of abuses in charity schooling.43 On 23 Nov. 1819 Castlereagh carried the address by 381 votes to 150, after a debate on the Peterloo tragedy in which he defended the conduct of the Manchester magistrates. On 29 Nov. he introduced the seditious meetings prevention bill designed to avert such catastrophes in future. Next day, opposing Althorp’s motion for an inquiry into the state of the country and the events at Peterloo, he got into a ‘most extraordinary rant’ as Tierney put it, in emphasizing that ‘this tedious double enquiry’ would play into the hands of the radicals. On 2 Dec. he carried the second reading of the seditious meetings prevention bill by 351 votes to 128, but it was so severely handled in committee that ‘bullied by the country gentlemen’, he conceded a shorter duration for the bill, 6, 8 Dec. The bill was carried on 10 Dec. by 313 votes to 95. He had meanwhile introduced the training prevention and seizure of arms bills to meet the situation and blocked Bennet’s ‘sweeping’ motion for an inquiry into conditions in manufacturing districts. On 14 Dec., in response to Lord John Russell’s motion to disfranchise Grampound and redistribute the seats as a token of parliamentary reform (which Lord Liverpool did not dislike), he surprised opposition by his moderation: while he objected to any general application of the principle, he conceded that ‘every district case must be canvassed on its own intristic merits’ and, in the case of Grampond, a reform seemed to be warranted. During the remainder of that short session, he defended the other coercive measures proposed by government. ‘I feel no wrath against the people’, he had assured Tierney on 3 Dec., I am only doing my duty.’ It was Castlereagh who wound up the reign of George III in the House of Commons. Of that Parliament he remarked that he could not ‘wish for a better’.44 Castlereagh soldiered on in the first Parliament of the new reign, but public difficulties were relentless. He was still expected to succeed Lord Liverpool as premier when, on the eve of a fresh continental misssion, he died after cutting his throat with a penknife, 12 Aug 1822. He had bourne for years the abuse of political opponents, but the persecution mania that preceded his suicide was a symptom of the destruction of a constitution undermined by the strain of public life. Creevey conceded that ‘By experience, good manners and great courage, he managed a corrupt House of Commons pretty well, with some address’. Brougham remarked: ‘Put all their other men together in one scale, and poor Castlereagh in the other—single, he plainly weighed them down … he was a gentleman, and the only one amongst them.’ He added that Canning, who replaced him, succeeded to ‘all of Castlereagh, except his good judgment, good manners and bad English’. Indeed Brougham’s mature estimate ran: His capacity was greatly underrated, from the poverty of his discourse; and his ideas passed for much less than they were worth, from the habitual obscurity of his expressions … To judge of his intellect by his eloquence, we should certainly have formed a very unfair estimate of its perspicuity … In council he certainly had far more resources. He possessed a considerable fund of plan sense, not to be misled by any refinement of speculation or clouded by any fanciful notions. He went straight to the point. He was brave politically as well as personally. Greville the diarist thought him, as a minister, a great loss to his party, and still greater to his friends and dependants to whom he was the best of patrons … I believe he was considered one of the best managers of the House of Commons who ever sat in it, and he was eminently possessed of the good taste, good humour, and agreeable manners which are more requiste to make a good leader than eloquence, however brilliant. An outstanding pupil of Pitt, Castlereagh never courted popularity and was perhaps happiest in the world of diplomacy where he shone as an arbiter, farthest removed from public scutiny; but in a career that encompassed the Irish union, the formation of Indian empire, the defeat of Buonaparte and the forging of the ‘concert of Europe’, he never doubted that ‘the strictest scrutiny’ would rescue him from the perdition to which his critics appeared to consign him.45 Ref Volumes: 1790-1820 Author: R. G. Thorne Notes The latest biography is by Wendy Hindle (1981). For his early career see also H. M. Hyde, Rise of Castlereagh (1933) and Ione Leigh, Castlereagh (1951); for his career at the India Office, J. A. R. Marriott, Castlereagh: a pol. biog. (1936), ch. 7; for his diplomatic career, Sir C. K. Webster, Foreign Policy of Castlereagh 1812-1815, 1815-1822; H. A. Kissinger, A World Restored, 1957. A synthesis was attempted by C. J. Bartlett, Castlereagh (1966). Much of his official corresp. appeared in his half-bro.’s Mems. and Corresp. Visct. Castlereagh (12 vols. 1848-53) and some of his private corresp. in Lady Londonderry’s Robert Stewart, Visct. Castlereagh (1904). 1. He was baptized a Presbyterian at Strand Street, Dublin, 5 July 1769. 2.Hamwood Pprs. of Ladies of Llangollen, 105; J. Barrington, Personal Sketches, i. 321-2; E. Suff. RO, Tomline mss, Rose to bp. of Lincoln, 29 Dec. 1801; Twiss, Eldon, i. 432; Staffs. RO, Hatherton diary, 12 Apr. 1818; Leigh, 30; Camden mss C3/19; HMC Charlemont, ii. 173; HMC Fortescue, ii. 28, 33, 35, 36, 38, 40; Hyde, 92, 99-102, 113. 3. PRO 30/8/326, ff. 232, 326; 327, f. 11; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 1701. Hyde, 244; Camden mss 0198/3; Cornwallis Corresp. ii. 363; Add. 37878, f. 24. 4.Castlereagh Corresp. i. 325, 375-7, 412, 419, 424, 428; iii. 58, 333; iv. 8; Add. 33106, ff. 92, 94, 108; 51684, Wycombe to Holland, 2 Apr. 1798; Camden mss C98/3; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 1868n; PRO 30/8/327, ff. 19, 27, 195; Cornwallis Corresp. ii. 441; Leveson Gower, i. 239; Buckingham, Court and Cabinets, ii. 411, 425-6; Stanhope, Pitt, iii. app. xviii. 5. Hyde, 120-1; Charlemont mss, Haliday to Charlemont, 24 May 1794; HMC Charlemont, ii. 248; PRO 30/8/330, ff. 244, 246; Drennan Letters ed. Chart, 541; Geo. III Corresp. ii. 1320. 6. Add. 33101, ff. 329, 368, 370, 376; 33105, f. 59; Camden mss C123/7; O156B/1-5; Hyde, 144-5; PRO 30/8/197, ff. 98, 247-8; 326, ff. 48, 50, 76. 7. PRO 30/8/326, ff. 232, 326; 327, f. 11; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 1701. Hyde, 244; Camden mss C98/3; Cornwallis Corresp. ii. 363; Add. 37878, f. 24. 8.Castlereagh Corresp. i. 325, 375-7, 412, 419, 424, 428; iii. 58, 333; iv. 8; Add. 33106, ff. 92, 94, 108; 51684, Wycombe to Holland, 2 Apr. 1798; Camden mss C98/3; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 1868n; PRO 30/8/327, ff. 19, 27, 195; Cornwallis Corresp. ii. 441; Leveson Gower, i. 239; Buckingham, Court and Cabinets, ii. 411, 425-6; Stanhope, Pitt, iii. app. xviii. 9. Add. 33106, f. 297; Castlereagh Corresp. iii. 345-50; iv. 8, 34, 39, 392-400; HO 100/94, Castlereagh to King, 2 Aug. [1800]; PRO, Dacres Adams mss 3/49; Farington, vii. 19; Glenbervie Diaries, i. 147, 157; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 2331, 2357; Tomline mss, Rose to bp. of Lincoln, 29 Dec. 1801; Stanhope, iii. 303-6. 10.Geo. III Corresp. iii. 2405; Castlereagh Corresp. iii. 387; iv. 95; Glenbervie Diaries, i. 205; Malmesbury Diaries, iv. 43; Rose Diaries, i. 316, 335; Add. 35701, f. 197; Colchester, i. 255, 257, 258, 260, 263, 365; Farington, i. 305. 11.Leveson Gower, i. 310; Chatsworth mss, Duchess of Devonshire jnl. 5 Nov. 1801; Glenbervie Diaries, i. 276; Camden mss C98/10; 109, 134/4; Colchester, i. 382; Wilberforce Pprs. 131; Senator (ser.2), v. 1506; Castlereagh Corresp. v. 29-38, 42-47; Add. 35708, f. 33; 35713, ff. 67, 72, 161; Egerton 3260, f. 224; Parl. Deb. xxvi. 154. 12. Add. 35713, f. 26; 38737, f. 17; Sidmouth mss, Castlereagh to Addington, 27 July, Addington to J. H. Addington, 21 Oct; SRO GD224/581, Dundas to Buccleuch, 13 Aug.; W. L. Clements Lib. Pitt letters, Pitt to Dundas, 5 Sept. 1802; Dacres Adams mss 4/48, 93; Marriott, 82-93; Glenbervie Diaries, i. 333-4; HMC Bathurst, 30; Prince of Wales Corresp. iv. 1690; Buckingham, iii. 219, 245; HMC Fortescue, vi. 149, 170; Rose Diaries, i. 493, 497, 514-15; Farington, ii. 231; Dublin SPO 524/153/12; Creevey mss, Creevey to Currie, 11 Mar.; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife [18 Apr.], 4 June 1803; Castlereagh Corresp. v. 62-72; Colchester, i. 416; Grey mss, Grey to his wife, 25 May 1803. 13. Add. 35702, f. 195; Colchester, i. 424; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 2 June [1803], 1 Jan. 1804; SRO GD51/1/68/2; Malmesbury Diaries, iv. 278; Sidmouth mss, Castlereagh to Addington, 16 Aug., Redesdale to same, 28 Oct., 29 Nov.; Egerton 3260, f. 224; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lowther, 10 Dec. 1803; Stanhope, iv. 90, 95. Add. 35706, f. 17; 37415, ff. 209, 228; Iris Butler, The Eldest Brother, 328, 338; 14.HMC Bathurst, 34; Life of Wilberforce (1838), iii. 178; Colchester, i. 530, 537; Camden mss C30/10; W. Suff. RO, Hervey mss, Castlereagh to Bristol, Sunday [Dec. 1804]. 15.Colchester, i. 540, 547, 552; Leveson Gower, ii. 16, 54, 65; Stanhope, iv. app. xxii; Pellew, Sidmouth, ii. 356; HMC Fortescue, vi. 258; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 3129; PRO 30/8/175, f. 157; Dacres Adams mss 6/108; Add. 34456, f. 259; 35706, f. 272; 35718, f. 146; 35757, f. 299; 47566, f. 216; Rose Diaries, ii. 198; Lonsdale mss, Essex to Lowther, 12 Sept.; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 30 Oct. 1805. 16.Castlereagh Corresp. v. 106-8; vi. 1; PRO 30/8/114, f. 161; Dacres Adams mss 11/22; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lowther, 20 Feb. 1806; Leveson Gower, ii. 160, 166; Rose Diaries, ii. 226; Add. 35706; f. 318; 45041, f. 135; Camden mss C98/11; SRO GD51/1/195/8; Rose Diaries, ii. 246-7, 250, 258, 262, 312; HMC Lonsdale, 164, 174, 180; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 20 Feb., 4 Mar.; Sidmouth mss, Sidmouth to Bragge Bathurst, 20 Feb.; Malmesbury mss, FitzHarris to Malmesbury, 4 Apr. 1806. 17. Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 2, 10 June, 1, 5 July; Add. 42773, f. 115; 45034, f. 3; Harrowby mss, Ryder to Harrowby mss, 30 June, 5 July; Fortescue mss, T. to Ld. Grenville, 5 Aug., encl. Carysfort to T. Grenville, 27 July 1806; Camden mss C98/12; HMC Fortescue, ix. 440, 441. 18. NLW, Coedymaen mss 20, Buckingham to Williams Wynn, 31 Aug.; Spencer mss, Lady to Ld. Spencer [recd. 3 Nov.]; Lonsdale mss, Rose to Lowther, 6 Nov.; Fortescue mss, Mount Edgcumbe to Grenville, 6 Nov. 1806; Colchester, ii. 84; Farington, iv. 46, 166; Harrowby mss, Ryder to Harrowby, 7, 25 Jan.; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 23 Feb. 1807; Colchester, ii. 92; Buckingham, iv. 146. 19. Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 27 Feb., 6, 8, 9, 20, 22 Mar. 1807; Colchester, ii. 107. 20.Jnl. of Lady Holland, ii. 205; Geo. III Corresp. iii. 3435, 3444, 3491, 3505; HMC Bathurst, 53; Leveson Gower, ii. 242; Colchester, ii. 98, 107, 127; Grey mss, Tierney to Grey, 25 Oct., 5, 12, 28 Nov.; Fortescue mss, Bulkeley to Grenville, 22 Nov. 1807; Dorset RO, Bond mss D367, Jekyll to Bond, 25 Jan. 1808; Glenbervie Diaries, ii. 13. 21.Geo. III Corresp. iv. 3609, 3620, 3697; v. 3824; Coedymaen mss 20, Buckingham to Williams Wynn, 24 Dec.; Add. 51549, Lady Holland to Grey, Sat. [8 May 1807]; Colchester, ii. 148, 150, 162; Buckingham, iv. 277, 283, 305, 308, 311; Grey mss, Tierney to Grey, 7 Dec., Grenville to same, 12 Dec. 1808; HMC Fortescue, ix. 245, 250; Perceval (Holland) mss 7, f. 6; Castlereagh Corresp. vi. 462; Prince of Wales Corresp. vi. 2545. 22.Parl. Deb. xiii. app. clxxiv; Colchester, ii. 169; HMC Fortescue, ix. 290; Life of Wilberforce, iii. 406-7; Geo. III Corresp. v. 3867, 3876; NLI, Richmond mss 61/331; Londonderry mss, Castlereagh to Stewart, 27 Apr., 12 May 1809. 23.Geo. III Corresp. v. pp. xvii, 3906, 3930, 3939; HMC Bathurst, 67, 93-94, 96, 98, 101, 112-19; Colchester, ii. 180, 198, 200-4, 213, 220-3, 228; PRO 30/29/8/4, f. 487; Rose Diaries, ii. 422, 424; Farington, v. 224-5; Ward, Letters to ‘Ivy’, 77; Grey mss, Gordon to Bathurst, [8 Sept. 1809]; PRO 30/8/366, f. 16; Perceval (Holland) mss 2, ff. 1, 4, 10, 26, 29, 4, ff. 2, 3, 6, 7; Twiss, Eldon, ii. 88, 99; Add. 49188, f. 53; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 5, 12, 15 July, 20 Sept.; Camden mss, memo [1809]; Harrowby mss, memo. [1809]; Londonderry mss, Castlereagh to Cooke, 16 Sept., Cooke to Stewart, 21 Sept.; Castlereagh to Londonderry, 21 Sept., 3 Oct., to Stewart, 16 Oct., part pub in Lady Londonderry, Visct. Castlereagh, 38-42; Carlisle mss, Ellis’s memo of the duel [21 Sept.]; SRO GD51/1/195/85; Haddington mss, Ellis to Binning, 2 Oct. 1809; Phipps, Plumer Ward Mems. i. 206. 24.Geo. III Corresp. v. 3980, 3986; Perceval (Holland) mss 2, ff. 33, 34, 35, 36; 4, f. 32; Canning and his Friends, i. 324; Malmesbury mss, Malmesbury to FitzHarris, 5 Dec. 1809. 25.Creevey Pprs. ed. Maxwell, i. 122, 124; Geo. III Corresp. v. 4074, 4082, 4093; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 24, 27 Jan., 2, 17, 23 Feb., 6 Mar. 1810; Bath Archives ed. Lady Jackson, i. 86, 94; Ward, 91; Buckingham, iv. 420; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lonsdale, 3, 8 Feb. 1810; Richmond mss 73/1710, 1715. 26. Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 Mar.; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lonsdale, 15, 27 Mar., Long to same, 21 Mar., 3 Apr. [1810]; Leveson Gower, ii. 355; Malmesbury mss, FitzHarris to Malmesbury , 10 Mar. 1810; Prince of Wales Corresp. vii. 2704; Buckingham iv. 429; Colchester, ii. 241; Geo. III Corresp. v. 4120; Richmond mss 62/522, 73/1698. 27. Richmond mss 66/886; Sidmouth mss, Sidmouth to Bragge Bathurst, 27 Apr. 1810; Geo. III Corresp. v. 4126, 4138, 4177, 4184; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 28 Aug.; Camden mss C90/2/4; Twiss, ii. 126; Lonsdale mss, Long to Lonsdale, 12 21 Sept. [1810]; Colchester, ii. 287; Buckingham, iv. 452, 454; HMC Fortescue, x. 55. 28. Perceval (Holland) mss, bound vol. f. 14; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 13 Nov.; Grey mss, Grey to his wife, 24 Nov. 1810; Richmond mss 63/578, 66/896; Colchester, ii. 296; Prince of Wales Corresp. vii. 2779; Buckingham, iv. 478; Rose Diaries, ii. 464; Bathurst mss, Richmond to Bathurst, 10 Jan. 1811; Canning and his Friends, i. 368; Pellew, iii. 37; Add. 38738, f. 89. 29. Buckingham, Regency, i. 174, 218, 251, 268, 279; Letters of Princess Charlotte, 25; HMC Fortescue, x. 193, 204, 230; Harewood mss, Canning to his wife, 14 Jan., 2, 9, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22 Feb., 5 Mar.; Richmond mss 60/228, 67/998; Blair Adam mss, Adam’s memo 23 Jan.; Londonderry mss. Castlereagh to Stewart, 29 Jan., Wellington to same, 14 Mar. 1812; Colchester, ii. 366, 371; Horner mss 5, f. 162; Egerton 3260, ff. 213-26; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lonsdale, 8, 13, Feb. 1812; Perceval (Holland) mss 10, ff. 1, 2; Alnwick mss 67, f. 79; Phipps, i. 433, 435; HMC Bathurst, 166; Bath Archives, i. 334. 30.Colchester, ii 379; Twiss, ii. 210-11; Grey mss, Grenville to Grey, 17 May 1812; Richmond mss 67/968, 70/1315; Alnwick mss 67, ff. 182-3; Add. 38247, f. 264; Regency, i. 293, 300; HMC Fortescue, x. 249-50, 256, 258, 261. 31. Add. 38247, f. 311; 38738, f. 254; 51585, Tierney to Lady Holland, 22 May [1812]; Jackson Diaries, i. 377, 379; Romilly, Mems. iii. 39; Geo. IV Letters, i. 84, 87; Camden mss O256/5; Londonderry mss, Stewart’s memo [12 June] 1812, pub. in Geo. IV Letters, i. 132n; Richmond mss 70/1304. 32.Colchester, ii. 387; Richmond mss 72/1583; HMC Bathurst, 180, 182; Malmesbury mss, FitzHarris to Malmesbury, 23 June 1812. 33. Add. 34458, f. 363; Fremantle mss, W. H. to Adm. Fremantle, 23 June 1812; Richmond mss 73/1898-1900. 34.Colchester, ii. 396-400; Regency, i. 389-400; Richmond mss 72/1300, 74/1896, 1897; Add. 38738, ff. 273-4, 279, 283, 291, 295, 315-16; 48220, f. 83; 48224, f. 85; Geo. IV. Letters, i. 132; Lonsdale mss, Ward to Lonsdale, 27 July, 1 Oct.; Sheffield City Lib. Wharncliffe mss, Binning to Stuart Wortley, Fri. [17 July], 26, 28 July [1812]; Leveson Gower, ii. 439, 443. 35.Colchester, ii. 411; Fortescue mss, Lady Downshire to Grenville, 1 Nov.; Add. 34458, f. 434; 51826, Stair to Holland, 17 Nov. [1812]; Lady Londonderry, 72; Heron, Notes (1815), 11, 19; Brougham mss 10348; HMC Fortescue, x. 338; Colchester, ii. 432-3, 442; Life of Wilberforce, iv. 124, 135. 36. Fortescue mss, Holland to Grenville, Fri. [1812 or 1813]; Horner mss 5, f. 295; Heron, 17-18; Richmond mss 66/842; Ward, 213; Wharncliffe mss, Canning to Stuart Wortley, 25 Aug. 1812. 37.Leveson Gower, ii. 496; Letters to Lady Burghersh, 144, 185, 205; Grey mss, Tierney to Grey, 5 Feb.; Bond mss D367, Jekyll to Bond, 14 Apr. 1814; NLS mss 3796, ff. 79, 103-4; Colchester, ii. 500. 38.Colchester, ii. 513, 531; NLS mss 3796, ff. 103-4; Grey mss, Tierney to Grey, 26 Sept. 1, 12 Nov. 1814, 21 Jan.; Morning Chron. 3 Feb. 1815; Ward, Letters to Bishop of Llandaff, 80; Gronow, Reminiscences (1900), i. 211; Geo. IV Letters, ii. 537; Creevey Pprs. i. 214. 39.Geo. IV Letters, ii. 550; Horner mss 6, f. 143; Colchester, ii. 545, 547; Farington, viii. 57. 40. Gronow, i. 299; Grey mss, Tierney to Grey, 14 Jan., 2 Feb. 1816; Colchester, ii. 569, 576; Add. 40290, f. 109; Geo. IV Letters, ii. 638, 644, 648; Londonderry mss, Castlereagh to Stewart, 19 Mar., 4 June [1816]; Mackintosh Mems. ii. 338, 342; Letters to Bishop of Llandaff, 145; Byron, Don Juan, canto ix. 49-50; Fremantle mss, Buckingham to Fremantle [7 May 1816]. 41. Lansdowne mss, Brougham to Lansdowne, 8 Feb. 1817; Horner mss 7, f. 299; Creevey Pprs. i. 262, 266, 287; Bagot mss, Wellesley Pole to Bagot , 4 May, 3 July 1817; Canning and his Friends, ii. 88; HMC Fortescue, x. 426, 428; Colchester, ii. 605, 608; Brougham mss 352; Pope of Holland House ed. Lady Seymour, 186, 190; Fremantle mss, Buckingham to Fremantle, 4, 21 Apr., 25 June, 30 July 1817; Letters of Princess Charlotte, 241. 42.Pope of Holland House, 200. 43.Prince of Wales Corresp. viii. 3406; Grey mss, Lambton to Grey, 3 Feb., Rosslyn to Grey, 10 Feb. 1819; Regency, ii. 321; Hatherton diary, 18 May 1819. 44.Regency, ii. 382; HMC Fortescue, x. 452; Heron, 110; Pope of Holland House, 212; Colchester, iii. 313. 45. Twiss, iii. 191; H. M. Hyde, Strange Death of Lord Castlereagh; Rise of Castlereagh, 1-5; Hatherton diary, 13 Feb. 1831; Creevey Pprs. ii. 42, 44, 49; Brougham, Hist. Sketches, ii. 121; Greville Mems. ed. Strachey and Fulford, i. 127-8; DNB; Rush, Ct. of London 1819-25, p. 120; Hornby, Remains of A. Knox. iv. 539. A list of Irishmen serving in the Briths Army from all of Ireland, from teh National Library Records Dublin reproduced here with permission.

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